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Aging and Disease    2018, Vol. 9 Issue (1) : 119-132     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0202
Review |
Role of Dietary Protein and Muscular Fitness on Longevity and Aging
Barbara Strasser1,Konstantinos Volaklis2,Dietmar Fuchs3,Martin Burtscher4
1Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria
2Department of Prevention and Sports Medicine, TUM, Munich, Germany
3Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria
4Department of Sport Science, Medical Section, University Innsbruck, Austria
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Abstract  

Muscle atrophy is an unfortunate effect of aging and many diseases and can compromise physical function and impair vital metabolic processes. Low levels of muscular fitness together with insufficient dietary intake are major risk factors for illness and mortality from all causes. Ultimately, muscle wasting contributes significantly to weakness, disability, increased hospitalization, immobility, and loss of independence. However, the extent of muscle wasting differs greatly between individuals due to differences in the aging process per se as well as physical activity levels. Interventions for sarcopenia include exercise and nutrition because both have a positive impact on protein anabolism but also enhance other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic older adults, such as physical function, quality of life, and anti-inflammatory state. The process of aging is accompanied by chronic immune activation, and sarcopenia may represent a consequence of a counter-regulatory strategy of the immune system. Thereby, the kynurenine pathway is induced, and elevation in the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan concentrations, which estimates the tryptophan breakdown rate, is often linked with inflammatory conditions and neuropsychiatric symptoms. A combined exercise program consisting of both resistance-type and endurance-type exercise may best help to ameliorate the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, to prevent muscle aging comorbidities, and to improve physical performance and quality of life. In addition, the use of dietary protein supplementation can further augment protein anabolism but can also contribute to a more active lifestyle, thereby supporting well-being and active aging in the older population.

Keywords Aging      muscle      physical fitness      protein      kynurenine pathway      longevity     
Issue Date: 01 February 2018
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Barbara Strasser
Konstantinos Volaklis
Dietmar Fuchs
Martin Burtscher
Cite this article:   
Barbara Strasser,Konstantinos Volaklis,Dietmar Fuchs, et al. Role of Dietary Protein and Muscular Fitness on Longevity and Aging[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(1): 119-132.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2017.0202     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2018/V9/I1/119
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