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Combined Antioxidant, Anti-inflammaging and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment: A Possible Therapeutic Direction in Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Shijin Xia, Changxi Zhou, Bill Kalionis, Xiaoping Shuang, Haiyan Ge, Wen Gao
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 129-140.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0508
Accepted: 11 May 2019

Abstract270)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (569KB)(441)       Save

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients. Aging functions include mitochondrial dysfunction, cell-to-cell information exchange, protein homeostasis and extracellular matrix dysregulation, which are closely related to chronic inflammatory response and oxidation-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of COPD. COPD displays distinct inflammaging features, including increased cellular senescence and oxidative stress, stem cell exhaustion, alterations in the extracellular matrix, reduced levels of endogenous anti-inflammaging molecules, and reduced autophagy. Given that COPD and inflammaging share similar general features, it is very important to identify the specific mechanisms of inflammaging, which involve oxidative stress, inflammation and lung mesenchymal stem cell function in the development of COPD, especially in elderly COPD patients. In this review, we highlight the studies relevant to COPD progression, and focus on mechanisms associated with inflammaging.

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Adipose-derived Stem Cells Attenuates Diabetic Osteoarthritis via Inhibition of Glycation-mediated Inflammatory Cascade
Navneet Kumar Dubey, Hong-Jian Wei, Sung-Hsun Yu, David F. Williams, Joseph R. Wang, Yue-Hua Deng, Feng-Chou Tsai, Peter D. Wang, Win-Ping Deng
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (3): 483-496.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0616
Abstract638)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (1507KB)(1090)       Save

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is well-known to exert complications such as retinopathy, cardiomyopathy and neuropathy. However, in recent years, an elevated osteoarthritis (OA) complaints among diabetics have been observed, portending the risk of diabetic OA. Since formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is believed to be the etiology of various diseases under hyperglycemic conditions, we firstly established that streptozotocin-induced DM could potentiate the development of OA in C57BL/6J mouse model, and further explored the intra-articularly administered adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) therapy focusing on underlying AGE-associated mechanism. Our results demonstrated that hyperglycemic mice exhibited OA-like structural impairments including a proteoglycan loss and articular cartilage fibrillations in knee joint. Highly expressed levels of carboxymethyl lysine (CML), an AGE and their receptors (RAGE), which are hallmarks of hyperglycemic microenvironment were manifested. The elevated oxidative stress in diabetic OA knee-joint was revealed through increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Further, oxidative stress-activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), the marker of proinflammatory signalling pathway was also accrued; and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and 13 were upregulated. However, ADSC treatment attenuated all OA-like changes by 4 weeks, and dampened levels of CML, RAGE, MDA, NF-κB, MMP-1 and 13. These results suggest that during repair and regeneration, ADSCs inhibited glycation-mediated inflammatory cascade and rejuvenated cartilaginous tissue, thereby promoting knee-joint integrity in diabetic milieu.

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Pkcδ Activation is Involved in ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Cardiomyocytes Exposed to Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages)
Yang Yao-Chih, Tsai Cheng-Yen, Chen Chien-Lin, Kuo Chia-Hua, Hou Chien-Wen, Cheng Shi-Yann, Aneja Ritu, Huang Chih-Yang, Kuo Wei-Wen
Aging and disease    2018, 9 (4): 647-663.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0924
Abstract715)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (2167KB)(879)       Save

Diabetic patients exhibit serum AGE accumulation, which is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and diabetic cardiomyopathy. ROS-induced PKCδ activation is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in human cells. However, the role of PKCδ in cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by AGE in diabetes is still unclear. AGE-BSA-treated cardiac cells showed dose- and time-dependent cell apoptosis, ROS generation, and selective PKCδ activation, which were reversed by NAC and rotenone. Similar tendency was also observed in diabetic and obese animal hearts. Furthermore, enhanced apoptosis and reduced survival signaling by AGE-BSA or PKCδ-WT transfection were reversed by kinase-deficient (KD) of PKCδ transfection or PKCδ inhibitor, respectively, indicating that AGE-BSA-induced cardiomyocyte death is PKCδ-dependent. Increased levels of mitochondrial mass as well as mitochondrial fission by AGE-BSA or PKCδ activator were reduced by rottlerin, siPKCδ or KD transfection, indicating that the AGE-BSA-induced mitochondrial damage is PKCδ-dependent. Using super-resolution microscopy, we confirmed that PKCδ colocalized with mitochondria. Interestingly, the mitochondrial functional analysis by Seahorse XF-24 flux analyzer showed similar results. Our findings indicated that cardiac PKCδ activation mediates AGE-BSA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via ROS production and may play a key role in the development of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in rats with diabetes and obesity.

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Interplay between Exosomes and Autophagy in Cardiovascular Diseases: Novel Promising Target for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application
Jinfan Tian, Sharif Popal Mohammad, Yingke Zhao, Yanfei Liu, Keji Chen, Yue Liu
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (6): 1302-1310.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1020
Accepted: 20 November 2018

Abstract271)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (361KB)(869)       Save

Exosome, is identified as a nature nanocarrier and intercellular messenger that regulates cell to cell communication. Autophagy is critical in maintenance of protein homeostasis by degradation of damaged proteins and organelles. Autophagy and exosomes take pivotal roles in cellular homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. Currently, the coordinated mechanisms for exosomes and autophagy in the maintenance of cellular fitness are now garnering much attention. In the present review, we discussed the interplay of exosomes and autophagy in the context of physiology and pathology of the heart, which might provide novel insights for diagnostic and therapeutic application of cardiovascular diseases.

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Metastasis Patterns and Prognosis of Octogenarians with NSCLC: A Population-based Study
Yu Gu, Junhua Zhang, Zhirui Zhou, Di Liu, Hongcheng Zhu, Junmiao Wen, Xinyan Xu, Tianxiang Chen, Min Fan
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 82-92.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0414
Accepted: 07 May 2019

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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Age at diagnosis of advanced NSCLC is much older, but studies describing the practice patterns for octogenarians with distant metastasis NSCLC are limited. A retrospective, population-based study using national representative data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program was conducted to evaluate 34 882 NSCLC patients with extrathoracic metastases from 2010 to 2013. Patients were classified into three groups (older group: ≥80 yrs, middle-aged group: 60-79 yrs, and younger group: ≤59 yrs). The role of different age at diagnosis of NSCLC in metastasis patterns was investigated, and survival of different age groups of metastatic NSCLC was assessed. The analysis revealed that older patients were more likely to only have bone or liver metastasis (p< 0.001), but less likely to have brain only metastasis (p<0.001) and multiple metastatic sites (p< 0.001) than other two groups. Age at diagnosis was an independent risk factor for different metastasis types. Older group had the worst overall survival (p<0.001) and cancer-specific survival (p<0.001). Furthermore, older age patients with only bone metastasis had the best cancer specific survival (p<0.05) while younger patients with only brain metastasis had the best prognosis (p<0.001). Over 60% octogenarians with metastatic NSCLC did not receive anti-cancer therapy and had the highest rate of cancer deaths among all patients. Our results may help clinicians make positive decisions regarding personalized treatment of metastatic NSCLC in the elderly.

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The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Yazhen Zhang, Wenyi Chen, Bing Feng, Hongcui Cao
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 141-153.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0421
Accepted: 10 May 2019

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, stem cell-based therapy for DM has shown considerable promise. Here, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stem cell therapy for both type 1 DM (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM). The PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched up to November 2018. We employed a fixed-effect model using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when no statistically significant heterogeneity existed. Otherwise, a random-effects statistical model was used. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria: ten T1DM studies including 226 patients and eleven T2DM studies including 386 patients. Stem cell therapy improved C-peptide levels (mean difference (MD), 0.41; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.76) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c; MD, -3.46; 95% CI, -6.01 to -0.91) for T1DM patients. For T2DM patients, stem cell therapy improved C-peptide levels (MD, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.59), HbA1c (MD, -0.87; 95% CI, -1.37 to -0.37) and insulin requirements (MD, -35.76; 95% CI, -40.47 to -31.04). However, there was no significant change in fasting plasma glucose levels (MD, -0.52; 95% CI, -1.38 to 0.34). Subgroup analyses showed significant HbA1c and C-peptide improvements in patients with T1DM treated with bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs), while there was no significant change in the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group. In T2DM, HbA1c and insulin requirements decreased significantly after MSC transplantation, and insulin requirements and C-peptide levels were significantly improved after bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) treatment. Stem cell therapy is a relatively safe and effective method for selected individuals with DM. The data showed that BM-HSCs are superior to MSCs in the treatment of T1DM. In T2DM, MSC and BM-MNC transplantation showed favorable therapeutic effects.

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The Potential Markers of Circulating microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in Alzheimer's Disease
Yanfang Zhao, Yuan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yanhan Dong, Hongfang Ji, Liang Shen
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (6): 1293-1301.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1105
Accepted: 13 November 2018

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and one of the leading causes of disability and mortality in the late life with no curative treatment currently. Thus, it is urgently to establish sensitive and non-invasive biomarkers for AD diagnosis, particularly in the early stage. Recently, emerging number of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered as effective biomarkers in various diseases as they possess characteristics of stable, resistant to RNAase digestion and many extreme conditions in circulatory fluid. This review highlights recent advances in the identification of the aberrantly expressed miRNAs and lncRNAs in circulatory network for detection of AD. We summarized the abnormal expressed miRNAs in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and detailed discussed the functions and molecular mechanism of serum or plasma miRNAs-miR-195, miR-155, miR-34a, miR-9, miR-206, miR-125b and miR-29 in the regulation of AD progression. In addition, we also elaborated the role of circulating lncRNA major including beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and its antisense lncRNA BACE1-AS in AD pathological advancement. In brief, confirming the aberrantly expressed circulating miRNAs and lncRNAs will provide an effective testing tools for treatment of AD in the future.

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The Emerging Role of Sestrin2 in Cell Metabolism, and Cardiovascular and Age-Related Diseases
Wanqing Sun, Yishi Wang, Yang Zheng, Nanhu Quan
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 154-163.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0320
Accepted: 30 March 2019

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Sestrins (Sesns), including Sesn1, Sesn2, and Sesn3, are cysteine sulfinyl reductases that play critical roles in the regulation of peroxide signaling and oxidant defense. Sesn2 is thought to regulate cell growth, metabolism, and survival response to various stresses, and act as a positive regulator of autophagy. The anti-oxidative and anti-aging roles of Sesn2 have been the focus of many recent studies. The role of Sesn2 in cellular metabolism and cardiovascular and age-related diseases must be analyzed and discussed. In this review, we discuss the physiological and pathophysiological roles and signaling pathways of Sesn2 in different stress-related conditions, such as oxidative stress, genotoxic stress, and hypoxia. Sesn2 is also involved in aging, cancer, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. Understanding the actions of Sesn2 in cell metabolism and age-related diseases will provide new evidence for future experimental research and aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for Sesn2-related diseases.

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Neuropsychological Deficits Chronically Developed after Focal Ischemic Stroke and Beneficial Effects of Pharmacological Hypothermia in the Mouse
Weiwei Zhong, Yan Yuan, Xiaohuan Gu, Samuel In-young Kim, Ryan Chin, Modupe Loye, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 1-16.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0507
Accepted: 13 May 2019

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Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability, with around 30% of stroke patients develop neuropsychological/neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as post-stroke depression (PSD). Basic and translational research on post-stroke psychological disorders is limited. In a focal ischemic stroke mouse model with selective damage to the sensorimotor cortex, sensorimotor deficits develop soon after stroke and spontaneous recovery is observed in 2-4 weeks. We identified that mice subjected to a focal ischemic insult gradually developed depression/anxiety like behaviors 4 to 8 weeks after stroke. Psychological/psychiatric disorders were revealed in multiple behavioral examinations, including the forced swim, tail suspension, sucrose preference, and open field tests. Altered neuronal plasticity such as suppressed long-term potentiation (LTP), reduced BDNF and oxytocin signaling, and disturbed dopamine synthesis/uptake were detected in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during the chronic phase after stroke. Pharmacological hypothermia induced by the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist HPI-363 was applied as an acute treatment after stroke. A six-hr hypothermia treatment applied 45 min after stroke prevented depression and anxiety like behaviors examined at 6 weeks after stroke, as well as restored BDNF expression and oxytocin signaling. Additionally, hypothermia induced by physical cooling also showed an anti-depression and anti-anxiety effect. The data suggested a delayed beneficial effect of acute hypothermia treatment on chronically developed post-stroke neuropsychological disorders, associated with regulation of synaptic plasticity, neurotrophic factors, dopaminergic activity, and oxytocin signaling in the PFC.

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Emerging Anti-Aging Strategies - Scientific Basis and Efficacy
Ashok K. Shetty, Maheedhar Kodali, Raghavendra Upadhya, Leelavathi N. Madhu
Aging and disease    2018, 9 (6): 1165-1184.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1026
Accepted: 21 November 2018

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The prevalence of age-related diseases is in an upward trend due to increased life expectancy in humans. Age-related conditions are among the leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide currently. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find apt interventions that slow down aging and reduce or postpone the incidence of debilitating age-related diseases. This review discusses the efficacy of emerging anti-aging approaches for maintaining better health in old age. There are many anti-aging strategies in development, which include procedures such as augmentation of autophagy, elimination of senescent cells, transfusion of plasma from young blood, intermittent fasting, enhancement of adult neurogenesis, physical exercise, antioxidant intake, and stem cell therapy. Multiple pre-clinical studies suggest that administration of autophagy enhancers, senolytic drugs, plasma from young blood, drugs that enhance neurogenesis and BDNF are promising approaches to sustain normal health during aging and also to postpone age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Stem cell therapy has also shown promise for improving regeneration and function of the aged or Alzheimer’s disease brain. Several of these approaches are awaiting critical appraisal in clinical trials to determine their long-term efficacy and possible adverse effects. On the other hand, procedures such as intermittent fasting, physical exercise, intake of antioxidants such as resveratrol and curcumin have shown considerable promise for improving function in aging, some of which are ready for large-scale clinical trials, as they are non-invasive, and seem to have minimal side effects. In summary, several approaches are at the forefront of becoming mainstream therapies for combating aging and postponing age-related diseases in the coming years.

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Epigenetic Regulation of Bone Marrow Stem Cell Aging: Revealing Epigenetic Signatures associated with Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aging
Dimitrios Cakouros,Stan Gronthos
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (1): 174-189.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.1213
Abstract601)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (708KB)(1050)       Save

In this review we explore the importance of epigenetics as a contributing factor for aging adult stem cells. We summarize the latest findings of epigenetic factors deregulated as adult stem cells age and the consequence on stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, with a focus on adult stem cells in the bone marrow. With the latest whole genome bisulphite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitations we are able to decipher an emerging pattern common for adult stem cells in the bone marrow niche and how this might correlate to epigenetic enzymes deregulated during aging. We begin by briefly discussing the initial observations in yeast, drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) that led to the breakthrough research that identified the role of epigenetic changes associated with lifespan and aging. We then focus on adult stem cells, specifically in the bone marrow, which lends strong support for the deregulation of DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, acetylates, methyltransferases and demethylases in aging stem cells, and how their corresponding epigenetic modifications influence gene expression and the aging phenotype. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic modifications we envisage “epi” targeted therapy as a means to reprogram aged stem cells into their younger counterparts.

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Long-term HIV-1 Tat Expression in the Brain Led to Neurobehavioral, Pathological, and Epigenetic Changes Reminiscent of Accelerated Aging
Xiaojie Zhao, Yan Fan, Philip H. Vann, Jessica M. Wong, Nathalie Sumien, Johnny J. He
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 93-107.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0323
Accepted: 11 April 2019

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HIV infects the central nervous system and causes HIV/neuroAIDS, which is predominantly manifested in the form of mild cognitive and motor disorder in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV Tat protein is known to be a major pathogenic factor for HIV/neuroAIDS through a myriad of direct and indirect mechanisms. However, most, if not all of studies involve short-time exposure of recombinant Tat protein in vitro or short-term Tat expression in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the doxycycline-inducible brain-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mouse model, fed the animals for 12 months, and assessed behavioral, pathological, and epigenetic changes in these mice. Long-term Tat expression led to poorer short-and long-term memory, lower locomotor activity and impaired coordination and balance ability, increased astrocyte activation and compromised neuronal integrity, and decreased global genomic DNA methylation. There were sex- and brain region-dependent differences in behaviors, pathologies, and epigenetic changes resulting from long-term Tat expression. All these changes are reminiscent of accelerated aging, raising the possibility that HIV Tat contributes, at least in part, to HIV infection-associated accelerated aging in HIV-infected individuals. These findings also suggest another utility of this model for HIV infection-associated accelerated aging studies.

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The Interstitial System of the Brain in Health and Disease
Ashok K. Shetty, Gabriele Zanirati
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 200-211.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0103
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The brain interstitial fluid (ISF) and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cushion and support the brain cells. The ISF occupies the brain interstitial system (ISS), whereas the CSF fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. The brain ISS is an asymmetrical, tortuous, and exceptionally confined space between neural cells and the brain microvasculature. Recently, with a newly developed in vivo measuring technique, a series of discoveries have been made in the brain ISS and the drainage of ISF. The goal of this review is to confer recent advances in our understanding of the brain ISS, including its structure, function, and the various processes mediating or disrupting ISF drainage in physiological and pathological conditions. The brain ISF in the deep brain regions has recently been demonstrated to drain in a compartmentalized ISS instead of a highly connected system, together with the drainage of ISF into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the surface of the cerebral cortex and the transportation from CSF into cervical lymph nodes. Besides, accumulation of tau in the brain ISS in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and its link to the sleep-wake cycle and sleep deprivation, clearance of ISF in a deep sleep via increased CSF flow, novel approaches to remove beta-amyloid from the brain ISS, and obstruction to the ISF drainage in neurological conditions are deliberated. Moreover, the role of ISS in the passage of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from neural cells and the rapid targeting of therapeutic EVs into neural cells in the entire brain following an intranasal administration, and the promise and limitations of ISS based drug delivery approaches are discussed

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Effects of Living at Higher Altitudes on Mortality: A Narrative Review
Martin Burtscher
Aging and Disease    2014, 5 (4): 274-280.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.0500274
Abstract1127)   HTML18)          Save

Beside genetic and life-style characteristics environmental factors may profoundly influence mortality and life expectancy. The high altitude climate comprises a set of conditions bearing the potential of modifying morbidity and mortality of approximately 400 million people who are permanently residing at elevations above 1500 meters. However, epidemiological data on the effects of high altitude living on mortality from major diseases are inconsistent probably due to differences in ethnicity, behavioral factors and the complex interactions with environmental conditions. The available data indicate that residency at higher altitudes are associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular diseases, stroke and certain types of cancer. In contrast mortality from COPD and probably also from lower respiratory tract infections is rather elevated. It may be argued that moderate altitudes are more protective than high or even very high altitudes. Whereas living at higher elevations may frequently protect from development of diseases, it could adversely affect mortality when diseases progress. Corroborating and expanding these findings would be helpful for optimization of medical care and disease management in the aging residents of higher altitudes.

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Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharide Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Pulmonary Fibrosis via a DANCR/AUF-1/FOXO3 Regulatory Axis
Weibin Qian, Xinrui Cai, Qiuhai Qian, Dongli Wang, Lei Zhang
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 17-30.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0512
Accepted: 13 May 2019

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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the accumulation of lung fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), the major bioactive component that can extracted from roots of angelica, plays functional roles in immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, and hematopoiesis. Emerging evidence has suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in pathophysiological processes in various diseases. However, the roles of lncRNAs and ASP in IPF remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ASP in IPF, as well as their functional interactions with lncRNA DANCR (differentiation antagonizing non-protein coding RNA). IPF models were established by treating Sprague-Dawley rats with BLM and treating alveolar type Ⅱ epithelial (RLE-6TN) cells with TGF-β1. Our results showed that ASP treatment suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in rats and fibrogenesis in RLE-6TN cells. The lncRNA DANCR is downregulated after ASP treatment in both rat lung tissues and RLE-6TN cells, and DANCR overexpression dramatically reversed the suppressive effects of ASP in IPF. Mechanistically, DANCR directly binds with AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1), thereby upregulating FOXO3 mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, overexpression of AUF1 or FOXO3 reversed the functional effects induced by ASP treatment. In conclusion, our findings showed that DANCR mediates ASP-induced suppression of IPF via upregulation of FOXO3 protein levels in an AUF1-dependent manner. Therefore, DANCR could serve as a promising therapeutic target in IPF treatment with ASP.

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Macrophages in Noise-Exposed Cochlea: Changes, Regulation and the Potential Role
Weiwei He, Jintao Yu, Yu Sun, Weijia Kong
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 191-199.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0723
Accepted: 29 July 2019

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Acoustic trauma is an important physical factor leading to cochlear damage and hearing impairments. Inflammation responds to this kind of cochlear damage stress. Macrophages, the major innate immune cells in the cochlea, are important drivers of inflammatory and tissue repair responses after cochlear injury. Recently, studies have shown that after noise exposure, the distribution, phenotype, and the number of cochlear macrophages have significantly changed, and the local environmental factors that shape macrophage differentiation and behavior are also drastically altered. However, the exact role of these immune cells in the cochlea after acoustic injury remains unknown. Here we review the properties of cochlear macrophages both under steady-state conditions and non-homeostatic conditions after cochlear acoustic injury and discuss their potential role in noise-exposed cochlea.

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Roles and Functions of Exosomal Non-coding RNAs in Vascular Aging
Yu-Qing Ni, Xiao Lin, Jun-Kun Zhan, You-Shuo Liu
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 164-178.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0402
Accepted: 08 April 2019

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Aging is a progressive loss of physiological integrity and functionality process which increases susceptibility and mortality to diseases. Vascular aging is a specific type of organic aging. The structure and function changes of endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the main cause of vascular aging, which could influence the threshold, process, and severity of vascular related diseases. Accumulating evidences demonstrate that exosomes serve as novel intercellular information communicator between cell to cell by delivering variety biologically active cargos, especially exosomal non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are associated with most of aging-related biological and functional disorders. In this review, we will summerize the emerging roles and mechanisms of exosomal ncRNAs in vascular aging and vascular aging related diseases, focusing on the role of exosomal miRNAs and lncRNAs in regulating the functions of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, the relationship between the ECs and VSMCs linked by exosomes, the potential diagnostic and therapeutic application of exosomes in vascular aging and the clinical evaluation and treatment of vascular aging and vascular aging related diseases will also be discussed.

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Statins Induce a DAF-16/Foxo-dependent Longevity Phenotype via JNK-1 through Mevalonate Depletion in C. elegans
Andreas Jahn, Bo Scherer, Gerhard Fritz, Sebastian Honnen
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 60-72.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0416
Accepted: 19 May 2019

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Statins belong to the most pre-scribed cholesterol lowering drugs in western countries. Their competitive inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase causes a reduction in the mevalonate pool, resulting in reduced cholesterol biosynthesis, impaired protein prenylation and glycosylation. Recently, a cohort study showed a decreased mortality rate in humans between age 78-90 going along with statin therapy, which is independent of blood cholesterol levels. As C. elegans harbors the mevalonate pathway, but is cholesterol-auxotroph, it is particularly suitable to study cholesterol-independent effects of statins on aging-associated phenotypes. Here, we show that low doses of lovastatin or a mild HMG-CoA reductase knockdown via hmgr-1(RNAi) in C. elegans substantially attenuate aging pigment accumulation, which is a well-established surrogate marker for biological age. Consistently, for two statins we found dosages, which prolonged the lifespan of C. elegans. Together with an observed reduced fertility, slower developmental timing and thermal stress resistance this complex of outcomes point to the involvement of DAF-16/hFOXO3a, the master regulator of stress resistance and longevity. Accordingly, prolonged low-dose statin exposure leads to an increased expression of jnk-1, a known activator of DAF-16. Moreover, the beneficial effects of statins on aging pigments and lifespan depend on DAF-16 and JNK-1, as shown in epistasis analyses. These effects can be reverted by mevalonate supplementation. In conclusion, we describe a lifespan extension in C. elegans, which is conferred via two well-conserved stress-related factors (JNK-1, DAF-16) and results from mevalonate depletion.

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Overweight in the Elderly Induces a Switch in Energy Metabolism that Undermines Muscle Integrity
Yaiza Potes, Zulema Pérez-Martinez, Juan C. Bermejo-Millo, Adrian Rubio-Gonzalez, María Fernandez-Fernández, Manuel Bermudez, Jose M. Arche, Juan J. Solano, Jose A. Boga, Mamen Oliván, Beatriz Caballero, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Ana Coto-Montes
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (2): 217-230.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0430
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Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). Obesity exacerbates age-related decline and lead to frailty. Skeletal muscle fat infiltration increases with aging and seems to be crucial for the progression of sarcopenia. Additionally, skeletal muscle plasticity modulates metabolic adaptation to different pathophysiological situations. Thus, cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial profile were studied in the skeletal muscle of overweight aged people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight aged muscle lacked ATP production, as indicated by defects in the phosphagen system, glycolysis and especially mostly by oxidative phosphorylation metabolic pathway. Overweight subjects exhibited an inhibition of mitophagy that was linked to an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis that underlies the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and encourages the onset of sarcopenia. As a strategy to maintain cellular homeostasis, overweight subjects experienced a metabolic switch from oxidative to lactic acid fermentation metabolism, which allows continued ATP production under mitochondrial dysfunction, but without reaching physiological aged basal levels. This ATP depletion induced early signs of impaired contractile function and a decline in skeletal muscle structural integrity, evidenced by lower levels of filamin C. Our findings reveal the main effector pathways at an early stage of obesity and highlight the importance of mitochondrial metabolism in overweight and obese individuals. Exploiting mitochondrial profiles for therapeutic purposes in humans is an ambitious strategy for treating muscle impairment diseases.

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Intravenous Administration of Standard Dose Tirofiban after Mechanical Arterial Recanalization is Safe and Relatively Effective in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Zhe Cheng, Xiaokun Geng, Jie Gao, Mohammed Hussain, Seong-Jin Moon, Huishan Du, Yuchuan Ding
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (5): 1049-1057.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0922
Accepted: 26 September 2018

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To investigate the safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of a standard dose of glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban after vessel recanalization by mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. A consecutive series of patients (n=112) undergoing endovascular ischemic stroke intervention therapy were enrolled. 81 patients were eligible for intravenous (IV) tirofiban treatment for 24 hours after mechanical thrombectomy. The incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), death, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin scale (mRS) were assessed. In the 81 patients receiving tirofiban, 52 patients (64.2%) were treated with IV rt-PA before mechanical thrombectomy. sICH was found in 2 (2.5%) patients with no fatal ICH. Four patients died during 3 months after stroke onset. Successful recanalization with thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) score ≥2b was achieved in 75 of 81 patients (92.6%) after mechanical thrombectomy. The average number of passes with Solitaire stent retriever was 1.3. At 3 months, 55 of 81 patients (67.9%) had favorable outcomes (mRS<=2). The intravenous application of a standard dose of tirofiban post-Solitaire stent retriever thrombectomy and intravenous thrombolysis appears to be safe and relatively effective in acute ischemic stroke.

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The WNK-SPAK/OSR1 Kinases and the Cation-Chloride Cotransporters as Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases
Huachen Huang, Shanshan Song, Suneel Banerjee, Tong Jiang, Jinwei Zhang, Kristopher T. Kahle, Dandan Sun, Zhongling Zhang
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (3): 626-636.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0928
Accepted: 02 October 2018

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In recent years, cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) have drawn attention in the medical neuroscience research. CCCs include the family of Na+-coupled Cl- importers (NCC, NKCC1, and NKCC2), K+-coupled Cl- exporters (KCCs), and possibly polyamine transporters (CCC9) and CCC interacting protein (CIP1). For decades, CCCs have been the targets of several commonly used diuretic drugs, including hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, and bumetanide. Genetic mutations of NCC and NKCC2 cause congenital renal tubular disorders and lead to renal salt-losing hypotension, secondary hyperreninemia, and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. New studies reveal that CCCs along with their regulatory WNK (Kinase with no lysine (K)), and SPAK (Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase)/OSR1(oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1) are essential for regulating cell volume and maintaining ionic homeostasis in the nervous system, especially roles of the WNK-SPAK-NKCC1 signaling pathway in ischemic brain injury and hypersecretion of cerebrospinal fluid in post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. In addition, disruption of Cl- exporter KCC2 has an effect on synaptic inhibition, which may be involved in developing pain, epilepsy, and possibly some neuropsychiatric disorders. Interference with KCC3 leads to peripheral nervous system neuropathy as well as axon and nerve fiber swelling and psychosis. The WNK-SPAK/OSR1-CCCs complex emerges as therapeutic targets for multiple neurological diseases. This review will highlight these new findings.

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Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Ameliorates Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice with Chronic Restraint Stress via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase
Heng Ai, Weiqing Fang, Hanyi Hu, Xupang Hu, Wen Lu
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 31-43.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0403
Accepted: 07 April 2019

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Depression is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in modern society. However, traditional drugs, such as monoaminergic agents, have defect showing lag response requiring several weeks to months. Additionally, these drugs have limited efficacy and high resistance rates in patients with depression. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel drugs or approaches for the treatment of depression. Here, using biochemical, pharmacological, genetic and behavioral methods, we demonstrate that metformin imparts a fast-acting antidepressant-like effect in naïve mice as well as stressed mice subjected to chronic restraint stress model. Moreover, inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by compound C or knock down of hippocampal AMPKα occluded the antidepressant-like effect induced by metformin. Our results suggest that metformin may be a viable therapeutic drug for the treatment of stress-induced depression via activation of AMPK.

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Tumor-Derived Soluble MICA Obstructs the NKG2D Pathway to Restrain NK Cytotoxicity
Qizhi Luo, Weiguang Luo, Quan Zhu, Hongjun Huang, Huiyun Peng, Rongjiao Liu, Min Xie, Shili Li, Ming Li, Xiaocui Hu, Yizhou Zou
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 118-128.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.1017
Accepted: 28 June 2019

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The natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor and its ligands play important roles in immune surveillance. In this study, we observed that the average serum soluble MICA (sMICA) concentration of 174 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was significantly higher than that in 80 healthy subjects (602.17 ± 338.15 vs. 72.26 ± 87.88 pg/ml, t = 3.107, P=0.002). The levels of serum sMICA in 44 HCC patients with initial levels above 400 pg/ml declined significantly after surgical removal of the liver cancer tissue (P<0.001). Moreover, the mean survival time of HCC patients who had sMICA above 400 pg/ml was significantly shorter than that HCC patients with lower sMICA levels (P<0.001). Using the reporter cell line (NKG2D-2B4) in which activation of the NKG2D receptor pathway results in GFP expression based on the stimulation of immobilized rMICA, we showed that the number of GFP-expressing cells decreased sharply in presence of sMICA. Upon adding sMICA, the release of cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-8 by NK cell line (NKL) under stimulation of immobilized rMICA was blocked. Using MICA-expressing cells as the target cells, we observed that about 80% of target cells were killed by NKL at E:T of 10:1, but in presence of sMICAhigh serum of HCC patients, the dead target cells were reduced to 30.8%. Compared in presence of sMICAlow serum from HCC patients, there were 63.7% of target cells dead (p=0.043). Thus, our data suggested that sMICA obstructs the activation of NKG2D pathway to protect tumor cells from NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

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Association between Loss of Sleep-specific Waves and Age, Sleep Efficiency, Body Mass Index, and Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Human N3 Sleep
Weiguang Li, Ying Duan, Jiaqing Yan, He Gao, Xiaoli Li
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 73-81.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0420
Accepted: 02 July 2019

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Sleep spindles (SS) and K-complexes (KC) play important roles in human sleep. It has been reported that age, body mass index (BMI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) may influence the number of SS or KC in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) 2 (N2) sleep. In this study, we investigated whether the loss of SS or KC is associated with the above factors in NREM 3 (N3) sleep. A total of 152 cases were enrolled from 2013 to 2017. The correlations between the number of SS or KC in N3 sleep and participants’ characteristics were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation. Chi-squared test was used to assess the effects of age, sleep efficiency, and BMI on the loss of N3 sleep, N3 spindle and N3 KC. Our results showed that there were negative correlations between the number of SS in N3 sleep with age, BMI, and AHI (P < 0.001), and similar trends were found for KC as well. The loss of SS and KC in N3 sleep was related with age, BMI, and AHI (P < 0.01), as was the loss of N3 sleep (P < 0.01). However, sleep efficiency was not related with the loss of N3 sleep, SS and KC in N3 sleep (P > 0.05). The present study supports that age, BMI, and AHI are all influencing factors of SS and KC loss in human N3 sleep, but sleep efficiency was not an influencing factor in the loss of N3 sleep and the loss of SS and KC in N3 sleep.

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The Paradoxical Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Memory
Shawn Zheng Kai Tan, Man-Lung Fung, Junhao Koh, Ying-Shing Chan, Lee Wei Lim
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 179-190.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0511
Accepted: 21 July 2019

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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for many memory-related disorders including dementia, anxiety, and addiction. However, the use of DBS can be a paradoxical conundrum—dementia treatments aim to improve memory, whereas anxiety or addiction treatments aim to suppress maladaptive memory. In this review, the key hypotheses on how DBS affects memory are highlighted. We consolidate the findings and conclusions from the current research on the effects of DBS on memory in attempt to make sense of the bidirectional nature of DBS in disrupting and enhancing memory. Based on the current literature, we hypothesize that the timing of DBS plays a key role in its contradictory effects, and therefore, we propose a consolidated model of how DBS can both disrupt and enhance memory.

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Handgrip Strength and Pulmonary Disease in the Elderly: What is the Link?
Tatiana Rafaela Lemos Lima, Vívian Pinto Almeida, Arthur Sá Ferreira, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Agnaldo José Lopes
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (5): 1109-1129.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1226
Accepted: 31 December 2018

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Societies in developed countries are aging at an unprecedented rate. Considering that aging is the most significant risk factor for many chronic lung diseases (CLDs), understanding this process may facilitate the development of new interventionist approaches. Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a serious problem in older adults with CLDs, reducing their quality of life and survival. In this study, we reviewed the possible links between handgrip strength (HGS)—a simple, noninvasive, low-cost measure of muscle function—and CLDs in the elderly. Different mechanisms appear to be involved in this association, including systemic inflammation, chronic hypoxemia, physical inactivity, malnutrition, and corticosteroid use. Respiratory and peripheral myopathy, associated with muscle atrophy and a shift in muscle fiber type, also seem to be major etiological contributors to CLDs. Moreover, sarcopenic obesity, which occurs in older adults with CLDs, impairs common inflammatory pathways that can potentiate each other and further accelerate the functional decline of HGS. Our findings support the concept that the systemic effects of CLDs may be determined by HGS, and HGS is a relevant measurement that should be considered in the clinical assessment of the elderly with CLDs. These reasons make HGS a useful practical tool for indirectly evaluating functional status in the elderly. At present, early muscle reconditioning and optimal nutrition appear to be the most effective approaches to reduce the impact of CLDs and low muscle strength on the quality of life of these individuals. Nonetheless, larger in-depth studies are needed to evaluate the link between HGS and CLDs.

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Physical Activity and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Narrative Review
Piotr Gronek, Stefan Balko, Joanna Gronek, Adam Zajac, Adam Maszczyk, Roman Celka, Agnieszka Doberska, Wojciech Czarny, Robert Podstawski, Cain C. T Clark, Fang Yu
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (6): 1282-1292.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0226
Accepted: 12 March 2019

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Although age is a dominant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), epidemiological studies have shown that physical activity may significantly decrease age-related risks for AD, and indeed mitigate the impact in existing diagnosis. The aim of this study was to perform a narrative review on the preventative, and mitigating, effects of physical activity on AD onset, including genetic factors, mechanism of action and physical activity typology. In this article, we conducted a narrative review of the influence physical activity and exercise have on AD, utilising key terms related to AD, physical activity, mechanism and prevention, searching the online databases; Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar, and, subsequently, discuss possible mechanisms of this action. On the basis of this review, it is evident that physical activity and exercise may be incorporated in AD, notwithstanding, a greater number of high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed, moreover, physical activity typology must be acutely considered, primarily due to a dearth of research on the efficacy of physical activity types other than aerobic.

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mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges
Sun Jing, Guo Yutao, Wang Xiaoning, Zeng Qiang
Aging and disease    2016, 7 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.1011
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The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries.

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Type 2 Myocardial Infarction: A Geriatric Population-based Model of Pathogenesis
Alain Putot, Melanie Jeanmichel, Frederic Chague, Patrick Manckoundia, Yves Cottin, Marianne Zeller
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 108-117.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0405
Accepted: 08 May 2019

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Distinction between type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI), defined as an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand without atherothrombosis, and type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), due to plaque disruption, is often a clinical challenge in frail elderly patients. We aimed to identify the characteristics and underlying causes of T2MI using a comprehensive geriatric approach. From a multicentre population-based prospective study in coronary care units, we adjudicated 4572 consecutive patients hospitalized for an acute T1MI or T2MI, according to the 3rd universal definition and a prespecified geriatric model of T2MI pathogenesis. In total, 3710 (81%) had T1MI and 862 (19%) T2MI. Patients with T2MI were 10 y older (77 vs 67 y, p<0.001), more frequently female (44 vs 26%, p<0.001) and had more frequent comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, acute heart failure, tachycardia and C-reactive protein elevation at admission were associated with a higher risk of T2MI vs T1MI, whereas chest pain, troponin I peak > 10 µg/L and ST-segment elevation were associated with a lower risk. Underlying mechanisms leading to T2MI highlighted 3 main patterns: 1) Age-related physiological cardiovascular decline 2) chronic predisposing factors including chronic anaemia (10%) and severe aortic stenosis (7%), 3) acute triggering factors, the most common being acute infection (39%), mainly respiratory tract infection, followed by tachyarrhythmia (13%) and acute heart failure (10%). 122 (14%) patients had combined predisposing and triggering conditions for T2MI. In our large population-based survey of T2MI, chronic anaemia and severe aortic stenosis increased predisposition to T2MI and acute respiratory infection was by far the most frequent trigger. Our data shed new light on the age-related pathophysiological basis for discrepancies in oxygen supply and demand leading to MI.

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AmpliSeq Transcriptome of Laser Captured Neurons from Alzheimer Brain: Comparison of Single Cell Versus Neuron Pools
Wenjun Deng, Changhong Xing, Rob David , Diego Mastroeni, MingMing Ning, Eng H Lo, Paul D Coleman
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (6): 1146-1158.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0225
Accepted: 12 April 2019

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in older adults. However, the pathogenesis of AD remains to be fully understood and clinically effective treatments are lacking. Recent advances in single cell RNA sequencing offers an opportunity to characterize the heterogeneity of cell response and explore the molecular mechanism of complex diseases at a single cell level. Here, we present the application of the Ion AmpliSeq transcriptome approach to profile gene expression in single laser captured neurons as well as pooled 10 and 100 neurons from hippocampal CA1 of AD brains versus matching normal aged brains. Our results demonstrated the high sensitivity and high genome coverage of the AmpliSeq transcriptome in single cell sequencing. In addition to capturing the known changes related to AD, our data confirmed the diversity of neuronal profiles in AD brain, which allow the potential identification of single cell response that might be hidden in population analyses. Notably, we also revealed the extensive inhibition of olfactory signaling and confirmed the reduction of neurotransmitter receptors in AD hippocampus. We conclude that although single neuron data show more variance than data from 10 or 100 pooled neurons, single neuron data can be informative. These findings support the utility of the Ion AmpliSeq method for obtaining and analyzing gene expression data from single defined laser captured neurons.

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The Urgent Need for International Action for Anti-aging and Disease Prevention
Robert Chunhua Zhao, Ilia Stambler
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 212-215.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.1230
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Redefining Chronic Inflammation in Aging and Age-Related Diseases: Proposal of the Senoinflammation Concept
Hae Young Chung, Dae Hyun Kim, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Sangwoon Chung, Bonggi Lee, Arnold Y. Seo, Jae Heun Chung, Young Suk Jung, Eunok Im, Jaewon Lee, Nam Deuk Kim, Yeon Ja Choi, Dong Soon Im, Byung Pal Yu
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (2): 367-382.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0324
Abstract951)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (607KB)(1160)       Save

Age-associated chronic inflammation is characterized by unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation with multivariable low-grade, chronic and systemic responses that exacerbate the aging process and age-related chronic diseases. Currently, there are two major hypotheses related to the involvement of chronic inflammation in the aging process: molecular inflammation of aging and inflammaging. However, neither of these hypotheses satisfactorily addresses age-related chronic inflammation, considering the recent advances that have been made in inflammation research. A more comprehensive view of age-related inflammation, that has a scope beyond the conventional view, is therefore required. In this review, we discuss newly emerging data on multi-phase inflammatory networks and proinflammatory pathways as they relate to aging. We describe the age-related upregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, cytokines/chemokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammasome, and lipid accumulation. The later sections of this review present our expanded view of age-related senescent inflammation, a process we term “senoinflammation”, that we propose here as a novel concept. As described in the discussion, senoinflammation provides a schema highlighting the important and ever-increasing roles of proinflammatory senescence-associated secretome, inflammasome, ER stress, TLRs, and microRNAs, which support the senoinflammation concept. It is hoped that this new concept of senoinflammation opens wider and deeper avenues for basic inflammation research and provides new insights into the anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies targeting the multiple proinflammatory pathways and mediators and mediators that underlie the pathophysiological aging process.

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Predictive Value of Pin1 in Cervical Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Inhibition of Pin1 Exerts Potent Anticancer Activity against Human Cervical Cancer
Yan-Tong Guo, Yan Lu, Yi-Yang Jia, Hui-Nan Qu, Da Qi, Xin-Qi Wang, Pei-Ye Song, Xiang-Shu Jin, Wen-Hong Xu, Yuan Dong, Ying-Ying Liang, Cheng-Shi Quan
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (1): 44-59.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0415
Accepted: 07 May 2019

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Many oncogenes are involved in the progression from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs); which greatly increases the risk of cervical cancer (CC). Thus, a reliable biomarker for risk classification of LSILs is urgently needed. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 is overexpressed in many cancers and contributes significantly to tumour initiation and progression. Therefore, it is important to assess the effects of cancer therapies that target Pin1. In our study, we demonstrated that Pin1 may serve as a biomarker for LSIL disease progression and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for CC. We used a the novel Pin1 inhibitor KPT-6566, which is able to covalently bind to Pin1 and selectively target it for degradation. The results of our investigation revealed that the downregulation of Pin1 by shRNA or KPT-6566 inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer cells (CCCs). We also discovered that the use of KPT-6566 is a novel approach to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin (DDP) against CCCs in vitro and in vivo. We showed that KPT-6566-mediated inhibition of Pin1 blocked multiple cancer-driving pathways simultaneously in CCCs. Furthermore, targeted Pin1 treatment suppressed the metastasis and invasion of human CCCs, and downregulation of Pin1 reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCCs via the c-Jun/slug pathway. Collectively, we showed that Pin1 may be a marker for the risk of progression to HSIL and that inhibition of Pin1 has anticancer effects against CC.

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The involvement of BDNF, NGF and GDNF in aging and Alzheimer's disease
Josiane Budni, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Francielle Mina, Michelle Lima Garcez, Alexandra Ioppi Zugno
Aging and disease    2015, 6 (5): 331-341.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0825
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Aging is a normal physiological process accompanied by cognitive decline. This aging process has been the primary risk factor for development of aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive deficit is related to alterations of neurotrophic factors level such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These strong relationship between aging and AD is important to investigate the time which they overlap, as well as, the pathophysiological mechanism in each event. Considering that aging and AD are related to cognitive impairment, here we discuss the involving these neurotrophic factors in the aging process and AD.

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Reactive Astrocytes in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Kunyu Li, Jiatong Li, Jialin Zheng, Song Qin
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (3): 664-675.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0720
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Astrocytes, the largest and most numerous glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), play a variety of important roles in regulating homeostasis, increasing synaptic plasticity and providing neuroprotection, thus helping to maintain normal brain function. At the same time, astrocytes can participate in the inflammatory response and play a key role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive astrocytes are strongly induced by numerous pathological conditions in the CNS. Astrocyte reactivity is initially characterized by hypertrophy of soma and processes, triggered by different molecules. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation and ischemia can elicit two different types of reactive astrocytes, termed A1s and A2s. However, in the case of astrocyte reactivity in different neurodegenerative diseases, the recently published research issues remain a high level of conflict and controversy. So far, we still know very little about whether and how the function or reactivity of astrocytes changes in the progression of different neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we aimed to briefly discuss recent studies highlighting the complex contribution of astrocytes in the process of various neurodegenerative diseases, which may provide us with new prospects for the development of an excellent therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

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The Biology of Aging and Cancer: A Brief Overview of Shared and Divergent Molecular Hallmarks
Aunan Jan R., Cho William C, Søreide Kjetil
Aging and disease    2017, 8 (5): 628-642.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0103
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Aging is the inevitable time-dependent decline in physiological organ function and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Due to advances in health care, hygiene control and food availability, life expectancy is increasing and the population in most developed countries is shifting to an increasing proportion of people at a cancer susceptible age. Mechanisms of aging are also found to occur in carcinogenesis, albeit with shared or divergent end-results. It is now clear that aging and cancer development either share or diverge in several disease mechanisms. Such mechanisms include the role of genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic changes, loss of proteostasis, decreased nutrient sensing and altered metabolism, but also cellular senescence and stem cell function. Cancer cells and aged cells are also fundamentally opposite, as cancer cells can be thought of as hyperactive cells with advantageous mutations, rapid cell division and increased energy consumption, while aged cells are hypoactive with accumulated disadvantageous mutations, cell division inability and a decreased ability for energy production and consumption. Nonetheless, aging and cancer are tightly interconnected and many of the same strategies and drugs may be used to target both, while in other cases antagonistic pleiotrophy come into effect and inhibition of one can be the activation of the other. Cancer can be considered an aging disease, though the shared mechanisms underpinning the two processes remain unclear. Better understanding of the shared and divergent pathways of aging and cancer is needed.

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Emerging Roles of Ganoderma Lucidum in Anti-Aging
Wang Jue, Cao Bin, Zhao Haiping, Feng Juan
Aging and disease    2017, 8 (6): 691-707.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0410
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Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus that has been viewed as a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been revealed that several extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, such as Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and some bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the use of Ganoderma lucidum as an elixir has been around for thousands of years, studies revealing its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg. Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to be anti-aging are too few compared with the large amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect and its clinical application.

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Effect of a Leucine-rich Repeat Kinase 2 Variant on Motor and Non-motor Symptoms in Chinese Parkinson’s Disease Patients
Sun Qian, Wang Tian, Jiang Tian-Fang, Huang Pei, Li Dun-Hui, Wang Ying, Xiao Qin, Liu Jun, Chen Sheng-Di
Aging and disease    2016, 7 (3): 230-236.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.1026
Abstract625)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (845KB)(2044)       Save

The G2385R variant of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is strongly associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Asian populations. However, it is still unclear whether the clinical phenotype of PD patients with the G2385R variant can be distinguished from that of patients with idiopathic PD. In this study, we investigated motor and non-motor symptoms of LRRK2 G2385R variant carriers in a Chinese population. We genotyped 1031 Chinese PD patients for the G2385R variant of the LRRK2 gene, and examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of LRRK2 G2385R variant carrier and non-carrier PD patients. LRRK2 G2385R variant carriers were more likely to present the postural instability and gait difficulty dominant (PIGD) phenotype. This variant was also significantly associated with motor fluctuations and the levodopa equivalent dose (LED). G2385R variant carriers had higher REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) score and more RBD symptoms compared with non-carriers. We concluded that the G2385R variant could be a risk factor for the PIGD phenotype, motor fluctuations, LED values and RBD symptoms.

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A Comprehensive Review of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use in The Elderly
Wongrakpanich Supakanya, Wongrakpanich Amaraporn, Melhado Katie, Rangaswami Janani
Aging and disease    2018, 9 (1): 143-150.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0306
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NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications. It is a highly effective drug class for pain and inflammation; however, NSAIDs are known for multiple adverse effects, including gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiovascular side effects, and NSAID induced nephrotoxicity. As our society ages, it is crucial to have comprehensive knowledge of this class of medication in the elderly population. Therefore, we reviewed the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, current guidelines for NSAIDs use, adverse effect profile, and drug interaction of NSAIDs and commonly used medications in the elderly.

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Dl-3-n-butylphthalide Reduces Neurovascular Inflammation and Ischemic Brain Injury in Mice
Chun-Sheng Yang, Ai Guo, Yulin Li, Kaibin Shi, Fu-Dong Shi, Minshu Li
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (5): 964-976.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0608
Accepted: 13 June 2019

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Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a synthetic compound that has been approved for the treatment of ischemic stroke in China. The mechanisms underlying the treatment efficacy of NBP have been reported in multiple studies and remain controversial. Here, we show that NBP treatment attenuated ischemic brain injury in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or photothrombosis-induced permanent cerebral ischemia. NBP induced downregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and protease-activated receptor 1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. This effect was associated with the reduced brain infiltration of myeloid cells and improved cerebral blood flow after reperfusion. The beneficial effects of NBP were diminished in mice subjected to the depletion of Gr1+ myeloid cells before brain ischemia. Therefore, the restriction of neurovascular inflammation is a key mode of action for NBP in ischemic stroke.

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