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Aging and Disease    2014, Vol. 5 Issue (3) : 183-195     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.0500183
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Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly
Eduardo Lusa Cadore1, 2, 3, *, Ronei Silveira Pinto3, Martim Bottaro2, Mikel Izquierdo1
1Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarre, Navarre, Spain
2College of Physical Education, University of Brasília, DF, Brazil
3Exercise Research Laboratory, Physical Education School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
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Abstract  

Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability.

Keywords resistance training      frailty      power output      functional outcomes      aerobic capacity     
Corresponding Authors: Eduardo Lusa Cadore   
Issue Date: 10 May 2014
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Eduardo Lusa Cadore
Ronei Silveira Pinto
Martim Bottaro
Mikel Izquierdo
Cite this article:   
Eduardo Lusa Cadore,Ronei Silveira Pinto,Martim Bottaro, et al. Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly[J]. Aging and Disease, 2014, 5(3): 183-195.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2014.0500183     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2014/V5/I3/183
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