Please wait a minute...
 Home  About the Journal Editorial Board Aims & Scope Peer Review Policy Subscription Contact us
 
Early Edition  //  Current Issue  //  Open Special Issues  //  Archives  //  Most Read  //  Most Downloaded  //  Most Cited
Aging and Disease    2013, Vol. 4 Issue (6) : 351-363     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2013.0400351
Reviews |
Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training
Mandy L. Gault, Mark E.T. Willems
Mandy L. Gault, Mark E.T. Willems, University of Chichester, Department of Sport & Exercise Sciences, College Lane, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 6PE, United Kingdom
Download: PDF(643 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Abstract  

Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise.

Keywords Eccentric exercise      functional ability      muscle strength      aerobic capacity      muscle damage     
Corresponding Authors: Mandy L. Gault   
Issue Date: 10 December 2013
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Mandy L. Gault
Mark E.T. Willems
Cite this article:   
Mandy L. Gault,Mark E.T. Willems. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training[J]. Aging and Disease, 2013, 4(6): 351-363.
URL:  
http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2013.0400351     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2013/V4/I6/351
[1] Rikli RE, Jones CJ(1999). The development and validation of functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. J Aging Phys Act, 7:129-161
[2] Buford TW, MacNeil RG, Clough LG, Dirain M, Sandesara B, Manini TM, Leeuwenburgh C(2013). Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy you and older adults. J Appl PhysiolDoi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01350.2012
[3] Shephard R(2009). Maximal oxygen intake and independence in old age. Br J Sports Med, 43:342-346
[4] Gault ML, Clements RE, Willems ME(2013). Cardiovascular responses during downhill treadmill walking at self-selected intensity in older adults. J Aging Phys Act, 21:335-347
[5] Isner-Horobeti ME, Dufour SP, Vautravers P, Geny B, Coudeyre E, Richard R(2013). Eccentric exercise training: Modalities, applications and perspectives. Sports MedDoi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0052-y
[6] Lovering RM, Brooks SV(2013). Eccentric exercise in aging and diseased skeletal muscle: good or bad?. J Appl PhysiolDoi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00174.2013
[7] Gault ML, Clements RE, Willems ME(2012). Functional mobility of older adults after concentric and eccentric endurance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112(11):3699-3707
[8] Gault ML, Willems ME(2012). Isometric strength and steadiness adaptations of the knee extensor muscle to level and downhill treadmill walking in older adults. Biogerontology, 14(2):197-208
[9] Norrbrand L, Fluckey JD, Pozzo M, Tesch PA(2008). Resistance training using eccentric overload induces early adpatations in skeletal muscle size. Eur J Appl Physiol, 103:271-281
[10] Close GL, Kayani A, Vasilaki A, McArdle A(2005). Skeletal muscle damage with exercise and aging. Sports Med, 35(5):413-427
[11] Mayhew TP, Rothstein JM, Finucane SD, Lamb RL(1995). Muscular adaptation to concentric and eccentric exercise at equal power levels. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 27(6):868-873
[12] Kowald A, Kirkwood TB(1996). A network theory of ageing: the interactions of defective mitochondria, aberrant proteins, free radicals and scavengers in the ageing process. Mutat Res, 316:209-236
[13] Weinert BT, Timiras PS(2003). Invited review: Theories of aging. J Appl Physiol, 95(4):1706-1716
[14] Franceschi C, Valensin S, Bonafe M, Paolisso G, Yashin AI, Monti D, De Benedictis G(2000). The network and the remodelling theories of aging: historical background and new perspectives. Exp Geronto, 35:879-896
[15] Evans WJ(1995). What is sarcopenia?. J Gerontol A:Biol Sci Med, 50:5-8
[16] Afilalo J, Karunananthan S, Eisenberg MJ, Alexander KP, Bergman H(2009). Role of frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol, 103:1616-1621
[17] Bassett DR, Howley ET(2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32:70-84
[18] Ogawa T, Spina RJ, Martin WH, Kohrt WM, Schechtman KB, Holloszy JO, Ehsani AA(1992). Effects of aging, sex, and physical training on cardiovascular responses to exercise. Circulation, 86:494-503
[19] Janssens JP, Pache JC, Nicod LP(1999). Physiological changes in respiratory function associated with ageing. Eur Resp J, 13(1):197-205
[20] Kaplan DT, Furman MI, Pincus SM, Ryan SM, Lipsitz LA, Goldberger AL(1991). Aging and the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics. Biophys J, 59:945-949
[21] Lakatta EG(1990). Changes in cardiovascular function with aging. Eur HeartJ.11(Suppl C):22-29
[22] Lakatta EG, Yin FC(1982). Myocardial aging: functional alterations and related cellular mechanisms. Am J Physiol, 242(6):H927-941
[23] Heath GW, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO(1981). A physiological comparison of young and older endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol, 51(3):634-640
[24] Stratton JR, Levy WC, Cerqueira MD, Schwartz RS, Abrass IB(1994). Cardiovascular responses to exercise: Effects of aging and exercise training in healthy men. Circulation, 89:1648-1655
[25] Fagard R, Thijs L, Amery A(1993). Age and the hemodynamic response to posture and exercise. Am J Geriat Cardiol, 2:23-40
[26] Fleg J, Lakatta E(1988). Role of muscle loss in the age-associated reduction in V̇O2max. J Appl Physiol, 65:494-503
[27] Rodeheffer RJ, Gerstenblith G, Becker LC, Fleg JL, Weisfeldt ML, Lakatta EG(1984). Exercise cardiac output is maintained with advancing age in healthy human subjects: cardiac dilation and increased stroke volume compensate for a diminished heart rate. Circulation, 69(2):203-213
[28] Hossack KF, Bruce RA(1982). Maximal cardiac function in sedentary normal men and women: Comparison of age-related changes. J Appl Physiol, 53:799-804
[29] Fleg JL(1986). Alterations in cardiovascular structure and function with advancing age. Am J Cardiol, 57:33C-44C
[30] Niinimaa V, Shephard RJ(1978). Training and exercise conductance in the elderly. II. The cardiovascular system. J Gerontol, 33:362-367
[31] Wahren J, Saltin B, Jorfeldt L, Pernow B(1974). Influence of age on the local circulatory adaptation to leg exercise. Scand J Clin Lab Invest, 33(1):79-86
[32] Blumenthal JA, Emery CF, Madden DJ, George LK, Coleman RE, Riddle MW, McKee DC, Reasoner J, Williams RS(1989). Cardiovascular and behavioural effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women. J Gerontol, 44:M147-157
[33] Kasch FW, Boyer JL, Schmidt PK, Wells RH, Wallace JP, Verity LS, Guy H, Schneider D(1999). Ageing of the cardiovascular system during 33 years of aerobic exercise. Age Ageing, 28(6):531-536
[34] Puggard L(2003). Effects of training on functional performance in 65, 75 and 85 year-old women: Experiences deriving from community based studies in Odense, Denmark. Scandinavian J Med Sci Sports, 13:70-76
[35] Seals DR, Hagberg JM, Hurley BF, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO(1984). Endurance training in older men and women. I. Cardiovascular responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol, 57(4):1024-1029
[36] Hagberg J, Graves J, Limacher M, Woods D, Connonie C, Leggett S, Cononie C, Gruber JJ, Pollock ML(1989). Cardiovascular responses of 70–79 year old men and women to exercise training. J Appl Physiol, 66(6):2589-2594
[37] Spina RJ(1999). Cardiovascular adaptations to endurance exercise training in older men and women. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 27:317-332
[38] Deschenes MR(2004). Effects of aging on muscle fibre type and size. Sports Med, 34(12):809-824
[39] Doherty TJ, Vandervoort AA, Brown WF(1993). Effects of ageing on the motor unit: a brief review. Can J Appl Physiol, 18(4):331-358
[40] Grimby G, Saltin B(1983). The ageing muscles. Clin Physiol, 3:209-218
[41] Doherty TJ(2003). Physiology of aging: Invited review: aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol, 95(4):1717-1727
[42] Young A, Stokes M, Crowe M(1984). Size and strength of the quadriceps muscles of old and young women. Eur J Clin Invest, 14:282-287
[43] Candow DG, Chilibeck PD(2005). Differences in size, strength, and power of upper and lower body muscle groups in young and older men. J Gerontol A:Biol Sci Med Sci, 60(2):148-156
[44] Overend TJ, Cunningham DA, Paterson DH, Lefcoe MS(1992). Thigh composition in young and elderly men determined by computed tomography. Clin Physiol, 12:629-640
[45] Marcell TJ(2003). Sarcopenia: causes, consequences, and preventions. J Gerontol A:Biol Sci Med Sci, 56(10):M911-916
[46] Yarasheski KE(2003). Exercise, aging, and muscle protein metabolism. J Gerontol A:Biol Sci Med Sci, 58(10):M918-922
[47] Larsson L, Grimby G, Karlsson J(1979). Muscle strength and speed of movement in relation to age and muscle morphology. J Appl Physiol, 46:451-456
[48] Hook P, Sriramoju V, Larsson L(2001). Effects of aging on actin sliding speed on myosin from single skeletal muscle cells of mice, rats, and humans. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 280:C782-C788
[49] Hunter SK, Thompson MW, Ruell PA, Harmer AR, Thom JM, Gwinn TH, Adams RD(1999). Human skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake and muscle function with aging and strength training. J Appl Physiol, 86(6):1858-1865
[50] Brown WF(1972). A method for estimating the number of motor units in thenar muscles and the changes in motor unit count with ageing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat, 35(6):845-852
[51] Lexell L, Taylor CC, Sjostrom M(1988). What is the cause of ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fibre types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurolog Sci, 84:275-294
[52] McComas AJ, Upton AR, Sica RE(1973). Motorneurone disease and ageing. Lancet, 2:1477-1480
[53] Lexell J, Taylor C(1991). Fibre density: a fast and accurate way to estimate human muscle fibre areas. Muscle Nerve, 14(5):476-477
[54] Stålberg E, Fawcett PR(1982). Macro EMG in healthy subjects of different ages. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat, 45(10):670-678
[55] Frontera WR, Suh D, Krivickas LS, Hughes VA, Goldstein R, Roubenhoff R(2000). Skeletal muscle fibre quality in older men and women. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 279(3):C611-618
[56] Taaffe DR(2006). Sarcopenia: Exercise as a treatment strategy. Aust FamPhysician, 35(3):130-134
[57] Taylor AH, Cable NT, Faulkner G, Hillsdon M, Narici M, Van Der Bij AK(2004). Physical activity and older adults: a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions. J Sports Sci, 22:703-725
[58] Frontera WR, Meredith CN, O’Reilly KP, Knuttgen HG, Evans WJ(1988). Strength conditioning in older men: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function. J Appl Physiol, 64:1038-1044
[59] Evans W(1997). Functional and metabolic consequences of sarcopenia. J Nutr, 127:998S-1003S
[60] Kamen G, Gabriel DA(2010). Essentials of ElectromyographyHuman KineticsChampagne, IL
[61] Abrass IB(1990). The biology and physiology of aging. West J Med, 153(6):641-645
[62] Langlois JA, Keyl PM, Guralinik JM, Foley DJ, Marottoli RA, Wallace RB(1997). Characteristics of older pedestrians who have difficulty crossing the street. Am J Public Health, 87(3):393-397
[63] Asher L, Aresu M, Falaschetti E, Mindell J(2012). Most older pedestrians are unable to cross the road in time: a cross-sectional study. Age Ageing, 41:690-694
[64] Hortobágyi T, Tunnel D, Moody J, Beam S, DeVita P(2001). Low- or high-intensity strength training partially restores impaired quadriceps force accuracy and steadiness in aged adults. J Gerontol A:Biol Sci Med Sci, 56(1):B38-47
[65] Gauchard GC, Jeandel C, Tessier A, Perrin PP(1999). Beneficial effect of proprioceptive physical activities on balance control in elderly human subjects. Neurosci Lett, 273(2):81-84
[66] Carville SF, Perry MC, Rutherford OM, Smith IC, Newham DJ(2007). Steadiness of quadriceps contractions in young and older adults with and without a history of falling. Eur J Appl Physiol, 100(5):527-533
[67] Seynnes O, Hue OA, Garrandes F, Colson SS, Bernard PL, Legros P, Fiatarone-Singh MA(2005). Force steadiness in the lower extremities as an independent predictor of functional performance in older women. J Aging Phys Act, 13(4):395-408
[68] Newham DJ, Mills KR, Quigley BM, Edwards RH(1983). Pain and fatigue after concentric and eccentric muscle contractions. Clin Sci (Lond)64(1):55-62
[69] Westing SH, Cresswell AG, Thorstensson A(1991). Muscle activation during maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric knee extension. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 62(2):104-108
[70] Dufour SP, Lampert E, Doutreleau S, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Billat VL, Piquard F, Richard R(2004). Eccentric cycle exercise: training application of specific circulatory adjustments. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36(11):1900-1906
[71] Navalta JW, Sedlock DA, Park KS(2004). Physiological responses to downhill walking in older and younger individuals. J Exerc Physiol, 7(6):45-51
[72] Abbott BC, Bigland B, Ritchie JM(1952). The physiological cost of negative work. J Physiol, 117(3):280-390
[73] LaStayo PC, Larsen S, Smith S, Dibble L, Marcus R(2010). The feasibility and efficacy of eccentric exercise with older cancer survivors: A preliminary study. J Feriatr Phys Ther, 33(3):135-140
[74] Bigland-Ritchie B, Woods JJ(1976). Integrated electromyogram and oxygen uptake during positive and negative work. J Physiol, 260:267-277
[75] Byrne C, Twist C, Eston R(2004). Neuromuscular function after exercise-induced muscle damage: theoretical and applied implications. Sports Med, 34(1):49-69
[76] Faulkner JA, Brooks SV, Zebra E(1990). Skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue in old age: underlying mechanisms. Annu Rev Gerontol Geriatr, 10:147-166
[77] Hameed M, Toft AD, Pedersen BK, Harridge SDR, Goldspink F(2008). Effects of eccentric cycling exercise on IGF-I splice variant expression in the muscles of young and elderly people. J Med Sci Sports, 18:447-452
[78] Proske U, Morgan DL(2001). Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol, 537(2):333-345
[79] Allen DG(2001). Eccentric muscle damage: mechanisms of early reduction of force. Acta Physiol Scand, 171(3):311-319
[80] Clarkson PM, Nosaka K, Braun B(1992). Muscle function after exercise induced muscle damage and rapid adaptation. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 24(5):512-520
[81] Davies RC, Eston RG, Poole DC, Rowland AV, DiMenna F, Wilerson DP, Twist C, Jones AM(2008). Effect of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on the dynamic of muscle oxygenation and pulmonary oxygen uptake. J Appl Physiol, 105(5):1413-1421
[82] Clarkson PM, Tremblay I(1988). Exercise-induced muscle damage repair, and adaptations in humans. J Appl Physiol, 65(1):1-6
[83] Paddon-Jones D, Muthalib M, Jenkins D(2000). The effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on indices of muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. J Sci Med Sport, 3(1):35-43
[84] McArdle A, Dillmann WH, Mestril R, Faulkner JA, Jackson MJ(2004). Overexpression of HSP70 in mouse skeletal muscle protects against muscle damage and age-related muscle dysfunction. FASEB J, 18(2):355-357
[85] Gault ML, Clements RE, Willems MET(2011). Eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury does not change walking economy in older adults. J Hum Kinet, 27(1):55-65
[86] Chen TC, Nosaka K, Wu CC(2008). Effects of a 30-min running performed daily after downhill running on recovery of muscle function and running economy. J Sci Med Sport, 11:271-279
[87] Manfredi TG, Fielding RA, O’Reilly KP, Meredith CN, Young LH, Evans WJ(1991). Plasma creatine kinase activity and exercise-induced muscle damage in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 23:991-1117
[88] Roth SM, Martel GF, Ivey FM, Lemmer JT, tracy BL, Hurlbut DE, Metter EJ, Hurley BF, Rogers MA(1999). Ultrastructural muscle damage in young vs. older men after high-volume, heavy-resistance strength training. J Appl Physiol, 86:1833-1840
[89] Armstrong RB, Warren GL, Warren JA(1991). Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle fibre injury. Sports Med, 12(3):184-207
[90] Morgan DL, Allen DG(1999). Early event in stretch-induced muscle damage. J Appl Physiol, 87(6):2007-2015
[91] Warren GL, Ingallis CP, Lowe DA, Armstrong RB(2002). What mechanisms contribute to the strength loss that occurs during and in the recover from skeletal muscle injury?. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 32(2):58-64
[92] MacIntosh B, Gardiener P, McComas A(2006). Skeletal muscle: Form and functionLeedsHuman Kinetics
[93] Balnave CD, Allen DG(1995). Intracellular calcium and force in single mouse muscle fibres following repeated contractions with stretch. J Physiol, 488:25-36
[94] Lieber RL, Fridén J(1999). Mechanisms of muscle injury after eccentric contraction. J Sci Med Sport, 2(3):253-265
[95] Gibala MJ, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, Stauber WT, Elorriaga A(1995). Changes in human skeletal muscle ultrastructure and force production after acute resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol, 78(2):702-708
[96] Clarkson PM, Byrnes WC, Gillisson E, Harper E(1987). Adaptation to exercise-induced muscle damage. Clin Sci (Lond)73(4):383-386
[97] Howatson G, Van Someren K, Hotrobagyi T(2007). Repeated bout effect after maximal eccentric exercise. Int J Sports Med, 28(7):557-563
[98] McHugh MP(2003). Recent advances in the understanding of the repeated bout effect: the protective effect against muscle damage from a single bout of eccentric exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 13(2):88-97
[99] McHugh MP, Connolly DA, Eston RG, Gleim GW(1999). Exercise-induced muscle damage and potential mechanisms for the repeated bout effect. Sports Med, 27(3):157-170
[100] Potvin JR(1997). Effects of muscle kinematics on surface EMG amplitude during fatiguing dynamic contractions. J Appl Physiol, 82(1):144-151
[101] Enoka RM(1996). Eccentric contractions require unique activation strategies by the nervous system. J Appl Physiol, 81(6):2339-2346
[102] Moritani T, Muramatsu S, Muro M(1988). Activity of motor units during concentric and eccentric contractions. Am J Phys Med, 66:338-350
[103] Golden CL, Dudley GA(1992). Strength after bouts of eccentric or concentric actions. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 24:926-933
[104] Pierrynowski MR, Tüdus PM, Plyley MJ(1987). Effects of downhill or uphill training prior to a downhill run. Eur J Appl Physiol, 56:668-672
[105] Hortobagyi T, Barrier J, Beard D, Braspennincx J, Koens P, Devita P, Dempsey L, Lambert J(1996). Greater initial adaptations to submaximal muscle lengthening than maximal shortening. J Appl Physiol, 81:1677-1682
[106] Komi PV, Buskirk ER(1972). Effect of eccentric and concentric muscle conditioning on tension and electrical activity of human muscle. Ergonomics, 15:417-434
[107] Nosaka K, Clarkson PM(1995). Muscle damage following repeated bouts of high force eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc, 27(9):1263-1269
[108] Fridén J, Lieber RL(1992). Structural and mechanical basis of exercise-induced injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 24(5):521-30
[109] Lapier TK, Burton HW, Almon R, Cerny F(1995). Alterations in intramuscular connective tissue after limb casting affect contraction-induced muscle injury. J Appl Physiol, 75:1065-1069
[110] Kovanen V, Suominen H, Heikkinen E(1984). Mechanical properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle with special reference to collagen and training. J Biomech, 17(10):725-735
[111] Armstrong RB, Ogilvie RW, Schwane JA(1983). Eccentric exercise-induced injury to rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol, 54:80-93
[112] Fridén J, Sjöström M, Ekblom B(1983). Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man. Int J Sports Med, 4:170-176
[113] Morgan DL(1990). New insights into the behaviour of muscle during active lengthening. Biophys J, 57:209-221
[114] Lynn R, Morgan DL(1994). Decline running produces more sarcomeres in rat vastus intermedius muscle fibers than does incline running. J Appl Physiol, 77:1439-1444
[115] Melo RC, Quiterio RJ, Takahashi ACM, Silva E, Martins LEB, Catai AM(2008). High eccentric strength training reduces heart rate variability in healthy older men. Br J Sports Med, 42:59-63
[116] Symons TB, Vandervoort AA, Rice CL, Overend TJ, Marsh GD, Morley JE(2005). Effects of maximal isometric and isokinetic resistance training on strength and functional mobility in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 60(6):777-781
[117] Hortobagyi T, De Vita P(2000). Favourable neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses to 7 days of exercise with an eccentric overload in elderly women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 55(8):B401-10
[118] Roig M, O’Brien K, Kirk G, Murray R, McKinnon P, Shadgan B, Reid WD(2009). The effects of eccentric versus concentric resistance training on muscle strength and mass in healthy adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med, 43:556-568
[119] Reeves ND, Maganaris CN, Longo S, Narici MV(2009). Differential adaptations to eccentric versus conventional resistance training in older humans. Exp Physiol, 94(7):825-833
[120] Kawakami Y, Abe T, Fukunaga T(1993). Muscle-fiber pennation angles are greater in hypertrophied than in normal muscles. J Appl Physiol, 74:2740-2744
[121] Higbie EJ, Cureton KJ, Warren GL, Prior PM(1996). Effects of concentric and eccentric training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and neural activation. J Appl Physiol, 81:2173-2181
[122] Mueller M, Breil FA, Vog M, Steiner R, Lippuner K, Popp A, Klossner S, Hoppeler H, Dapp C(2009). Different response to eccentric and concentric training in older men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol, 107(2):145-153
[123] LaStayo PC, Reich TE, Urquhart M, Hoppeler H, Lindstedt SL(1999). Chronic eccentric exercise: improvement in muscle strength with little demand for oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol, 276:R611-R615
[124] Steiner R, Meyer K, Lippuner K, Schmid J-P, Saner H, Hoppeler H(2004). Eccentric endurance training in subjects with coronary artery disease: a novel exercise paradigm in cardiac rehabilitation?. Eur J Appl Physiol, 91:572-578
[125] LaStayo PC, Woolf JM, Lewek MD, Snyder-Mackler L, Reich T, Linstedt SL(2003). Eccentric muscle contractions: their contribution to injury, prevention, rehabilitation, and sport. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 33(10):557-571
[126] LaStayo P, Marcus RL, Dibble LE, Smith SB, Beck SL(2011). Eccentric exercise versus usual-care with older cancer surviviors: the impact on muscle and mobility- an exploratory pilot study. BMC Geriat, 11doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-11-5
[127] Marcus RL, LaStayo PC, Dibble LE, Hill L, McClain DA(2009). Increased strength and physical performance eccentric training in women with impaired glucose tolerance: A Pilot study. J Women Health, 18(2):253-260
[128] American College of Sports Medicine2000). Guideline for Exercise Testing and Prescription6th editionPhiladelphiaLippincott, Williams and Wilkins
[129] Mueller M, Breil FA, Lurman G, Klossner S, Fluck M, Billeter R, Dapp C, Hoppeler H(2011). Different molecular and structural adaptations with eccentric and conventional strength training in elderly men and women. Gerontology, 57(6):528-538
[1] Eduardo Lusa Cadore,Ronei Silveira Pinto,Martim Bottaro,Mikel Izquierdo. Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(3): 183-195.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © 2014 Aging and Disease, All Rights Reserved.
Address: Aging and Disease Editorial Office 3400 Camp Bowie Boulevard Fort Worth, TX76106 USA
Fax: (817) 735-0408 E-mail: editorial@aginganddisease.org
Powered by Beijing Magtech Co. Ltd