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Aging and Disease    2017, Vol. 8 Issue (5) : 558-569     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2016.1220
Original Article |
Uncontrolled Hypertension Increases with Age in an Older Community-Dwelling Chinese Population in Shanghai
Sheng Peng1,Ting Shen1,Jie Liu1,Brian Tomlinson2,Huimin Sun1,Xiaoli Chen1,Paul Chan3,YaShu Kuang1,Liang Zheng1,Hong Wu4,Xugang Ding4,Dingguang Qian4,Yixin Shen1,Pingjin Gao5,Huimin Fan1,Zhongmin Liu1,*,Yuzhen Zhang1,*
1Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias, Ministry of Education, Research Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China
2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
3Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
4Gaohang Community Medical Center, Shanghai, 201208, China
5Shanghai Hypertension Institute, Rui Jin Hospital, JiaoTong Univeristy School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200120, China
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Abstract  

We determined the prevalence of hypertension, medication usage and attainment of blood pressure goals in older (≥65 to <80 years and ≥80 years) urban community-dwelling Chinese subjects. Data were obtained in 3950 subjects (mean age 72.0 years, 1745 male) including 609 subjects aged ≥80 years in the Shanghai Elderly Cardiovascular Health Study (SHECHS). Established cardiovascular disease was present in 7.7% of participants. The prevalence of hypertension was 74.8% overall and it was more than 80% in individuals considered to be in moderate and higher cardiovascular disease risk categories. In hypertensive subjects, 67.1% were on treatment and treatment was more frequent in high and very high cardiovascular risk individuals. Attainment of the systolic blood pressure goal <150 mmHg was 62.9% and was greater in the ≥65 to <80 years group than in the ≥80 years group. The most commonly used antihypertensive treatments were calcium channel blockers (54.2%), followed by angiotensin receptor blockers (43.1%). Diuretics were used in 2.6%. Fixed-dose combination antihypertensive tablets were used in some of the ≥65 to <80 years group (12.4%) and more of the ≥80 years group (18.2%) and 70.9% of the ≥65 to <80 years group and 80.2% of the ≥80 years group were on monotherapy. There were high prevalence and high treatment rates of hypertension, but poor attainment of the systolic blood pressure goal of <150 mmHg, especially in the ≥80 years group of community-dwelling Chinese. Considering that more intensive treatment of hypertension in older subjects may be warranted after recent studies, this might be achieved by more frequent use of combinations of effective therapies and diuretics.

Keywords hypertension      prevalence      cardiovascular disease      older Chinese community population     
Corresponding Authors: Zhongmin Liu,Yuzhen Zhang   
Issue Date: 26 September 2017
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Sheng Peng
Ting Shen
Jie Liu
Brian Tomlinson
Huimin Sun
Xiaoli Chen
Paul Chan
YaShu Kuang
Liang Zheng
Hong Wu
Xugang Ding
Dingguang Qian
Yixin Shen
Pingjin Gao
Huimin Fan
Zhongmin Liu
Yuzhen Zhang
Cite this article:   
Sheng Peng,Ting Shen,Jie Liu, et al. Uncontrolled Hypertension Increases with Age in an Older Community-Dwelling Chinese Population in Shanghai[J]. A&D, 2017, 8(5): 558-569.
URL:  
http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2016.1220     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2017/V8/I5/558
Age (years)All(n=3950)<80(n=3791)≥80(n=609)P value
Female, % (n)55.8 (2205)55.2 (1843)59.4 (362)0.051
Middle school (6yr education), % (n)58.3 (2301)64.8 (2166)22.2 (135)<0.01
Current cigarette user, % (n)14.1 (556)15.0 (502)8.9 (54)<0.01
BMI, kg/m224.6 (24.5-24.7)24.6 (24.5-24.7)24.3 (24.0-24.6)0.014
Established CVD, % (n)7.8 (307)7.0 (233)12.2 (74)<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)74.8 (2955)74.1 (2477)78.5 (478)0.022
ISH, % (n)72.7 (2872)71.9 (2401)77.3 (471)0.006
SBP, mmHg138.8 (138.3-139.3)138.2 (137.6-138.8)141.8 (140.5-143.2)<0.01
DBP, mmHg81.8 (81.5-82.1)82.0 (81.7-82.3)80.9 (80.2-81.6)0.037
On BP medication, % (n)67.1 (1984)67.7 (1676)64.4 (308)0.184
 Attainment SBP <150 mmHg62.9 (1247)63.5 (1065)59.1 (182)0.048
 Attainment SBP <140 mmHg37.0 (735)38.3 (642)30.2 (93)<0.01
Definite diabetes, % (n)20.7 (819)20.5 (684)22.2 (135)0.356
FG, mmol/l5.7 (5.7-5.8)5.7 (5.6-5.8)5.8 (5.7-6.0)0.106
HbA1c, %6.3 (6.3-6.4)6.3 (6.3-6.4)6.4 (6.3-6.5)0.029
Hemoglobin, g/L138.3 (137.8-138.8)139.0 (138.5-139.5)134.3 (13.0-135.5)<0.01
Serum potassium, mmol/L4.3 (4.3-4.3)4.3 (4.3-4.3)4.3 (4.3-4.4)<0.01
Serum sodium, mmol/L143.3 (143.2-143.3)143.3 (143.2-143.4)143.1 (142.9-143.3)0.098
Creatinine, μmol/L76.8 (76.0-77.6)75.3 (74.6-76.1)84.8 (82.2-87.4)<0.01
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m278.4 (77.7-79.0)78.7 (78.0-79.4)76.7 (75.4-78.0)0.028
TC, mmol/l4.9 (4.9-5.0)4.9 (4.9-5.0)4.9 (4.8-5.0)0.475
LDL-C, mmol/l3.3 (3.2-3.3)3.3 (3.2-3.3)3.2 (3.2-3.3)0.351
HDL-C, mmol/l1.4 (1.4-1.4)1.45 (1.4-1.4)1.5 (1.4-1.5)<0.01
TG, mmol/l1.6 (1.5-1.6)1.6 (1.6-1.7)1.4 (1.4-1.5)<0.01
Statin use, % (n)5.3 (210)5.2 (173)6.1 (37)0.376
Aspirin use, % (n)14.2 (559)14.0 (468)14.9 (91)0.528
Table 1  Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects stratified by age <80 and ≥80 years
Low riskModerate riskHigh riskVery High riskP value
Total, n=3950
% (n)46.3 (1828)21.9 (866)28.6 (1131)3.2 (125)
SBP, mmHg131.5 (130.9-132.2)144.3 (143.3-145.3)^^146.0 (144.9-147.1)^^#141.6 (138.5-144.7)^^∆∆<0.01
DBP, mmHg80.0 (79.6-80.4)83.3 (82.7-83.8)^^83.5 (82.9-84.1)^^82.6 (80.9-84.3)^^<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)62.2 (1137)86. 4 (748)84.9 (960)88.0 (110)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)67.3 (765)59.4 (444)70.9 (681)85.5 (94)<0.01
 Attain SBP <150 mmHg78.7 (602)53.2 (236)52.4 (357)55.3 (52)<0.01
 Attain SBP <140 mmHg55.9 (428)24.1 (107)25.1 (171)30.9 (29)<0.01
TC, mmol/l4.8 (4.8-4.9)5.2 (5.1-5.2)^^5.0 (4.9-5.0)^^##4.7 (4.5-4.9)##<0.01
LDL-C, mmol/l3.2 (3.1-3.2)3.5 (3.4-3.5)^^3.3 (3.2-3.3)^^##3.0 (2.9-3.2)#∆∆<0.01
Statin treatment, % (n)2.8 (52)3.0 (26)7.5 (85)37.6 (47)<0.01
FG, mmol/l4.9 (4.9-4.9)5.3 (5.2-5.3)^^7.2 (7.0-7.3)^^7.5 (7.1-7.9)^^<0.01
HbA1c, %5.8 (5.8-5.8)6.37 (6.3-6.4)^^7.0 (6.9-7.1)^^7.4 (7.2-7.6)^^<0.01
Aged <80 yr, n=3341
% (n)50.1 (1674)20.1 (671)27.0 (903)2.8 (93)
SBP, mmHg131.8 (131.1-132.5)144.5 (143.4-145.7)^^145.2 (144.0-146.5)^^140.2 (136.6-143.9)^^#∆∆<0.01
DBP, mmHg80.3 (79.9-80.7)83.7 (83.1-84.4)^^83.7 (83.1-84.3)^^82.5 (80.65-84.5)^<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)63.2 (1058)86.1 (578)84.1 (759)88.2 (82)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)66.9 (708)60.6 (350)71.8 (545)89.0 (73)<0.01
Attain SBP <150 mmHg77.9 (552)51.7 (181)53.2 (290)57.5 (42)<0.01
Attain SBP <140 mmHg54.8 (388)24.0 (84)26.6 (145)34.2 (25)<0.01
Aged =80 yr, n=609
% (n)25.3(154)32.0 (195)37.4 (228)5.3 (32)
SBP, mmHg128.5 (126.7-130.4)143.4 (141.6-145.2)^^149.0 (146.6-151.3)^^#145.6 (139.9-151.3)^^<0.01
DBP, mmHg77.1 (75.9-78.3)81.6 (80.4-82.8)^^82.5 (81.3-83.8)^^82.7 (79.3-86.2)^^<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)51.3 (79)85.2 (170)88.2 (201)87.5 (28)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)72.2 (57)55.3 (94)67.7 (136)75.0 (21)<0.01
Attain SBP <150 mmHg87.7 (50)58.5(55)49.3 (67)47.6 (10)<0.01
Attain SBP <140 mmHg70.2 (40)24.5 (23)19.1 (26)19.0 (4)<0.01
Table 2  Treatment and control of hypertension according to CVD risk group in Chinese subjects aged ≥65 years
Age (years)Total<80 years≥ 80 yearsP value
With hypertension (n)29552496470
On BP medication, % (n)67.1 (1984)67.7 (1676)64.4 (308)0.184
Attainment SBP <150 mmHg62.9 (1247)63.5 (1065)59.1 (182)0.048
Attainment SBP <140 mmHg37.0 (735)38.3 (642)30.2 (93)<0.01
Multi-medsMulti-medsMulti-meds
 CCB, % (n)54.2 (1075)42.6 (458)55.7 (933)44.2 (412)46.1 (142)32.4 (46)0.002
 ARB, % (n)43.1 (855)45.1 (386)44.2 (741)46.3 (343)37.0 (114)37.7 (43)0.020
 ACEI, % (n)7.1 (140)47.1 (66)7.2 (120)49.2 (59)6.5 (20)35.0 (7)0.809
 BB, % (n)11.0 (218)74.3 (162)11.3 (190)75.8 (144)9.1 (28)64.3 (18)0.276
 Diuretic, % (n)2.6 (52)73.1 (38)2.3 (38)78.9 (30)4.5 (14)57.1 (8)0.031
 Chinese compound, % (n)13.3 (263)21.7 (57)12.4 (206)25.1 (52)18.2 (56)8.9 (5)0.008
1 medication, % (n)72.4 (1436)70.9 (1189)80.2 (247)0.001
2 medications, % (n)24.3(482)25.4 (426)18.2 (56)0.006
≥3 medications, % (n)3.3 (66)3.6 (61)1.6 (5)0.082
Table 3  Use of antihypertensive medication in Chinese subjects aged <80 and ≥80 years
High risk (n=1131)
Estimated risk >20% (229)Diabetes (720)Established CVD (175)P value
Total, n=1108
% (n)20.2 (229)63.7 (720)161 (182)<0.01
SBP, mmHg164.0 (162.3-165.8)141.3 (140.1-142.6)^^141.7 (139.0-144.4)^^<0.01
DBP, mmHg89.2 (87.8-90.5)81.6 (80.9-82.2)^^83.7 (82.3-85.0)^^#<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)99.1 (227)81.0 (583)82.4 (150)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)53.7 (123)61.5 (443)63.2 (115)0.073
Attain SBP <150 mmHg10.6 (13)59.8 (265)68.7 (79)<0.01
Attain SBP <140 mmHg0 (0)29.8 (132)40.0 (39)<0.01
TC, mmol/l5.1 (5.0-5.3)5.0 (4.9-5.1)4.8 (4.7-5.0)^^#0.008
LDL-C, mmol/l3.5 (3.4-3.6)3.3 (3.2-3.3)^^3.2 (3.0-3.3)^^#<0.01
Statin treatment, % (n)2.6 (6)3.8 (27)28.6% (52)##<0.01
Aged <80 yr, n=903
% (n)16.7 (151)67.8 (612)15.5 (140)<0.01
SBP, mmHg163.3 (161.0-165.6)141.3 (139.9-142.6)140.9 (137.7-144.1)<0.01
DBP, mmHg90.1 (88.5-91.6)81.8 (81.1-82.6)84.2 (82.7-85.8)<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)99.3 (150)80.6 (493)82.9 (116)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)49.0 (74)61.9 (379)65.7 (92)0.005
Attain SBP <150 mmHg5.4 (4)58.8 (223)68.5 (63)<0.01
Attain SBP <140 mmHg0 (0)30.1 (114)33.7 (31)<0.01
Aged ≥80 yr, n=228
% (n)34.2 (78)47.4 (108)18.4 (42)<0.01
SBP, mmHg159.7 (156.7-162.7)142.0 (138.7-145.2)144.9 (139.2-150.6)<0.01
DBP, mmHg85.8 (83.6-88.0)80.0 (78.3-81.7)82.3 (79.4-85.1)<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)98.7 (77)83.3 (90)81.0 (34)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)62.8 (49)59.3 (64)54.8 (23)0.687
Attain SBP <150 mmHg18.4 (9)65.6 (42)69.6 (16)<0.01
Attain SBP <140 mmHg0 (0)28.1 (18)34.8 (8)<0.01
Supplementary Table 1  Treatment and control of hypertension according to detailed classification of high risk group
Low riskModerate riskHigh riskVery High riskP value
Total, n=1984
On BP medication, % (n)41.8 (765)51.3 (444)60.2 (681)75.2 (94)<0.01
 CCB, % (n)53.7 (411)51.4 (228)55.5 (378)61.7 (58)0.249
  CCB with other meds % (n)36.5 (150)42.5 (97)48.1 (182)50.0 (29)
ARB, % (n)40.0 (306)40.7 (181)47.6 (324)^^##46.8 (44)^^##0.018
 ARB with other meds % (n)39.9 (122)45.3 (82)49.1 (159)52.3 (23)
ACEI, % (n)6.5 (50)6.3 (28)7.3 (50)12.8 (12)0.141
 ACEI with other meds % (n)46.0 (23)42.9 (12)50.0 (25)50.0 (6)
BB, % (n)8.9 (68)13.1 (58)11.0 (75)18.1 (17)^0.017
 BB with other meds % (n)72.1 (49)62.1 (36)81.3 (61)94.1 (16)
Diuretic, % (n)2.4 (18)2.5 (11)3.1 (21)2.1 (2)0.824
 Diuret with other meds % (n)77.8 (14)72.7 (8)66.7 (14)
Chinese medicine, % (n)14.8 (113)15.3 (68)11.6 (79)^#3.2 (3)^^##0.032
 Chmed with other meds % (n)23.0 (26)14.7 (10)24.1 (19)
1 medication, % (n)76.1 (582)74.1 (329)68.6 (467)61.7 (58)0.652
2 medications, % (n)22.0 (168)22.5 (100)27.0 (184)31.9 (30)
≥3 medications, % (n)2.0 (15)3.4 (15)4.4 (30)6.4 (6)
<80 years, n=1676
On BP medication, % (n)42.3 (708)52.2 (350)60.4 (545)78.5 (73)<0.01
 CCB, % (n)54.4 (385)53.7 (188)57.8 (315)61.6 (45)0.380
CCB with other meds % (n)37.7 (145)45.7 (86)50.2 (158)51.1 (23)
 ARB, % (n)41.0 (290)43.4 (152)48.8 (266)^^##45.2 (33)^^#0.050
ARB with other meds % (n)40.0 (116)47.4 (72)51.1(136)57.6 (19)
 ACEI, % (n)6.6 (47)6.6 (23)7.2 (39)15.1 (11)0.062
ACEI with other meds % (n)44.7(21)47.8 (11)53.8 (21)54.5(6)
BB, % (n)9.0 (64)13.7 (48)11.6 (63)20.54 (15)0.008
 BB with other meds % (n)73.4 (47)62.5 (30)84.1 (53)93.3 (14)
Diuretic, % (n)2.40 (17)1.71 (6)2.56 (14)1.4 (1)0.794
 Diuret with other meds % (n)76.5 (13)83.3 (4)78.6 (11)
Chinese medicine, % (n)13.7 (97)13.1 (46)11.2 (61)4.1 (3)^0.612
 Chmed with other meds % (n)25.8 (25)28.6 (9)26.2(16)
1 medication, % (n)75.3 (533)71.4 (250)66.6 (363)58.9 (43)0.570
2 medications, % (n)22.7 (161)24.9 (87)28.1 (153)34.2 (25)
≥3 medications, % (n)2.0 (14)3.7 (13)5.3 (29)6.8 (5)
≥ 80 years, n=308
On BP medication, % (n)37.0 (57)48.2 (94)59.6 (136)65.6 (21)<0.01
 CCB, % (n)45.6 (26)42.6 (40)46.3 (63)61.9 (13)0.458
CCB with other meds % (n)19.2 (5)27.5 (11)38.1 (24)38.5 (5)
ARB, % (n)28.1 (16)30.9 (29)42.6 (58)^^##52.4 (11)^^##0.058
 ARB with other meds % (n)37.5 (6)34.5 (10)39.7 (23)36.4 (4)
ACEI, % (n)5.3 (3)5.3 (5)8.1 (11)4.8 (1)0.794
BB, % (n)7.0 (4)10.6 (10)8.8 (12)9.5 (2)0.900
Diuretic, % (n)1.8 (1)5.3 (5)5.1 (7)4.8 (1)0.737
Chinese medicine, % (n)28.1 (16)23.4 (22)13.2 (18)^^##0 (0)^^##0.018
 Chmed with other meds % (n)6.3 (1)4.5 (1)16.7 (3)
1 medication, % (n)86.0 (49)84.0 (79)76.5 (104)71.4 (15)0.384
2 medications, % (n)12.3 (7)13.8 (13)22.8 (31)23.8 (5)
≥3 medications, % (n)1.8 (1)2.1 (2)0.7 (1)4.8 (1)
Supplementary Table 2  Antihypertensive medication use in hypertensive subjects according to CVD risk group
High risk (n=1131)
Estimated risk >20%DiabetesEstablished CVDP value
Total, n=1131
% (n)20.2 (229)63.66 (720)16.09 (182)<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)99.12 (227)80.97 (583)82.41 (150)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)53.73 (123)61.52 (443)63.18 (115)0.073
 CCB, % (n)56.09 (69)54.40 (241)59.13 (68)0.654
  CCB with other meds % (n)44.9 (31)48.5 (117)50.0 (34)
ARB, % (n)40.65 (50)48.08 (213)53.04 (61)0.150
 ARB with other meds % (n)48.0 (24)48.4 (103)52.5 (32)
ACEI, % (n)5.69 (7)8.57 (38)4.34 (5)0.223
BB, % (n)8.13 (10)10.83 (48)14.78 (17)0.256
Diuretic, % (n)6.50 (8)2.70 (12)0.89 (1)^0.032
Chinese medicine, % (n)16.26 (20)10.83 (48)9.56 (11)0.190
 Chmed with other meds % (n)10.0 (2)27.1 (13)36.4 (4)
1 medication, % (n)14.60 (71)11.89 (76)^#3.19 (3)^^##0.652
2 medications, % (n)74.07 (360)68.23 (436)61.70 (58)
≥3 medications, % (n)22.01 (107)27.69 (177)31.91 (30)
< 80 years, n=903
% (n)16.72 (151)67.77 (612)15.50 (140)<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)98.71 (77)83.33 (90)80.95 (34)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)62.82 (49)59.25 (64)54.76 (23)0.687
 CCB, % (n)64.86 (48)55.67 (211)60.86 (56)0.276
  CCB with other meds % (n)41.7 (20)51.7 (109)51.8 (29)
ARB, % (n)40.54 (30)49.34 (187)^^##53.26 (49)^^#0.247
 ARB with other meds % (n)50.0 (15)50.3 (94)55.1 (27)
ACEI, % (n)5.40 (4)8.44 (32)3.26 (3)0.184
BB, % (n)8.10 (6)10.81 (41)17.39 (16)0.127
Diuretic, % (n)2.70 (2)2.90 (11)1.08 (1)0.612
Chinese medicine, % (n)12.16 (9)11.34 (43)9.78 (9)^0.877
 Chmed with other meds % (n)11.1 (1)27.9 (12)33.3 (3)
1 medication, % (n)70.27 (52)66.75(253)63.04 (58)0.570
2 medications, % (n)25.67 (19)28.49 (108)28.26 (26)
≥3 medications, % (n)4.05 (3)4.74 (18)8.69 (8)
≥ 80 years, n=228
% (n)34.21 (78)47.36 (108)18.42 (42)<0.01
Definite hypertension, % (n)98.71 (77)83.33 (90)80.95 (34)<0.01
On BP medication, % (n)62.82 (49)59.25 (64)54.76 (23)0.687
 CCB, % (n)42.85 (21)46.87 (30)52.17 (12)0.755
  CCB with other meds % (n)47.6 (10)26.7 (8)41.7 (5)
ARB, % (n)40.81 (20)40.62 (26)^^##52.17(12)^^##0.598
 ARB with other meds % (n)45.0 (9)34.6 (9)41.7 (5)
ACEI, % (n)6.12 (3)9.37 (6)8.69 (2)0.815
BB, % (n)8.16 (4)10.93 (7)4.34 (1)0.620
Diuretic, % (n)12.24 (6)1.56 (1)0 (0)0.018
Chinese medicine, % (n)22.44 (11)7.81 (5)8.69 (2)0.059
 Chmed with other meds % (n)18.2 (2)20 (1)0
1 medication, % (n)69.38 (34)82.81 (53)73.91 (17)0.384
2 medications, % (n)28.57 (14)17.18 (11)26.08 (6)
≥3 medications, % (n)2.04 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
Supplementary Table 3  Antihypertensive medication use in subgroups of the high CVD risk subjects
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