Please wait a minute...
 Home  About the Journal Editorial Board Aims & Scope Peer Review Policy Subscription Contact us
Early Edition  //  Current Issue  //  Open Special Issues  //  Archives  //  Most Read  //  Most Downloaded  //  Most Cited
Review |
Recognizing Degenerative Aging as a Treatable Medical Condition: Methodology and Policy
Ilia Stambler
Department of Science, Technology and Society, Bar Ilan University, Israel
Download: PDF(814 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    

It is becoming increasingly clear that in order to accomplish healthy longevity for the population, there is an urgent need for the research and development of effective therapies against degenerative aging processes underlying major aging-related diseases, including heart disease, neurodegenerative diseases, type 2 diabetes, cancer, pulmonary obstructive diseases, as well as aging-related complications and susceptibilities of infectious communicable diseases. Yet, an important incentive for the research and development of such therapies appears to be the development of clinically applicable and scientifically grounded definitions and criteria for the multifactorial degenerative aging process (or “senility” using the existing ICD category), underlying those diseases, as well as for the safety and effectiveness of interventions against it. Such generally agreed definitions and criteria are currently absent. The devising of such criteria is important not only for the sake of their scientific value and their utility for the development of therapeutic solutions for the aging population, but also to comply with and implement major existing national and international programmatic and regulatory requirements. Some methodological suggestions and potential pitfalls for the development of such criteria are examined.

Keywords senescence      aging      aging-related diseases      frailty      diagnosis      regulation     
Just Accepted Date: 03 February 2017  
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Ilia Stambler
Cite this article:   
Ilia Stambler. Recognizing Degenerative Aging as a Treatable Medical Condition: Methodology and Policy[J]. A&D, 10.14336/AD.2017.0130
URL:     OR
[1] Jin K, Simpkins JW, Ji X, Leis M, Stambler I (2015). The critical need to promote research of aging and aging-related diseases to improve health and longevity of the elderly population. Aging Dis, 6(1):1-5.
[2] Rae MJ, Butler RN, Campisi J, de Grey ADNJ, Finch CE, Gough M,et al. (2010). The demographic and biomedical case for late-life interventions in aging. Sci Transl Med, 2(40): 40cm21.
[3] Goldman DP, Cutler D, Rowe JW, Michaud PC, Sullivan J, Peneva D, Olshansky SJ (2013). Substantial health and economic returns from delayed aging may warrant a new focus for medical research. Health Aff, 32(10): 1698-1705.
[4] Fontana L, Kennedy BK, Longo VD, Seals D, Melov S (2014). Medical research: treat ageing. Nature, 511(7510): 405-407.
[5] Zhavoronkov A, Bhullar B. Classifying aging as a disease in the context of ICD-11 (2015). Front Genet, 6:326.
[6] Bulterijs S, Hull RS, Björk VCE, Roy AG (2015). It is time to classify biological aging as a disease. Front Genet, 6: 205.
[7] Stambler I (2015). Has aging ever been considered healthy?. Front Genet, 6: 202.
[8] Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V,et al. (2013). Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 380(9859): 2095-2128.
[9] Murray CJL, Lopez AD. Estimating causes of death: new methods and global and regional application for 1990. In: Murray CJL Lopez AD,editors. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, on behalf of the World Health Organization and the World Bank; 1996, pp. 117-200.
[10] Ahmad A, Komai S (2015). Geriatrics and gerontology: neglected areas of research in most developing countries. J Am Geriatr Soc, 63(6): 1283-1284.
[11] EMA geriatric medicines strategy. EMA/CHMP/137793/2011. London: European Medicines Agency; 2011.
[12] EMA geriatric medicines strategy. Report analysis on product information. EMA/352652/2013. London: European Medicines Agency; 2013.
[13] Concept paper on the need for a reflection paper on quality aspects of medicines for older people. EMA/165974/2013. London: European Medicines Agency; 2013.
[14] Proposal for the development of a points to consider for baseline characterisation of frailty status. EMA/335158/2013. London: European Medicines Agency; 2013.
[15] Cesari M, Fielding R, Bénichou O, Bernabei R, Bhasin S, Guralnik JM,et al. (2015). Pharmacological interventions in frailty and sarcopenia: Report by the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Task Force. J Frailty Aging, 4(3): 114-120.
[16] Hall SS (2015). A trial for the ages. Science, 349(6254): 1275-1278.
[17] Blokh D, Stambler I (2016). The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases. Prog Neurobiol, S0301-, 0082(15): 30059-9.
[18] Moskalev A, Chernyagina E, Tsvetkov V, Fedintsev A, Shaposhnikov M, Krut'ko V, Zhavoronkov A, Kennedy BK (2016). Developing criteria for evaluation of geroprotectors as a key stage toward translation to the clinic. Aging Cell, 15(3): 407-415.
[19] Fried LP, Walston J. Frailty and failure to thrive. In: Hazzard WR, Blass JP, Ettinger WH, Halter JB, Ouslander MD,editors. Principles of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 1999, pp 1387-1402.
[20] Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Cawthon PM, Fink HA, Taylor BC, Cauley JA,et al. (2009). Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research Group. A comparison of frailty indexes for the prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and mortality in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc, 57(3):492-498.
[21] Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J,et al. (2001). Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 56(3):M146-M156.
[22] Mitnitski AB, Mogilner AJ, Rockwood K (2001). Accumulation of deficits as a proxy measure of aging. ScientificWorldJournal, 1:323-336.
[23] Mayevsky A, Barbiro-Michaely E (2013). Shedding light on mitochondrial function by real time monitoring of NADH fluorescence: II: human studies. J Clin Monit Comput, 27(2):125-145.
[24] Zarchin N, Meilin S, Rifkind J, Mayevsky A (2002). Effect of aging on brain energy-metabolism. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol, 132(1):117-120.
[25] Fuellen G, Schofield P, Flatt T, Schulz RJ, Boege F, Kraft K,et al. (2016). Living long and well: Prospects for a personalized approach to the medicine of ageing. Gerontology, 62(4):409-416.
[26] Hartshorne JK, Germine LT (2015). When does cognitive functioning peak? The asynchronous rise and fall of different cognitive abilities across the life span. Psychol Sci, 26(4):433-443.
[27] De Grey ADNJ, Rae M.Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York: St. Martin’s Press; 2007.
[28] Kennedy BK, Berger SL, Brunet A, Campisi J, Cuervo AM, Epel ES (2014). Geroscience: linking aging to chronic disease. Cell, 59:709-713.
[29] López-Otín C, Blasco MA, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemer G (2013). The hallmarks of aging. Cell, 153:1194-1217.
[30] Moskalev A, Chernyagina E, Kudryavtseva A, Shaposhnikov M (2017). Geroprotectors: a unified concept and screening approaches. Aging Dis, 4(8).
[31] Blokh D, Stambler I (2017). The use of information theory for the evaluation of biomarkers of aging and physiological age. Mech Ageing Dev, S0047-, 6374(16)30156-7.
[32] Reiman EM, Langbaum JB, Fleisher AS, Caselli RJ, Chen K, Ayutyanont N,et al. (2011). Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative: A plan to accelerate the evaluation of presymptomatic treatments. J Alzheimers Dis, 26(Suppl 3): 321-329.
[33] Toyn J (2015). What lessons can be learned from failed Alzheimer's disease trials?. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol, 8(3): 267-269.
[34] Morrison DH, Rahardja D, King E, Peng Y, Sarode VR (2012). Tumour biomarker expression relative to age and molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer. Br J Cancer, 107: 382-387.
[35] Cohen AA (2016). Complex systems dynamics in aging: new evidence, continuing questions. Biogerontology, 17: 205-220.
[36] Le Couteur DG, Simpson SJ (2011). Adaptive senectitude: the prolongevity effects of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 66: 179-182.
[37] Blokh D, Stambler I (2015). Applying information theory analysis for the solution of biomedical data processing problems. Am J Bioinform, 3(1): 17-29.
[38] Khokhlov AN (2010). From Carrel to Hayflick and back or what we got from the 100 years of cytogerontological studies. Biophysics, 55(5): 859-864.
[39] Safar P (2000). On the future of reanimatology. Acad Emerg Med, 7(1): 75-89.
[40] Rogatsky GG, Shifrin EG, Mayevsky A (2003). Optimal dosing as a necessary condition for the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in acute ischemic stroke: a critical review. Neurol Res, 25(1): 95-98.
[41] Gerasimenko YP, Lu DC, Modaber M, Zdunowski S, Gad P, Sayenko DG,et al. (2015). Noninvasive reactivation of motor descending control after paralysis. J. Neurotrauma, 32(24): 1968-1980.
[42] Blokh D, Stambler I (2015). Information theoretical analysis of aging as a risk factor for heart disease. Aging Dis, 6(3): 196-207.
[43] Blokh D, Stambler I (2014). Estimation of heterogeneity in diagnostic parameters of age-related diseases. Aging Dis, 5(4): 218-225.
[44] Farber GK (2016). Can data repositories help find effective treatments for complex diseases? Prog Neurobiol, S0301-. 0082(15)30025-3.
[45] Stambler I. Life extension: opportunities, challenges, and implications for public health policy. In: Vaiserman A,editor. Anti-aging Drugs: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice. London: Royal Society of Chemistry; 2017, pp. 537-564.
[1] Jianhui Wang,Xiaorui Cheng,Ju Zeng,Jiangbei Yuan,Zhongfu Wang,Wenxia Zhou,Yongxiang Zhang. LW-AFC Effects on N-glycan Profile in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 Strain, a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. A&D, 2017, 8(1): 101-114.
[2] Annamaria Zaia,Pierluigi Maponi,Giuseppina Di Stefano,Tiziana Casoli. Biocomplexity and Fractality in the Search of Biomarkers of Aging and Pathology: Focus on Mitochondrial DNA and Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. A&D, 2017, 8(1): 44-56.
[3] Nopporn Thangthaeng,Margaret Rutledge,Jessica M. Wong,Philip H. Vann,Michael J. Forster,Nathalie Sumien. Metformin Impairs Spatial Memory and Visual Acuity in Old Male Mice[J]. A&D, 2017, 8(1): 17-30.
[4] Xiaoting Niu,Xun Wang,Huanjie Huang,Peiqi Ni,Yuanshao Lin,Bei Shao. Bulbocavernosus Reflex Test for Diagnosis of Pudendal Nerve Injury in Female Patients with Diabetic Neurogenic Bladder[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(6): 715-720.
[5] Supakanya Wongrakpanich,Aisawan Petchlorlian,Andrew Rosenzweig. Sensorineural Organs Dysfunction and Cognitive Decline: A Review Article[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(6): 763-769.
[6] Rodrigo Ferrari,Sandra C. Fuchs,Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel,Eduardo Lusa Cadore,Cristine Lima Alberton,Ronei Silveira Pinto,Régis Radaelli,Maira Schoenell,Mikel Izquierdo,Hirofumi Tanaka,Daniel Umpierre. Effects of Different Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Frequencies on Muscle Power and Muscle Quality in Trained Elderly Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(6): 697-704.
[7] Lei Su,Yujuan Han,Rong Xue,Kristofer Wood,Fu-Dong Shi,Yaou Liu,Ying Fu. Thalamic Atrophy Contributes to Low Slow Wave Sleep in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(6): 691-696.
[8] Qian Li, Yuanshao Lin, Wensi Huang, Yulei Zhou, Xiaoli Chen, Brian Wang, Wanli Zhang, Zhengyi Cai, Jie Xue, Wenhui Zhang, Tieer Yu, Hong Wang, Jincai He, Kunlin Jin, Bei Shao. Serum IL-33 Is a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Acute Ischemic Stroke[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(5): 614-622.
[9] Maria Angela Guzzardi,Patricia Iozzo,Minna K. Salonen,Eero Kajantie,Riikka Airaksinen,Hannu Kiviranta,Panu Rantakokko,Johan Gunnar Eriksson. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(5): 540-552.
[10] Yaohui Tang,Liuqing Wang,Jixian Wang,Xiaojie Lin,Yongting Wang,Kunlin Jin,Guo-Yuan Yang. Ischemia-induced Angiogenesis is Attenuated in Aged Rats[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(4): 326-335.
[11] Rachel E. Ward,Paolo Caserotti,Jane A. Cauley,Robert M. Boudreau,Bret H. Goodpaster,Aaron I. Vinik,Anne B. Newman,Elsa S. Strotmeyer. Mobility-Related Consequences of Reduced Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Function with Age: A Systematic Review[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(4): 466-478.
[12] Anargiros Mariolis,Alexandra Foscolou,Stefanos Tyrovolas,Suzanne Piscopo,Giuseppe Valacchi,Nikos Tsakountakis,Akis Zeimbekis,Vassiliki Bountziouka,Efthimios Gotsis,George Metallinos,Dimitra Tyrovola,Josep-Antoni Tur,Antonia-Leda Matalas,Christos Lionis,Evangelos Polychronopoulos,Demosthenes Panagiotakos,for the MEDIS study group. Successful Aging among Elders Living in the Mani Continental Region vs. Insular Areas of the Mediterranean: the MEDIS Study[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(3): 285-294.
[13] Daniel O. Claassen,David G. Dobolyi,David A. Isaacs,Olivia C. Roman,Joshua Herb,Scott A. Wylie,Joseph S. Neimat,Manus J. Donahue,Peter Hedera,David H. Zald,Bennett A. Landman,Aaron B. Bowman,Benoit M. Dawant,Swati Rane. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(3): 220-229.
[14] Amelia Maria Gaman,Adriana Uzoni,Aurel Popa-Wagner,Anghel Andrei,Eugen-Bogdan Petcu. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Etiopathogenesis of Chemotherapy Induced Cognitive Impairment (CICI)-“Chemobrain”[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(3): 307-317.
[15] Federico Sesti. Oxidation of K+ Channels in Aging and Neurodegeneration[J]. A&D, 2016, 7(2): 130-135.
Full text



Copyright © 2014 Aging and Disease, All Rights Reserved.
Address: Aging and Disease Editorial Office 3400 Camp Bowie Boulevard Fort Worth, TX76106 USA
Fax: (817) 735-0408 E-mail:
Powered by Beijing Magtech Co. Ltd