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Aging and Disease    2014, Vol. 5 Issue (2) : 114-125     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.0500114
Vascular Hyperpermeability and Aging
Ryan Oakley, Binu Tharakan
Department of Surgery, Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine & Baylor Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, Texas, USA
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Vascular hyperpermeability, the excessive leakage of fluid and proteins from blood vessels to the interstitial space, commonly occurs in traumatic and ischemic injuries. This hyperpermeability causes tissue vasogenic edema, which often leads to multiple organ failure resulting in patient death. Vascular hyperpermeability occurs most readily in small blood vessels as their more delicate physical constitution makes them an easy target for barrier dysfunction. A single layer of endothelial cells, linked to one another by cell adhesion molecules, covers the interior surface of each blood vessel. The cell adhesion molecules play a key role in maintaining barrier functions like the regulation of permeability. Aging is a major risk factor for microvascular dysfunction and hyperpermeability. Apart from age-related remodeling of the vascular wall, endothelial barrier integrity and function declines with the advancement of age. Studies that address the physiological and molecular basis of vascular permeability regulation in aging are currently very limited. There have been many cellular and molecular mechanisms proposed to explain aging-related endothelial dysfunction but their true relationship to barrier dysfunction and hyperpermeability is not clearly known. Among the several mechanisms that promote vascular dysfunction and hyperpermeability, the following are considered major contributors: oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways. In this review we highlighted (a) the physiological, cellular and molecular changes that occur in the vascular system as a product of aging; (b) the potential mechanisms by which aging leads to barrier dysfunction and vascular hyperpermeability in the peripheral and the blood-brain barrier; (c) the mechanisms by which the age-related increases in oxidative stress, inflammatory markers and apoptotic signaling etc. cause endothelial dysfunction and their relationship to hyperpermeability; and (d) the relationship between aging, vascular permeability and traumatic injuries.

Keywords aging      vascular hyperpermeability      vascular endothelium      permeability regulation     
Corresponding Authors: Binu Tharakan   
Issue Date: 12 November 2014
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Ryan Oakley,Binu Tharakan. Vascular Hyperpermeability and Aging[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(2): 114-125.
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