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Aging and Disease    2015, Vol. 6 Issue (4) : 282-299     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.002
Review Article |
Metabolic Risk Factors of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease: Implications in the Pathology, Pathogenesis and Treatment
Sasanka Chakrabarti1,*,Vineet Kumar Khemka1,Anindita Banerjee1,2,Gargi Chatterjee1,Anirban Ganguly1,Atanu Biswas3
1 Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India.
2 Department of Biochemistry, ICARE Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Haldia, India.
3 Department of Neuromedicine, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences (BIN), Kolkata, India.
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Abstract  

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the major cause of dementia among the elderly world-wide, manifests in familial and sporadic forms, and the latter variety accounts for the majority of the patients affected by this disease. The etiopathogenesis of sporadic AD is complex and uncertain. The autopsy studies of AD brain have provided limited understanding of the antemortem pathogenesis of the disease. Experimental AD research with transgenic animal or various cell based models has so far failed to explain the complex and varied spectrum of AD dementia. The review, therefore, emphasizes the importance of AD related risk factors, especially those with metabolic implications, identified from various epidemiological studies, in providing clues to the pathogenesis of this complex disorder. Several metabolic risk factors of AD like hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and type 2 diabetes have been studied extensively both in epidemiology and experimental research, while much less is known about the role of adipokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and vitamin D in this context. Moreover, the results from many of these studies have shown a degree of variability which has hindered our understanding of the role of AD related risk factors in the disease progression. The review also encompasses the recent recommendations regarding clinical and neuropathological diagnosis of AD and brings out the inherent uncertainty and ambiguity in this area which may have a distinct impact on the outcome of various population-based studies on AD-related risk factors.

Keywords Metabolic      risk factors      sporadic      Alzheimer's disease      pathogenesis      treatment     
Corresponding Authors: Sasanka Chakrabarti   
Issue Date: 01 August 2015
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Sasanka Chakrabarti
Vineet Kumar Khemka
Anindita Banerjee
Gargi Chatterjee
Anirban Ganguly
Atanu Biswas
Cite this article:   
Sasanka Chakrabarti,Vineet Kumar Khemka,Anindita Banerjee, et al. Metabolic Risk Factors of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease: Implications in the Pathology, Pathogenesis and Treatment[J]. A&D, 2015, 6(4): 282-299.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2014.002     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2015/V6/I4/282
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