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Aging and disease    2016, Vol. 7 Issue (6) : 687-690     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2016.0402
Short Communications |
Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in Stroke Patients
Gu Yingying, Zhao Kai, Luan Xiaoqian, Liu Zhihua, Cai Yan, Wang Qiongzhang, Zhu Beilei*, He Jincai*
Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejinag, China
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Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD. Serum magnesium levels were evaluated using the dimethyl aniline blue colorimetric method at admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Further, 120 normal subjects were recruited, and their serum magnesium levels were also measured as control. At 3 months, fifty-nine patients (28.2%) were diagnosed as PSD. The serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in both PSD patients and non-PSD patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Indeed, patients with PSD showed lower serum magnesium levels (p < 0.001) than did non-PSD patients at admission. In the multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential variables, we found that an increased risk of PSD was associated with serum magnesium levels ≤ 0.84mmol/L (OR 2.614, 95% CI 1.178-5.798, p=0.018). Low serum magnesium levels at admission were found to be associated with the presence of PSD at 3 months after stroke.

Keywords magnesium      depression      stroke      biochemical marker     
Corresponding Authors: Zhu Beilei,He Jincai   
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These authors contributed equally to this work

Issue Date: 01 December 2016
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Gu Yingying
Zhao Kai
Luan Xiaoqian
Liu Zhihua
Cai Yan
Wang Qiongzhang
Zhu Beilei
He Jincai
Cite this article:   
Gu Yingying,Zhao Kai,Luan Xiaoqian, et al. Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in Stroke Patients[J]. Aging and disease, 2016, 7(6): 687-690.
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Non-PSD (n = 150)PSD (n = 59)Control (n = 120)
Demographic characteristics
Age (years), mean ± SD60.41±10.6362.39 ± 9.6659.47 ± 9.35
Female (%)39(26.0)30 (50.8)b d39 (32.5)
BMI (kgm-2), mean ± SD24.00±3.1324.69 ± 3.32
Education (years), median (IQR)5(1-7)3 (0-7)
Vascular risk factors (%)
  Hypertension139(92.7)54 (91.5)
  Diabetes mellitus41(27.3)29 (49.2)b
  Hyperlipidaemia72(48.0)33 (55.9)
  Coronary heart disease4(2.7)4 (6.8)
  History of stroke15(10.0)8 (13.6)
  Current smoking57(38.3)15 (27.8)
  Alcohol consumption61(41.5)15 (27.8)
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean ± SD157.12±22.78160.63 ± 22.52
  Diastolic blood pressure(mmHg), mean ± SD86.90±13.3784.31 ± 12.17
Lesion location
  Frontal lobe33 (22.0)11 (18.6)
  Parietal lobe29 (19.3)13 (22.0)
  Temporal lobe17 (11.3)8 (13.6)
  Occipital lobe20 (13.3)7 (11.9)
  Basal ganglia62 (41.3)27 (45.8)
  Brainstem23 (15.3)11 (18.6)
  Cerebellum7 (4.7)4 (6.8)
  Other78 (52.0)30 (50.8)
Neuropsychological function
  NIHSS at admission, median (IQR)3 (1-4)3.5 (2-6)b
mRS at discharge, median (IQR)1 (1-2)2 (1-3)b
Mg2+ (mmolL-1), median (IQR)0.88 (0.84 - 0.94)d0.84 (0.77-0.87)ac0.96 (0.84 - 1.07)
Mg2+ (mmolL-1), mean ± SD0.89 ± 0.10d0.83 ± 0.09ac0.94 ± 0.13
Table 1  Baseline clinical characteristics in patients with and without post-stroke depression at 3-months.
Non-PSD (n=150)PSD (n=59)p
Mg2+ category, n (% of total population)0.013
  Low tertile (≤0.84mmol/L)45(30.0%)30(50.8%)0.005
  Intermediate tertile (0.85-0.89 mmol/L)59(39.3%)19(32.2)0.337
  High tertile (≥0.90mmol/L)46(30.7%)10(16.9%)0.044
Table 2  Magnesium levels tertiles of patients
VariablesOR (95% CI)p
  Low tertile2.614 (1.178-5.798)0.018
  High tertile0.579 (0.225-1.494)0.259
sex3.447 (1.702-6.981)0.001
NIHSS on admission1.151 (0.969-1.369)0.110
mRS at discharge1.534 (1.033-2.278)0.34
DM1.495 (0.734-3.044)0.267
Table 3  Multivariate logistic model of the clinical determinants of PSD
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