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Aging and disease    2016, Vol. 7 Issue (2) : 201-214     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.1007
Review Article |
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Rationale for Bioenergetics Based Therapies
Onyango Isaac G.*, Dennis Jameel, Khan Shaharyah M.
Gencia Biotechnology, 706 B Forest St, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
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Abstract  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of cholinergic neurons, leading to the onset of severe behavioral, motor and cognitive impairments. It is a pressing public health problem with no effective treatment. Existing therapies only provide symptomatic relief without being able to prevent, stop or reverse the pathologic process. While the molecular basis underlying this multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder remains a significant challenge, mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is therefore important to target mitochondrial dysfunction in the prodromal phase of AD to slow or prevent the neurodegenerative process and restore neuronal function. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of action and translational potential of current mitochondrial and bioenergetic therapeutics for AD including: mitochondrial enhancers to potentiate energy production; antioxidants to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce oxidative damage; glucose metabolism and substrate supply; and candidates that target apoptotic and mitophagy pathways to remove damaged mitochondria. While mitochondrial therapeutic strategies have shown promise at the preclinical stage, there has been little progress in clinical trials thus far.

Keywords Alzheimer’s disease      mitochondria      mitophagy      oxidative stress      neuroinflammation      mitochondrial biogenesis      neuroinflammation     
Corresponding Authors: Onyango Isaac G.   
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These authors equally contribute this work

Issue Date: 01 April 2016
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Onyango Isaac G.
Dennis Jameel
Khan Shaharyah M.
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Onyango Isaac G.,Dennis Jameel,Khan Shaharyah M.. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Rationale for Bioenergetics Based Therapies[J]. Aging and disease, 2016, 7(2): 201-214.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2015.1007     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2016/V7/I2/201
Figure 1.  Factors regulating mitochondrial function in AD. In AD, neuronal injury, inflammation and aging may impair mitochondrial function by inducing fission, increasing ∆ψm and ROS production leading to decreased ATP production. Mitochondrial function may be improved by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis through caloric restriction and exercise. Damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria can be selectively eliminated by mitophagy.
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