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Aging and disease    2017, Vol. 8 Issue (1) : 101-114     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2016.0522
Original Article |
LW-AFC Effects on N-glycan Profile in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 Strain, a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Wang Jianhui1,2, Cheng Xiaorui1,2,*, Zeng Ju1,2, Yuan Jiangbei3, Wang Zhongfu3, Zhou Wenxia1,2,*, Zhang Yongxiang1,2
1Department of TCM and Neuroimmunopharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China
2State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing 100850, China
3Educational Ministry Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Life Sciences College, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China
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Abstract  

Glycosylation is one of the most common eukaryotic post-translational modifications, and aberrant glycosylation has been linked to many diseases. However, glycosylation and glycome analysis is a significantly challenging task. Although several lines of evidence have indicated that protein glycosylation is defective in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), only a few studies have focused on AD glycomics. The etiology of AD is unclear and there are no effective disease-modifying treatments for AD. In this study, we found that the object recognition memory, passive avoidance, and spatial learning and memory of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain, an AD animal model, were deficient, and LW-AFC, which was prepared from the traditional Chinese medicine prescription Liuwei Dihuang decoction, showed beneficial effects on the deterioration of cognitive capability in SAMP8 mice. Forty-three and 56 N-glycan were identified in the cerebral cortex and serum of SAMP8 mice, respectively. The N-glycan profile in SAMP8 mice was significantly different from that of senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strains, the control of SAMP8 mice. Treatment with LW-AFC modulated the abundance of 21 and 6 N-glycan in the cerebral cortex and serum of SAMP8 mice, respectively. The abundance of (Hex)3(HexNAc)5(Fuc)1(Neu5Ac)1 and (Hex)2(HexNAc)4 decreased in the cerebral cortex and serum of SAMP8 mice compared with SAMR1 mice, decreases that were significantly correlated with learning and memory measures. The administration of LW-AFC could reverse or increase these levels in SAMP8 mice. These results indicated that the effects of LW-AFC on cognitive impairments in SAMP8 mice might be through modulation of N-glycan patterns, and LW-AFC may be a potential anti-AD agent.

Keywords LW-AFC      traditional Chinese medicine      glycome      senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 strain      Alzheimer’s disease     
Corresponding Authors: Cheng Xiaorui,Zhou Wenxia   
About author:

Co-first author, these two authors contributed equally to this work.

Issue Date: 01 February 2017
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Wang Jianhui
Cheng Xiaorui
Zeng Ju
Yuan Jiangbei
Wang Zhongfu
Zhou Wenxia
Zhang Yongxiang
Cite this article:   
Wang Jianhui,Cheng Xiaorui,Zeng Ju, et al. LW-AFC Effects on N-glycan Profile in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 Strain, a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2017, 8(1): 101-114.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2016.0522     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2017/V8/I1/101
Figure 1.  The treatment of LW-AFC ameliorated cognitive deterioration of SAMP8 mice. The discrimination index (A) in the object recognition memory test. The latency in the short-term (B) and long term (C) passive avoidance test respectively in step-down test. The escape latency (D) in Morris water maze test. The time in the target quadrant (E) and the number of crossing platform (F) in the probe trial of Morris water maze test. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001, comparing with SAMR1 mice. #p < 0.05, ###p < 0.001, comparing with SAMP8 mice. Mean or mean ± S.D., n=3, Student’s t-test.
No.Observed mass(m/z)TypeProposed compositionRelative abundance in SAMR1groupRelative abundance in SAMP8 groupRelative abundance in SAMP8+LW-AFC group
11013.25[M+Na]+(Hex)67.65±13.24undetectable16.26±14.09
21079.33[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)2(Fuc)110.88±18.84undetectable10.95±18.97
31095.33[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)2undetectableundetectable4.86±8.42
41136.42[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)3undetectable12.99±22.4910.11±17.52
51175.33[M+Na]+(Hex)7undetectableundetectable7.30±12.65
61257.42[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)2127.72±56.6374.41±17.89146.88±47.49
71273.25[M+K]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)225.72±22.29undetectable29.15±13.14
81298.42[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)311.09±19.2011.36±19.68undetectable
91337.33[M+Na]+(Hex)8undetectableundetectable14.68±14.15
101339.33[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)410.14±17.56undetectable4.29±7.44
111419.33[M+Na]+(Hex)6(HexNAc)250.61±18.6714.22±24.6454.64±20.40
121435.42[M+K]+(Hex)6(HexNAc)2undetectableundetectable10.38±17.99
131444.50[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)3(Fuc)1undetectable13.88±24.04undetectable
141460.17[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)3undetectableundetectable4.15±7.18
151485.42[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)4(Fuc)132.70±5.8712.04±20.866.77±11.73
161501.42[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)4undetectable11.04±19.12undetectable
171581.42[M+Na]+(Hex)7(HexNAc)228.42±7.769.34±16.1828.58±9.66
181647.50[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)4(Fuc)117.51±15.509.83±17.037.33±12.69
191663.33[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)48.06±13.97undetectable7.89±13.67
201688.50[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)5(Fuc)130.02±6.3423.39±20.3116.62±16.84
211743.58[M+Na]+(Hex)8(HexNAc)221.40±20.30undetectable22.37±19.43
221809.50[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Fuc)1undetectableundetectable3.56±6.16
231905.58[M+Na]+(Hex)8(HexNAc)218.10±15.908.17±14.1521.80±7.98
241931.25[M+H]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Ac)17.13±12.357.13±12.35undetectable
25951.25[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)324.89±21.74undetectableundetectable
261031.25[M-H]-(Hex)5(HexNAc)112.25±21.2374.61±98.0914.80±25.64
271072.25[M-H]-(Hex)4(HexNAc)294.92±19.2039.98±35.23106.49±33.32
281126.17[M-2H]2-(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)243.35±5.1731.62±27.5566.33±34.43
291154.33[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)432.17±28.32undetectable25.84±44.75
301193.25[M-H]-(Hex)6(HexNAc)1undetectable46.49±80.53undetectable
311234.33[M-H]-(Hex)5(HexNAc)2undetectableundetectable38.34±35.22
321331.25[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)2(Fuc)2(Neu5Ac)199.76±15.5049.15±49.66100.26±54.13
331396.33[M-H]-(Hex)6(HexNAc)2undetectableundetectable51.89±7.59
341420.17[M-H]-(Hex)4(HexNAc)3(Fuc)1undetectable12.29±21.2817.07±29.57
351475.17[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)2(Fuc)1(Neu5Ac)252.37±5.9614.01±24.2733.73±30.02
361493.25[M-H]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)2(Fuc)2(Neu5Ac)119.85±34.3744.43±6.9572.83±27.07
371559.25[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)662.39±4.1832.95±30.0229.41±50.93
381655.08[M-H]-(Hex)4(HexNAc)2(Fuc)2(Neu5Ac)161.86±6.3224.18±21.1740.48±39.45
391721.25[M-H]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)626.91±23.3219.03±18.3318.57±32.17
401762.25[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)756.02±4.7536.83±3.67**29.76±26.05
411817.08[M-H]-(Hex)5(HexNAc)2(Fuc)2(Neu5Ac)161.43±3.9135.11±7.83**57.42±20.29
421905.50[M-H]-(Hex)6(HexNAc)3(Neu5Gc)111.22±19.43undetectableundetectable
431979.33[M-2H+Na]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)5(Fuc)1(Neu5Ac)169.68±7.5233.75±2.30**60.87±20.82#
Table 1  The effect of LW-AFC on N-glycan profile in the cerebral cortex of SAMP8 mice
Figure 2.  The effect of LW-AFC on N-glycan in the cerebral cortex of SAMP8 mice. **p<0.01, comparing with SAMR1 mice. #p<0.05, comparing with SAMP8 mice. Mean ± S.D., n=3, Student’s t-test.
Figure 3.  Correlation between relative abundance of (Hex)3(HexNAc)5(Fuc)1(Neu5Ac)1 in cerebral cortex and ability of learning and memory of SAM mice. n=8-9, two-tailed Pearson analysis, confidence interval 95%.
NoObserved mass (m/z)TypeProposed compositionRelative abundance in SAMR1groupRelative abundance in SAMP8 groupRelative abundance in SAMP8+LW-AFC group
1933.33[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)2undetectable7.04±12.19undetectable
2996.75[M+2Na]2+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)1undetectable28.90±26.3237.75±4.03
31095.33[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)26.30±10.9015.68±5.486.86±11.87
41136.42[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)3undetectable23.96±3.3026.46±3.28
51150.67[M+2Na]2+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)217.44±17.0916.10±14.2129.05±6.92
61153.17[M+2Na]2+(Hex)4(HexNAc)5(Neu5Ac)261.19±17.0326.26±23.4740.84±1.76
71176.17[M+2Na]2+(Hex)3(HexNAc)6(Fuc)2(NeuAc)138.48±34.46undetectableundetectable
81257.42[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)246.49±8.7946.27±8.7756.65±5.40
91298.42[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)349.74±15.6245.20±7.8750.10±4.63
101339.33[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)4undetectable5.28±9.15undetectable
111419.33[M+Na]+(Hex)6(HexNAc)231.77±27.6145.25±6.7256.32±3.73
121460.17[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)345.45±12.4219.22±18.8834.72±0.70
131485.42[M+Na]+(Hex)3(HexNAc)4(Fuc)181.39±20.2338.55±34.0864.20±7.39
141501.42[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)4undetectable17.91±15.90undetectable
151518.17[M+H]+(Hex)8(HexNAc)155.06±16.9026.38±10.0821.88±18.97
161565.08[M+Na]+(Hex)6(HexNAc)2(Fuc)16.02±10.423.72±6.443.69±6.40
171581.42[M+Na]+(Hex)7(HexNAc)2undetectable13.04±2.4910.44±9.04
181605.25[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)3(Neu5Gc)124.90±8.6418.99±5.9122.95±2.36
191622.42[M+Na]+(Hex)6(HexNAc)3undetectable4.86±8.41undetectable
201647.5[M+Na]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)4(Fuc)196.53±22.5764.58±20.9483.08±5.96
211663.33[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)459.67±52.9983.38±15.3690.29±7.08
221679.33[M+K]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)48.47±7.6910.21±8.8615.71±1.67
231727.17[M+Na]+(Hex)7(HexNAc)2(Fuc)115.11±13.227.45±6.7311.26±1.17
241743.58[M+Na]+(Hex)8(HexNAc)24.47±7.7511.86±1.9414.03±0.28
251767.25[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)3(Neu5Gc)125.39±8.5415.53±5.7018.03±0.88
261783.25[M+K]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)3(Neu5Gc)15.60±9.69undetectableundetectable
271809.5[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Fuc)139.45±11.4026.14±6.9420.95±18.16
281825.25[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Fuc)139.23±11.0520.37±7.72*24.47±1.78
291885.33[M+H]+(Hex)4(HexNAc)622.17±6.1310.78±4.5613.77±0.50
301905.58[M+Na]+(Hex)8(HexNAc)28.91±8.477.33±6.394.80±8.32
311970.33[M+Na]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)167.45±27.0762.19±20.7370.39±11.18
321986.33[M+K]+(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)1152.52±56.6772.77±39.7790.35±1.85
33951.25[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)34.96±0.931.23±2.123.54±1.15
341075.67[M-4H+2Na]2-(Hex)3(HexNAc)6(Neu5Gc)1S18.43±9.4210.04±2.546.31±5.47
351126.17[M-2H]2-(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)241.86±19.0026.77±9.1332.75±7.60
361154.33[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)47.43±1.094.75±0.85*6.99±0.30#
371199.67[M-2H]2-(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Fuc)1(Neu5Gc)27.04±2.272.80±2.423.27±2.83
381234.33[M-H]-(Hex)5(HexNAc)2undetectable1.22±2.113.21±2.78
391258.08[M-H]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)3(Fuc)114.94±5.647.02±1.15*9.37±4.52
401309.17[M-2H]2-(Hex)6(HexNAc)5(Neu5Gc)240.73±23.56undetectable25.63±16.28
411316.25[M-H]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)410.93±2.935.63±4.895.74±4.97
421401.17[M-2H]2-(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Ac)415.02±5.236.11±5.347.88±7.23
431420.17[M-H]-(Hex)4(HexNAc)3(Fuc)1undetectable3.68±6.3712.46±2.49
441462.67[M-2H]2-(Hex)6(HexNAc)5(Neu5Gc)313.58±6.664.83±4.234.95±4.29
451497.25[M-2H+Na]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)2(Fuc)1(Neu5Ac)22.93±5.07undetectableundetectable
461559.25[M-H]-(Hex)2(HexNAc)67.98±7.022.91±5.03undetectable
471581.33[M-H]-(Hex)4(HexNAc)3(Neu5Gc)117.66±8.8818.33±2.4820.61±0.87
481659.42[M-2H+Na]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)2(Fuc)1(Neu5Ac)23.08±5.34undetectableundetectable
491721.25[M-H]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)612.27±2.895.12±4.829.86±1.00
501743.5[M-H]-(Hex)5(HexNAc)3(Neu5Gc)118.29±4.1414.35±2.8915.31±0.23
511784.33[M-H]-(Hex)4(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)122.81±21.0925.56±5.6026.36±0.82
521823.08[M-2H+Na]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)6S112.27±4.6613.93±0.748.54±7.40
531845.17[M-3H+2Na]-(Hex)3(HexNAc)6S115.59±14.8215.11±2.7717.33±4.83
541905.5[M-H]-(Hex)6(HexNAc)3(Neu5Gc)118.15±3.6211.89±2.23*14.37±0.77
551946.5[M-H]-(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)1109.10±42.9495.91±23.40112.52±8.99
561968[M-2H+Na]-(Hex)5(HexNAc)4(Neu5Gc)12.78±4.826.09±0.464.34±3.76
Table 2  The effect of LW-AFC on N-glycan profile in the serum of SAMP8 mice
Figure 4.  The effect of LW-AFC on N-glycan in the serum of SAMP8 mice. *p<0.05, comparing with SAMR1 mice. #p<0.05, comparing with SAMP8 mice. Mean ± S.D., n=3, Student’s t-test.
Figure 5.  Correlation between relative abundance of (Hex)2(HexNAc)4 in serum and ability of learning and memory of SAM mice. n=9, two-tailed Pearson analysis, confidence interval 95%.
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