Please wait a minute...
 Home  About the Journal Editorial Board Aims & Scope Peer Review Policy Subscription Contact us
 
Early Edition  //  Current Issue  //  Open Special Issues  //  Archives  //  Most Read  //  Most Downloaded  //  Most Cited
Aging and Disease    2014, Vol. 5 Issue (2) : 160-169     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.0500160
|
Gender Differences, Aging and Hormonal Status in Mucosal Injury and Repair
Irina Grishina, Anne Fenton, Sumathi Sankaran-Walters
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of CA, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Download: PDF(0 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Abstract  

As the “baby boomers” age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation.

Keywords aging      mucosal injury      gut mucosa      epithelial barrier function      microbial translocation      estradiol      hormones      menopause     
Corresponding Authors: Sumathi Sankaran-Walters   
Issue Date: 12 November 2014
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Irina Grishina
Anne Fenton
Sumathi Sankaran-Walters
Cite this article:   
Irina Grishina,Anne Fenton,Sumathi Sankaran-Walters. Gender Differences, Aging and Hormonal Status in Mucosal Injury and Repair[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(2): 160-169.
URL:  
http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2014.0500160     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2014/V5/I2/160
Figure 1.  H&E staining of the jejunum. Goblet cells, Enterocytes and Paneth cells contribute to innate immunity. Lymphocytes present in the lamina propria and intra-epithelial areas provide acquired immunity. Image was obtained at 60X magnification.
Figure 2.  Fluorescent immunohistochemical staining of jejunum tight junction proteins. (A). Goblet cell diameter is marked in yellow. Nucleus: Blue Dapi, Cell Membrane: Orange mask. Image was obtained at 100X oil immersion confocal microscope. (B and C) IHC demonstrating the expression of Tight junction proteins, occluding (red) and ZO1 (Green) in small intestinal tissue (60X).
Figure 3.  Collagen scaffold in small intestinal villus. Collagen is an important component of the connective tissue scaffold in the mucosa. Collagen I and III are demonstrated using histochemical staining in the jejunum (Collagen: red)
Figure 4.  Schematic of the proposed effects of aging and hormonal changes. Proposed mechanism of the loss of mucosal epithelial integrity and microbial translocation and the effects of hormonal changes associated with aging.
[1] Vincent GK, Velkoff VA(May 2010THE NEXT FOUR DECADESThe Older Population in the United States: 2010 to 2050. Population Estimates and Projections, 14 US Census Bureau
[2] Hussain A, Rivers PA(2009). Confronting the challenges of long-term health care crisis in the United States. J Health Care Finance, 36:71-82
[3] Waite LJ(1996). The demographic face of America’s elderly. Inquiry, 33:220-224
[4] Ultori C, Cimetti L, Stefanoni P, Pellegrini R, Rapazzini P, Capella C(2013). Merkel cell carcinoma in elderly: case report and review of the literature. Aging Clin Exp Res, 25:211-214
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-013-0020-2
[5] Taffet GE, Donohue JF, Altman PR(2014). Considerations for managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the elderly. Clin Interv Aging, 9:23-30
[6] Kwak HB(2013). Effects of aging and exercise training on apoptosis in the heart. J Exerc Rehabil, 9:212-219
http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.130002
[7] Britton E, McLaughlin JT(2013). Ageing and the gut. Proc Nutr Soc, 72:173-177
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665112002807
[8] Nair S, Ren J(2012). Autophagy and cardiovascular aging: lesson learned from rapamycin. Cell Cycle, 11:2092-2099
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.20317
[9] Taniguchi T, Tsuha S, Takayama Y, Shiiki S(2013). Shaking chills and high body temperature predict bacteremia especially among elderly patients. Springerplus, 2:624
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-624
[10] Heppner HJ, Cornel S, Peter W, Philipp B, Katrin S(2013). Infections in the elderly. Crit Care Clin, 29:757-774
http://118.145.16.217/magsci/article/article?id=19712530
[11] Becher A, Dent J(2011). Systematic review: ageing and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, oesophageal function and reflux oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 33:442-454
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04542.x
[12] Poh CH, Navarro-Rodriguez T, Fass R(2010). Review: treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the elderly. Am J Med, 123:496-501
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.07.036
[13] Sturdee DW, Panay N(2010). Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric, 13:509-522
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13697137.2010.522875
[14] Tran L, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B(2013). Age-associated remodeling of the intestinal epithelial barrier. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 68:1045-1056
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glt106
[15] Grossman C(1989). Possible underlying mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in the immune response, fact and hypothesis. J Steroid Biochem, 34:241-251
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4731(89)90088-5
[16] Olsen NJ, Kovacs WJ(1996). Gonadal steroids and immunity. Endocr Rev, 17:369-384
[17] Velders M, Schleipen B, Fritzemeier KH, Zierau O, Diel P(2012). Selective estrogen receptor-beta activation stimulates skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. FASEB J, 26:1909-1920
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.11-194779
[18] Bird MD, Karavitis J, Kovacs EJ(2008). Sex differences and estrogen modulation of the cellular immune response after injury. Cell Immunol, 252:57-67
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2007.09.007
[19] Buchanan DL, Kurita T, Taylor JA, Lubahn DB, Cunha GR, Cooke PS(1998). Role of stromal and epithelial estrogen receptors in vaginal epithelial proliferation, stratification, and cornification. Endocrinology, 139:4345-4352
[20] Hildebrand F, Hubbard WJ, Choudhry MA, Thobe BM, Pape HC, Chaudry IH(2006). Are the protective effects of 17beta-estradiol on splenic macrophages and splenocytes after trauma-hemorrhage mediated via estrogen-receptor (ER)-alpha or ER-beta?. J Leukoc Biol, 79:1173-1180
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0106029
[21] Kovats S, Carreras E(2008). Regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and function by estrogen receptor ligands. Cell Immunol, 252:81-90
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2007.10.008
[22] Seko K, Kagami H, Senga K, Ozeki K, Mizutani H, Ueda M(2005). Effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on rat oral mucosa. Maturitas, 50:44-51
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2004.03.015
[23] Degano B(1998). [The effect of estrogens on the permeability of the bronchial mucosa]. Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie, 125(Suppl 2):S21-22
[24] Diebel ME, Diebel LN, Liberati DM(2011). Gender dimorphism in the gut: mucosal protection by estrogen stimulation of IgA transcytosis. J Trauma, 71:474-479
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e318228239d
[25] Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR(2001). Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 86:724-731
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem.86.2.7219
[26] Morley JE, Kaiser FE, Perry HM3rd, Patrick P, Morley PM, Stauber PM(1997). Longitudinal changes in testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in healthy older men. Metabolism, 46:410-413
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0495(97)90057-3
[27] Fimmel S, Zouboulis CC(2005). Influence of physiological androgen levels on wound healing and immune status in men. Aging Male, 8:166-174
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13685530500233847
[28] Schroder J, Kahlke V, Staubach KH, Zabel P, Stuber F(1998). Gender differences in human sepsis. Arch Surg, 133:1200-1205
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.133.11.1200
[29] Gornstein RA, Lapp CA, Bustos-Valdes SM, Zamorano P(1999). Androgens modulate interleukin-6 production by gingival fibroblasts in vitro. J Periodontol, 70:604-609
http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.1999.70.6.604
[30] Messingham KA, Shirazi M, Duffner LA, Emanuele MA, Kovacs EJ(2001). Testosterone receptor blockade restores cellular immunity in male mice after burn injury. J Endocrinol, 169:299-308
http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1690299
[31] Macal M, Sankaran S, Chun TW, Reay E, Flamm J, Prindiville TJ(2008). Effective CD4+ T-cell restoration in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected patients is associated with enhanced Th17 cells and polyfunctional HIV-specific T-cell responses. Mucosal Immunol, 1:475-488
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mi.2008.35
[32] Ikuma M, Hanai H, Kaneko E, Hayashi H, Hoshi T(1996). Effects of aging on the microclimate pH of the rat jejunum. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1280:19-26
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2736(95)00261-8
[33] Choi SH, Kornegay ET, Eigel WN(1991). Characterization of small intestinal mucus glycoproteins from pigs of various ages. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology, 99:677-680
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(91)90149-7
[34] Holt PR, Yeh KY(1989). Small intestinal crypt cell proliferation rates are increased in senescent rats. J Gerontol, 44:B9-14
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/44.1.B9
[35] Viswanathan VK, Hecht G(2000). Innate immunity and the gut. Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 16:546-551
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001574-200011000-00015
[36] Balzan S, de Almeida Quadros C, de Cleva R, Zilberstein B, Cecconello I(2007). Bacterial translocation: overview of mechanisms and clinical impact. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 22:464-471
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.04933.x
[37] Aloi M, Cucchiara S(2009). Extradigestive manifestations of IBD in pediatrics. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 13(Suppl 1):23-32
[38] Inagaki-Ohara K, Sasaki A, Matsuzaki G, Ikeda T, Hotokezaka M, Chijiiwa K(2006). Suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 in lymphocytes regulates the development of intestinal inflammation in mice. Gut, 55:212-219
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2004.062653
[39] McGuckin MA, Eri R, Simms LA, Florin TH, Radford-Smith G(2009). Intestinal barrier dysfunction in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 15:100-113
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ibd.20539
[40] Marchiando AM, Graham WV, Turner JR(2010). Epithelial barriers in homeostasis and disease. Annu Rev Pathol, 5:119-144
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pathol.4.110807.092135
[41] Turner JR(2009). Intestinal mucosal barrier function in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol, 9:799-809
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri2653
[42] Tran L, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B(2013). Age-associated remodeling of the intestinal epithelial barrier. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 68:1045-1056
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glt106
[43] Song J, Wolf SE, Wu XW, Finnerty CC, Herndon DN, Jeschke MG(2011). Proximal gut mucosal epithelial homeostasis in aged IL-1 type I receptor knockout mice after starvation. The Journal of surgical research, 169:209-213
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2010.03.056
[44] Al-Sadi R, Ye D, Said HM, Ma TY(2011). Cellular and molecular mechanism of interleukin-1beta modulation of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. J Cell Mol Med, 15:970-982
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01065.x
[45] Newton JL(2004). Changes in upper gastrointestinal physiology with age. Mech Ageing Dev, 125:867-870
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2004.05.007
[46] Kang JM, Kim N, Kim JH, Oh E, Lee BY, Lee BH(2010). Effect of aging on gastric mucosal defense mechanisms: ROS, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and sensory neurons. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 299:G1147-1153
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00218.2010
[47] Bengmark S(1999). Gut microenvironment and immune function. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2:83-85
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00075197-199901000-00014
[48] Westermann J, Engelhardt B, Hoffmann JC(2001). Migration of T cells in vivo: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Ann Intern Med, 135:279-295
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-135-4-200108210-00013
[49] Frank JA(2012). Claudins and alveolar epithelial barrier function in the lung. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1257:175-183
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06533.x
[50] Iizuka M, Konno S Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells. World J Gastroenterol, 17:2161-2171
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v17.i17.2161
[51] Zhang JB, Du XG, Zhang H, Li ML, Xiao G, Wu J(2010). Breakdown of the gut barrier in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is attenuated by continuous blood purification: effects on tight junction structural proteins. Int J Artif Organs, 33:5-14
[52] Shen L, Su L, Turner JR(2009). Mechanisms and functional implications of intestinal barrier defects. Dig Dis, 27:443-449
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000233282
[53] Edelblum KL, Turner JR(2009). The tight junction in inflammatory disease: communication breakdown. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 9:715-720
http://118.145.16.217/magsci/article/article?id=15001043
[54] Burger HG, Hale GE, Robertson DM, Dennerstein L(2007). A review of hormonal changes during the menopausal transition: focus on findings from the Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project. Hum Reprod Update, 13:559-565
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmm020
[55] Arnal JF, Laurell H, Fontaine C, Billon A, Calippe B, Lenfant F(2009). Estrogen receptor actions on vascular biology and inflammation: implications in vascular pathophysiology. Climacteric, 12(Suppl 1):12-17
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13697130902820006
[56] Al-Azzawi F, Palacios S(2009). Hormonal changes during menopause. Maturitas, 63:135-137
http://118.145.16.217/magsci/article/article?id=15244449
[57] Wierman ME, Kohrt WM(2007). Vascular and metabolic effects of sex steroids: new insights into clinical trials. Reprod Sci, 14:300-314
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719107303673
[58] Braniste V, Jouault A, Gaultier E, Polizzi A, Buisson-Brenac C, Leveque M(2010). Impact of oral bisphenol A at reference doses on intestinal barrier function and sex differences after perinatal exposure in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107:448-453
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907697107
[59] Braniste V, Leveque M, Buisson-Brenac C, Bueno L, Fioramonti J, Houdeau E(2009). Oestradiol decreases colonic permeability through oestrogen receptor beta-mediated up-regulation of occludin and junctional adhesion molecule-A in epithelial cells. The Journal of physiology, 587:3317-3328
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2009.169300
[60] Cook MB, Wild CP, Forman D(2005). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the sex ratio for Barrett’s esophagus, erosive reflux disease, and nonerosive reflux disease. Am J Epidemiol, 162:1050-1061
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwi325
[61] Ford AC, Forman D, Reynolds PD, Cooper BT, Moayyedi P(2005). Ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status as risk factors for esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Epidemiol, 162:454-460
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwi218
[62] Lin M, Gerson LB, Lascar R, Davila M, Triadafilopoulos G(2004). Features of gastroesophageal reflux disease in women. Am J Gastroenterol, 99:1442-1447
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04147.x
[63] Masaka T, Iijima K, Endo H, Asanuma K, Ara N, Ishiyama F(2013). Gender differences in oesophageal mucosal injury in a reflux oesophagitis model of rats. Gut, 62:6-14
http://118.145.16.217/magsci/article/article?id=19881002
[64] Fox JG, Rogers AB, Ihrig M, Taylor NS, Whary MT, Dockray G(2003). Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice is gender specific. Cancer research, 63:942-950
[65] Houdeau E, Moriez R, Leveque M, Salvador-Cartier C, Waget A, Leng L(2007). Sex steroid regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in normal and inflamed colon in the female rat. Gastroenterology, 132:982-993
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2006.12.028
[66] Kruidenier L, van Meeteren ME, Kuiper I, Jaarsma D, Lamers CB, Zijlstra FJ(2003). Attenuated mild colonic inflammation and improved survival from severe DSS-colitis of transgenic Cu/Zn-SOD mice. Free Radic Biol Med, 34:753-765
http://118.145.16.217/magsci/article/article?id=14608750
[67] Ishiyama F, Iijima K, Asanuma K, Ara N, Yoshitake J, Abe Y(2009). Exogenous luminal nitric oxide exacerbates esophagus tissue damage in a reflux esophagitis model of rats. Scand J Gastroenterol, 44:527-537
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365520802699260
[68] Verdu EF, Deng Y, Bercik P, Collins SM(2002). Modulatory effects of estrogen in two murine models of experimental colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 283:G27-36
[69] Shenderov BA(2012). Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics. Microb Ecol Health Dis, 23
[70] Kang GH, Lee HJ, Hwang KS, Lee S, Kim JH, Kim JS(2003). Aberrant CpG island hypermethylation of chronic gastritis, in relation to aging, gender, intestinal metaplasia, and chronic inflammation. Am J Pathol, 163:1551-1556
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63511-0
[71] Mealey BL, Moritz AJ(2003). Hormonal influences: effects of diabetes mellitus and endogenous female sex steroid hormones on the periodontium. Periodontol, 2000). 32:59-81
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0906-6713.2002.03206.x
[72] Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj SV(2012). Effect of menopause on women’s periodontium. J Midlife Health, 3:5-9
[73] Gilliver SC, Ruckshanthi JP, Hardman MJ, Nakayama T, Ashcroft GS(2008). Sex dimorphism in wound healing: the roles of sex steroids and macrophage migration inhibitory factor. Endocrinology, 149:5747-5757
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2008-0355
[74] Campbell L, Emmerson E, Davies F, Gilliver SC, Krust A, Chambon P(2010). Estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing via estrogen receptor beta independent of its antiinflammatory activities. J Exp Med, 207:1825-1833
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20100500
[75] Gilliver SC, Emmerson E, Campbell L, Chambon P, Hardman MJ, Ashcroft GS(2010). 17beta-estradiol inhibits wound healing in male mice via estrogen receptor-alpha. Am J Pathol, 176:2707-2721
http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2010.090432
[76] Kumral ZN, Memi G, Ercan F, Yegen BC(2013). Estrogen Alleviates Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric or Colonic Damage via Both ERalpha- and ERbeta-Mediated and Direct Antioxidant Mechanisms in Rats. Inflammation, in press
[77] Tuo B, Wen G, Wei J, Liu X, Wang X, Zhang Y(2011). Estrogen regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion and sex-specific protection of human duodenum. Gastroenterology, 141:854-863
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.05.044
[78] Kurata JH, Honda GD, Frankl H(1985). The incidence of duodenal and gastric ulcers in a large health maintenance organization. Am J Public Health, 75:625-629
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.75.6.625
[79] Rosenstock SJ, Jorgensen T(1995). Prevalence and incidence of peptic ulcer disease in a Danish County--a prospective cohort study. Gut, 36:819-824
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.36.6.819
[80] Gilliver SC, Ruckshanthi JP, Hardman MJ, Zeef LA, Ashcroft GS(2009). 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) retards wound closure by inhibiting re-epithelialization. J Pathol, 217:73-82
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2444
[81] Engeland CG, Sabzehei B, Marucha PT(2009). Sex hormones and mucosal wound healing. Brain Behav Immun, 23:629-635
http://118.145.16.217/magsci/article/article?id=14929734
[82] Bouman A, Heineman MJ, Faas MM(2005). Sex hormones and the immune response in humans. Hum Reprod Update, 11:411-423
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmi008
[83] Kovacs EJ(2005). Aging, traumatic injury, and estrogen treatment. Exp Gerontol, 40:549-555
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2005.04.009
[84] Foxman B, Somsel P, Tallman P, Gillespie B, Raz R, Colodner R(2001). Urinary tract infection among women aged 40 to 65: behavioral and sexual risk factors. J Clin Epidemiol, 54:710-718
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00352-8
[85] Stamm WE, Raz R(1999). Factors contributing to susceptibility of postmenopausal women to recurrent urinary tract infections. Clin Infect Dis, 28:723-725
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/515209
[86] Luthje P, Linden Hirschberg A, Brauner A(2014). Estrogenic action on innate defense mechanisms in the urinary tract. Maturitas, 77:32-36
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.10.018
[87] Perrotta C, Aznar M, Mejia R, Albert X, Ng CW(2008). Oestrogens for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol, 112:689-690
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e318185f7a5
[88] Gorodeski GI(2005). Aging and estrogen effects on transcervical-transvaginal epithelial permeability. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 90:345-351
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2004-1223
[89] Aroutcheva A, Gariti D, Simon M, Shott S, Faro J, Simoes JA(2001). Defense factors of vaginal lactobacilli. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 185:375-379
http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mob.2001.115867
[90] Baldassarre M, Giannone FA, Foschini MP, Battaglia C, Busacchi P, Venturoli S(2013). Effects of long-term high dose testosterone administration on vaginal epithelium structure and estrogen receptor-alpha and - beta expression of young women. Int J Impot Res, 25:172-177
http://118.145.16.217/magsci/article/article?id=19945012
[91] Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Fennell CL, Stamm WE(1998). Inverse association of H2O2-producing lactobacilli and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Infect Dis, 178:446-450
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/515635
[92] Gillum RF(2005). Frequency of attendance at religious services and cigarette smoking in American women and men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prev Med, 41:607-613
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.12.006
[93] Tam TW, Akhtar H, Arnason JT, Cvijovic K, Boon H, Cameron DW(2011). Inhibition of human cytochrome p450 metabolism by blended herbal products and vitamins. J Pharm Pharm Sci, 14:1-16
[94] Kerem E, Reisman J, Corey M, Canny GJ, Levison H(1992). Prediction of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. N Engl J Med, 326:1187-1191
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199204303261804
[95] Choi SM, Seo MJ, Lee YG, Lee MJ, Jeon HJ, Kang KK(2009). Effects of DA-6034, a flavonoid derivative, on mucin-like glycoprotein and ocular surface integrity in a rabbit model. Arzneimittelforschung, 59:498-503
[96] Johannesson M, Ludviksdottir D, Janson C(2000). Lung function changes in relation to menstrual cycle in females with cystic fibrosis. Respir Med, 94:1043-1046
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/rmed.2000.0891
[1] Alexandra Moura,José Madureira,Pablo Alija,João Carlos Fernandes,José Gerardo Oliveira,Martin Lopez,Madalena Filgueiras,Leonilde Amado,Maria Sameiro-Faria,Vasco Miranda,Alice Santos-Silva,Elísio Costa. Effect of Aging in the Perception of Health-Related Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Online-Hemodiafiltration[J]. Aging and Disease, 2015, 6(1): 17-26.
[2] Amanda Piano,Vladimir I. Titorenko. The Intricate Interplay between Mechanisms Underlying Aging and Cancer[J]. Aging and Disease, 2015, 6(1): 56-75.
[3] Kunlin Jin,James W. Simpkins,Xunming Ji,Miriam Leis,Ilia Stambler. The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population[J]. Aging and Disease, 2015, 6(1): 1-5.
[4] Shinichi Iwasaki,Tatsuya Yamasoba. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System[J]. Aging and Disease, 2015, 6(1): 38-47.
[5] Baugé Catherine,Girard Nicolas,Lhuissier Eva,Bazille Celine,Boumediene Karim. Regulation and Role of TGFβ Signaling Pathway in Aging and Osteoarthritis Joints[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(6): 394-405.
[6] Juliane Schulze,Antje Vogelgesang,Alexander Dressel. Catecholamines, Steroids and Immune Alterations in Ischemic Stroke and Other Acute Diseases[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(5): 327-339.
[7] David Blokh,Ilia Stambler. Estimation of Heterogeneity in Diagnostic Parameters of Age-related Diseases[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(4): 218-225.
[8] Olaoluwa O Okusaga. Accelerated Aging in Schizophrenia Patients: The Potential Role of Oxidative Stress[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(4): 256-262.
[9] Shaohua Xu,Ying Cai,Yuehua Wei. mTOR Signaling from Cellular Senescence to Organismal Aging[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(4): 263-273.
[10] Alejandro Lucas-Sánchez,Pedro Francisco Almaida-Pagán,Pilar Mendiola,Jorge de Costa. Nothobranchius as a model for aging studies. A review[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(4): 281-291.
[11] Chandan Prasad,Victorine Imrhan,Francesco Marotta,Shanil Juma,Parakat Vijayagopal. Lifestyle and Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Burden: Its Relevance to Healthy Aging[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(3): 212-217.
[12] Ninu Poulose,Raghavan Raju. Aging and Injury: Alterations in Cellular Energetics and Organ Function[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(2): 101-108.
[13] Peter M Nilsson. Hemodynamic Aging as the Consequence of Structural Changes Associated with Early Vascular Aging (EVA)[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(2): 109-113.
[14] Ryan Oakley,Binu Tharakan. Vascular Hyperpermeability and Aging[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(2): 114-125.
[15] Marlene E Starr,Hiroshi Saito. Sepsis in Old Age: Review of Human and Animal Studies[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(2): 126-136.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © 2014 Aging and Disease, All Rights Reserved.
Address: Aging and Disease Editorial Office 3400 Camp Bowie Boulevard Fort Worth, TX76106 USA
Fax: (817) 735-0408 E-mail: editorial@aginganddisease.org
Powered by Beijing Magtech Co. Ltd