Aging is a normal physiological process accompanied by cognitive decline. This aging process has been the primary risk factor for development of aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive deficit is related to alterations of neurotrophic factors level such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These strong relationship between aging and AD is important to investigate the time which they overlap, as well as, the pathophysiological mechanism in each event. Considering that aging and AD are related to cognitive impairment, here we discuss the involving these neurotrophic factors in the aging process and AD.
Figure 1. BDNF or pro-BDNF receptor. The BDNF binds to TrkB receptor and this interaction induces the activation of pathway signaling to culminate in cell survival. When the pro-BDNF binds p75NTR can lead to apoptosis. Abbreviations: BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; p75NTR, p75 neurotrophin receptor.
Figure 2. NGF or pro-NGF receptor. The NGF binds to TrkA receptor and this interaction induces the activation of pathway signaling to culminate in cell survival. When the pro-NGF binds p75NTR can lead to apoptosis. Abbreviations: NGF, nerve growth factor; p75NTR, p75 neurotrophin receptor.
Figure 3. GDNF receptor. The GDNF binds to a multi-component receptor complex compound by GFR α1 and RET inducing cell survival. Abbreviations: GDNF, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor; GFRα1, GDNF receptor alpha1; RET, signaling component rearranged during transfection.
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