A&D is a peer reviewed, open access online journal
I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
The submission should include the following items:
1. Manuscript: The author should submit a complete manuscript including the title
page, abstract, text, a list of references, table(s), and figure legends.
2. Figures (separate files in TIF or JPEG format).
3. Cover Letter: A cover letter must be provided along with every manuscript.
The cover letter should contain:
(1) The corresponding author’s name, postal and e-mail addresses, telephone and
(2) The title of the manuscript and a brief paragraph explaining significance
of the work.
(3) Type of manuscript.
(4) A statement that the submitted manuscript is an original and unpublished
work of authors and is not under simultaneous consideration for publication by any
(5) Any conflict of interest.
(6) The names, institutional affiliations, and postal and email addresses of
3 or more qualified reviewers.
II. TYPES OF MANUSCRIPT
1. Original articles: Original articles are peer reviewed and report details of
original studies that have not been published previously. Generally, Manuscript should
be divided into the following sections and appear in the order: (1) Title page, (2)
Abstract including Keywords, (3) Introduction, (4) Results, (5) Discussion, (6) Methods
and Materials, (7) Acknowledgments (optional), (8) References, (9) Tables, (10) Figure
legends, (11) Figures (Illustrations).
2. Reviews: Review introduces the reader to a particular area of an author’s research
through a concise overview of a selected topic. The content should balance scope
with depth, but it should not exceed 10,000 words (excluding references). Reference
to important work from others that is significant to the topic should be included.
3. Short Communication: Short Communication is a report of unusual urgency, significance
and interest originating in all areas of biological aging and aging-associated disease,
which may not exceed 2000 words. An introductory paragraph should explain its significance
and the end paragraph may summarize the major conclusions that can be drawn pointing
to possible future directions.
Manuscripts should be double-spaced, including text, tables, legends and references.
All pages must be numbered consecutively from the title page, and include the acknowledgments,
references, tables, and figure legends.
III. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS
(1) Title Page
The title page should carry the following information: (1) the full title of the
paper, which should not exceed 120 characters including spaces and abbreviations
should be avoided.; (2) the full names of all the authors; (3) the name(s) and address(es)
of the institution(s) where the work was performed (the present addresses of the
authors, if different from the above, should appear in a footnote); (4) the name,
mailing address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address of the author responsible
for correspondence about the manuscript (the “corresponding author;” this author
may or may not be the “guarantor” for the integrity of the study); (5) a running
title, usually no more than 40 characters (including letters and spaces) at the foot
of the title page.
An Abstract, not exceeding 300 words, followed by appropriate keywords up to a maximum
of six, should be provided. The Abstract should provide the context or background
for the study and should state the study’s purpose, basic procedures, main findings,
and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study
Provide a context or background for the study. State the specific purpose or research
objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation.
(4) Methods and Materials
The Methods and Materials section should include the methods, apparatus (give the
manufacturer’s name in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow
others to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods; provide
references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not
well-known; Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s),
dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Describe statistical methods with enough
detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify
the reported results.
Describe or summarize the most important findings in logical sequence in the text,
tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations
in the text.
Describe the new and important aspects of the study and explore possible mechanisms
or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant
studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the
findings for future research and for clinical practice.
General acknowledgments for consultations, technical assistance, statistical analysis,
financial support and such should be listed at the end of the text before the References.
Include full names of individuals.
All the references must be placed together in a list at the end of the manuscript
text. Please note that authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness
of their references. The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely
on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the NLM for its databases.
Text citations: References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which
they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends
by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or figure legends
should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification
in the text of the particular table or figure.
Reference list: List items numerically in the order they are cited in the text. The
titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list
of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, posted by the NLM on the Library's web site: (http://
Examples of reference style:
 Freedman SB, Adler M, Seshadri R, Powell EC (2006). Oral ondansetron for gastroenteritis
in a pediatric emergency department. N Engl J Med, 354:1698-705.
Chapter in a book:
 Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM (2002). Chromosome alterations in human
solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer.
New York: McGraw- Hill, 93-113.
 Costa DC, Morgan GF, Lassen NA, editors. New trends in neurology and psychiatry.
London: John Libbey; 1993.
References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press”.
Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text
as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.
Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information
not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date
of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.
Tables may be placed within the manuscript or sent as separate files (in .doc format).
If table is included in manuscript file, place after the References section, one
table per page. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation
in the text and supply a brief title for each. Do not use internal horizontal or
vertical lines. Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Any abbreviations
included in the table should be defined at the bottom of the table.
(10) Figures legends (Illustrations)
Figure legends should be double-spaced and listed (numbered) on a separate page after
the tables. They should not appear on the figures. Include figure titles at the beginning
of the legend. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts
of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain
the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
(11) Figures (Illustrations)
Figures should be digital color or black-and-white composites, measuring not more
than 6 x 8 inches in a format that will produce high-quality images in the online
(i.e. TIF, JPEG or GIF files). Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should therefore
be clear and consistent throughout, and large enough to remain legible when the figure
is reduced for publication.
Digital graphics should have minimum resolution.
Black and white line art 600dpi
Grayscale art 600dpi
Color art 300dpi
Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters
used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background.
Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have
been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the
original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce
Abbreviations and Symbols
Use only standard abbreviations, which should conform to the Systeme Internationale
(SI units). The statistical guidelines advocated by the International Committee of
Medical Journal Editors (Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 266-73) should be followed. The
spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used
on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.