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Aging and disease    2016, Vol. 7 Issue (6) : 697-704     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2016.0504
Original Article |
Effects of Different Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Frequencies on Muscle Power and Muscle Quality in Trained Elderly Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Ferrari Rodrigo1,2,3, Fuchs Sandra C.1, Kruel Luiz Fernando Martins3, Cadore Eduardo Lusa3, Alberton Cristine Lima3, Pinto Ronei Silveira3, Radaelli Régis3, Schoenell Maira3, Izquierdo Mikel4, Tanaka Hirofumi5, Umpierre Daniel1,2
1Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2Exercise Pathophysiology Research Laboratory, Cardiovascular Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
3Exercise Laboratory Research, Physical Education School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
4Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarre, Navarre, Spain
5Cardiovascular Aging Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA
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Abstract  

Muscle power is a strong predictor of functional status in the elderly population and is required to perform different daily activities. To compare the effects of different weekly training frequencies on muscle power and muscle quality induced by concurrent training (resistance + aerobic) in previously trained elderly men. Twenty-four trained elderly men (65 ± 4 years), previously engaged in a regular concurrent training program, three times per week, for the previous five months, were randomly allocated to concurrent training programs in which training was performed either twice a week (2·week-1, n = 12) or three times per week (3·week-1, n = 12). The groups trained with an identical exercise intensity and volume per session for 10 weeks. Before and after the exercise training, we examined muscle power, as estimated by countermovement jump height; knee extensor isokinetic peak torque at 60 and 180o.s-1; and muscle quality, a quotient between the one-repetition maximum of the knee extensors and the sum of quadriceps femoris muscle thickness determined by ultrasonography. Additionally, as secondary outcomes, blood pressure and reactive hyperemia were evaluated. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were used and statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. Muscular power (2·week-1: 7%, and 3·week-1: 10%) and muscle quality (2·week-1: 15%, and 3·week-1: 8%) improved with the concurrent exercise training (p < 0.001) but with no differences between groups. The isokinetic peak torque at 60 (2·week-1: 4%, and 3·week-1: 2%) and 180o.s-1 (2·week-1: 7%, and 3·week-1: 1%) increased in both groups (p = 0.036 and p=0.014, respectively). There were no changes in blood pressure or reactive hyperemia with the concurrent training. Concurrent training performed twice a week promotes similar adaptations in muscular power and muscle quality when compared with the same program performed three times per week in previously trained elderly men.

Keywords Exercise      combined training      resistance training      aerobic training      aging      functional outcomes     
Corresponding Authors: Ferrari Rodrigo   
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The authors contributed equally to this work.

Issue Date: 01 December 2016
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Ferrari Rodrigo
Fuchs Sandra C.
Kruel Luiz Fernando Martins
Cadore Eduardo Lusa
Alberton Cristine Lima
Pinto Ronei Silveira
Radaelli Régis
Schoenell Maira
Izquierdo Mikel
Tanaka Hirofumi
Umpierre Daniel
Cite this article:   
Ferrari Rodrigo,Fuchs Sandra C.,Kruel Luiz Fernando Martins, et al. Effects of Different Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Frequencies on Muscle Power and Muscle Quality in Trained Elderly Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial[J]. Aging and disease, 2016, 7(6): 697-704.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2016.0504     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2016/V7/I6/697
2·week-1 (n=11)3·week-1 (n=12)

Pre-trainingPost-trainingPre-trainingPost-training
Age, y63.2 ± 2.2-65.7 ± 5.7-
Height, m1.75 ± 0.6-1.69 ± 0.3-
Body mass, kg81.4 ± 10.580.9 ± 10.276.1 ± 6.375.9 ± 7.6
Body fat, %27.8 ± 2.525.8 ± 3.726.2 ± 2.925.2 ± 2.6
VO2peak, ml.kg.min-122.3 ± 4.727.2 ± 4.5*25.8 ± 4.929.4 ± 5.4*
Anti-hypertensive Medications (n)6655
Table 1  Characteristics of the participants [mean ±SD or absolute frequency]
Knee extensorsElbow flexors

2/week3/weekP value2/week3/weekP value
Mesocycle 156.6 ± 12.754.1 ± 9.70.6017.1 ± 2.516.5 ± 3.00.62
Mesocycle 265.2 ± 13.265.2 ± 10.50.9919.3 ± 2.918.1 ± 3.10.36
Mesocycle 376.2 ± 15.175.6 ± 10.60.9122.3 ± 3.220.7 ± 3.40.27
Table 2  Load lifted per day (kg) during the resistance training sessions in each mesocycle in the periodized resistance training
Figure 1.  Changes in Muscle Quality (MQ) (A) and Countermovement jump (CMJ) height (B) with concurrent exercise training. Resistance-aerobic twice a week group (2·week-1) and resistance-aerobic three times a week group (3·week-1). Values are means ± SEM. * P<0.05 vs. Pre.
2·week-1 (n=11)3·week-1 (n=12)

Pre-trainingPost-trainingPre-trainingPost-training
FBF, ml.100ml-1.min-13.2 ± 0.52.7 ± 0.8*3.4 ± 0.63.0 ± 0.7*
FVR, U29.8 ± 5.135.6 ± 7.7*28.9 ± 7.833.9 ± 7.3*
RH, ml.100ml-1.min-110.6 ± 1.69.7 ± 3.210.5 ± 2.410.7 ± 2.9
Systolic BP, mm Hg123 ± 18123 ± 15132 ± 17137 ± 14
Diastolic BP, mm Hg75 ± 976 ± 973 ± 1076 ± 9
Mean BP, mm Hg91 ± 1092 ± 1192 ± 1195 ± 10
Table 3  Forearm hemodynamics and blood pressure with concurrent training.
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