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Aging and disease    2017, Vol. 8 Issue (2) : 196-202     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2016.0807
Review |
Spanning from the West to East: An Updated Review on Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease
Hussain Mohammed1, Datta Neil1, Cheng Zhe2, Dornbos David3, Bashir Asif4, Sultan Ibrahim5, Mehta Tapan1, Shweikeh Faris6, Mazaris Paul1, Lee Nora1, Nouh Amre1, Geng Xiaokun2,7,*, Ding Yuchuan7,*
1Department of Neurology, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
2Department of Neurology, Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 101149, China
3Department of Neurological Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, OH 43210, USA
4Department of Neurosurgery, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ 07079, USA
5Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
6Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
7Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48236, USA
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Abstract  

Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, incurring significant cost. Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) accounts for 10-15% of ischemic stroke in Western societies, but is an underlying pathology in up to 54% of ischemic strokes in Asian populations. ICAD has largely been treated with medical management, although a few studies have examined outcomes following endovascular treatment. Our objective was to summarize the major trials that have been performed thus far in regard to the endovascular treatment of ICAD and to provide direction for future management of this disease process. Systematic review of the literature from 1966 to 2015, was conducted in regard to intracranial angioplasty and stenting. Studies were analyzed from PubMed, American Heart Association and Society of Neurointerventional Surgery databases. SAMMPRIS and VISSIT are the only randomized controlled trials from which Western guidelines of intracranial stenting have been derived, which have displayed the superiority of medical management. However, pooled reviews of smaller studies and other nonrandomized trials have shown better outcomes with endovascular therapy in select patient subsets, such as intracranial vertebrobasilar stenosis or in the presence of robust collaterals. Suboptimal cases, including longer lesions, bifurcations and significant tortuosity tend to fair better with medical management. Medical management has been shown to be more efficacious with less adverse outcomes than endovascular therapy. However, the majority of studies on endovascular management included a diverse patient population without ideal selection criteria, resulting in higher adverse outcomes. Population analyses and selective utilization of endovascular therapy have shown that the treatment may be superior to other management in select patients.

Keywords ischemic stroke      randomized controlled trials      intracranial stenting      medical management in ICAD     
Corresponding Authors: Geng Xiaokun,Ding Yuchuan   
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These authors contributed equally

Issue Date: 01 April 2017
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Hussain Mohammed
Datta Neil
Cheng Zhe
Dornbos David
Bashir Asif
Sultan Ibrahim
Mehta Tapan
Shweikeh Faris
Mazaris Paul
Lee Nora
Nouh Amre
Geng Xiaokun
Ding Yuchuan
Cite this article:   
Hussain Mohammed,Datta Neil,Cheng Zhe, et al. Spanning from the West to East: An Updated Review on Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2017, 8(2): 196-202.
URL:  
http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2016.0807     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2017/V8/I2/196
Medical ManagementEndovascular Therapy
SAMMPRIS (RCT)
- Severe stenosis (70-99%)
- Multicenter, use of Wingspan stent
- Medical management: 14.9% risk of stroke/death at 32 mo
- Endovascular: 23.9%
Abuzinadah et. al, 2014 (meta-analysis)
- Patients with vertebro-basilar stenosis
- Medical: stroke/death in 14.8/100-patient
- Endovascular: 8.9/100-patient years
VISSIT (RCT)
- Multicenter, balloon-assisted stent
- Medical: 15.1% stroke risk at 1 year
- Endovascular: 34.5%
Feng et. al, 2015 (retrospective review)
- Single center, balloon-assisted Enterprise stent
- 100% technical success rate; 9.1% peri-opertaive stroke risk
Jiang et. al, 2011 (retrospective review)
- Single center, Wingspan stent
- 5% stroke/death risk at 30-days
Miao et. al, 2015 (prospective cohort)
- Technical success rate 96.3%
- 4.4% stroke/death risk at 30-days
Table 1  Comparison of major studies promoting medical management or endovascular therapy.
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