Please wait a minute...
 Home  About the Journal Editorial Board Aims & Scope Peer Review Policy Subscription Contact us
Early Edition  //  Current Issue  //  Open Special Issues  //  Archives  //  Most Read  //  Most Downloaded  //  Most Cited
Aging and Disease    2017, Vol. 8 Issue (6) : 887-898     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0209
Original Article |
The Effects of Physical Training are Varied and Occur in an Exercise Type-Dependent Manner in Elderly Men
Mari L. Sbardelotto,Giulia S. Pedroso,Fernanda T. Pereira,Helen R. Soratto,Stella MS. Brescianini,Pauline S. Effting,Anand Thirupathi,Renata T. Nesi,Paulo CL. Silveira,Ricardo A. Pinho
Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Download: PDF(1164 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    

Regular exercise can decrease the deleterious effects of aging and limit the development and progression of chronic disease in elderly people, depending on the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of different physical training programs on oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory and neurotrophic mediators in the serum of elderly men. Healthy male volunteers [60 to 80 years; n=55] were divided into four groups: control [Ctr, n=14], aerobic training on dry land [ATdl, n=12]; and combined training on dry land [CTdl, n=12] or in water [CTw, n=17]. The training protocols were performed over 8 weeks, three times per week. Each 1 h session included 5 min warming-up exercise, 50 min specific training [aerobic, strength, or combined], and 5 min stretching. Blood samples were drawn 72 h before [baseline] the beginning of the 8 weeks’ protocol and 48 h after the last training session, processed, and the serum was aliquoted and stored at -70 °C until biochemical assessment of oxidative damage, antioxidant system and neurotrophic, growth and inflammatory factors. Elevated BDNF or IGF-1 levels were observed in the ATdl or CTdl groups, respectively. Overall oxidative stress parameters were improved including reduced lipid oxidative damage and increased thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities and total glutathione. Significant decreases in the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and IL-8 were observed; IL-6 was more susceptible to the effects of type of physical training. Thus, the effects of training in elderly men vary in an exercise type-dependent manner.

Keywords aging      strength training      aerobic training      combined training      oxidative stress      inflammation     
Corresponding Authors: Ricardo A. Pinho   
Issue Date: 01 December 2017
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Mari L. Sbardelotto
Giulia S. Pedroso
Fernanda T. Pereira
Helen R. Soratto
Stella MS. Brescianini
Pauline S. Effting
Anand Thirupathi
Renata T. Nesi
Paulo CL. Silveira
Ricardo A. Pinho
Cite this article:   
Mari L. Sbardelotto,Giulia S. Pedroso,Fernanda T. Pereira, et al. The Effects of Physical Training are Varied and Occur in an Exercise Type-Dependent Manner in Elderly Men[J]. A&D, 2017, 8(6): 887-898.
URL:     OR
[1] Ciolac EG (2013). Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: a brief review. Clinics, 68: 710-717.
[2] Zampieri S, Pietrangelo L, Loefler S, et al. (2015). Lifelong physical exercise delays age-associated skeletal muscle decline. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 70: 163-173.
[3] Deslandes A (2013). The biological clock keeps ticking, but exercise may turn it back. Arq Neuro Psiquiatr, 71: 113-118.
[4] Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet, 380: 219-229.
[5] Jackson MJ (2005). Reactive oxygen species and redox regulation of skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise. Philos Trans R SocLond B Biol Sci, 29: 2285-2291.
[6] Meng SJ, Yu LJ (2010). Oxidative Stress, Molecular inflammation and sarcopenia. Int J Mol Sci, 11: 1509-1526.
[7] Bouzid MA, Hammouda O, Matran R, Robin S, Fabre C (2014). Changes in oxidative stress markers and biological markers of muscle injury with aging at rest and in response to an exhaustive exercise. Plos One, 9: e90420.
[8] Finkel T, Holbrook NJ (2000). Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature, 9: 239-247.
[9] Short KR, Vittone JL, Bigelow ML, Proctor DN, Nair KS (2004). Age and aerobic exercise training effects on whole body and muscle protein metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 286: E92-101.
[10] McClean RR, Kiel DP (2015). Developing consensus criteria for sarcopenia: an update. J Bone Miner Res, 30: 588-592.
[11] Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, et al. (2010). Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis- Report of the European working group on Sarcopenia in older people. Age Ageing, 39: 412-423.
[12] Burks TN, Cohn RD (2011). One size may not fit all: anti-aging therapies and sarcopenia. Aging [Albany NY], 3:1142-1153.
[13] Nicklas BJ, Brinkley TE (2009). Exercise training as a treatment for chronic inflammation in the elderly. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 37:165-170.
[14] Beyer I, Mets T, Bautmans I (2012). Chronic low-grade inflammation and age-related sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 5:12-22.
[15] Howard C, Ferrucci L, Sun K, Fried LP, Walston J, Varadhan R, Guralnik JM, Semba RD (2007). Oxidative protein damage is associated with poor grip strength among older women living in the community. J Appl Physiol, 103:17-20.
[16] Woods JA, Wilund KR, Martin SA, Kistller BM (2012). Exercise, inflammation and aging. Aging Dis, 3:130-140.
[17] Tiedemann AC, Shimada H, Sherrington C, Murray S, Lord S (2008). The comparative ability of eight functional mobility tests for predicting falls in community-dwelling older people. Age Ageing, 37:430-435.
[18] Kalleinen N, Polo-Kantola P, Irjala K, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Vahlberg T, Virkki A, Polo O (2008). 24-Hour Serum Levels of Growth Hormone, Prolactin and Cortisol in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women: The Effect of Combined Estrogen and Progestin Treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 93:1655-1661.
[19] Maltais ML, Desroches J, Dionne IJ (2009). Changes in muscle mass and strength after menopause. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 9:186-197.
[20] Radak Z, Marton O, Nagy E, Koltai E, Goto S (2013). The complex role of physical exercise and reactive oxygen species on brain. J Sport Health Sci, 2:87-93.
[21] Laske C, Stellos K, Hoffmann N, Stransky E, Straten G, Eschweiler GW, Leyhe T (2011). Higher BDNF serum levels predict slower cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Int J Neuro Psycho Pharmacol, 14:399-404.
[22] Coelho FM, Pereira DS, Lustosa LP, Silva JP, Dias JM, Dias RC, Queiroz BZ, Teixeira AL, Teixeira MM, Pereira LS (2012). Physical therapy intervention (PTI) increases plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in non-frail and pre-frail elderly women. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 54:415-420.
[23] Tsai CL, Wang CH, Pan CY, Chen FC (2015). The effects of long-term resistance exercise on the relationship between neurocognitive performance and GH, IGF-1, and homocysteine levels in the elderly. Front Behav Neurosci, 9:23.
[24] Grotto D, Santa Maria LD, Boeira S, Valentini J, Charão MF, Moro AM, Nascimento PC, Pomblum VJ, Garcia SC (2007). Rapid quantification of malondialdehyde in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-visible detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 43:619-24.
[25] Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver CN, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz AG, Ahn BW, Shaltiel S, Stadtmann ER (1990). Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol, 186:464-478.
[26] Aksenov MY, Markesbery WR (2001). Changes in thiol content and expression of glutathione redox system genes in the hippocampus and cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett, 302:141-145.
[27] Aebi H (1984). Catalase in vitro. Meth Enzymol, 105:121-126.
[28] Flohé L, Gunzler W (1984). Assay of glutathione peroxidase. Methods Enzymol, 105:114-121.
[29] Holmgren A, Björnstedt M (1995). Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Methods Enzymol, 252:199-208.
[30] Hissin PJ, Hilf R (1976). A fluorometric method for determination of oxidized and reduced glutathione in tissues. Anal Biochem, 74:214-226.
[31] Bradford MM (1976). Rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem, 72: 248-254.
[32] Ristow M, Schmeisser S (2011). Extending life span by increasing oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med, 15:327-336.
[33] Dato S, Crocco P, D'Aquila P, de Rango F, Bellizzi D, Rose G, Passarino G (2013). Exploring the role of genetic variability and lifestyle in oxidative stress response for healthy aging and longevity. Int J Mol Sci, 14:16443-16472.
[34] De Gonzalo-Calvo D, Fernández-García B, de Luxán-Delgado B, Rodríguez-González S, García-Macia M, Suárez FM, Solano JJ, Rodríguez-Colunga MJ, Coto-Montes A (2013). Chronic training increases blood oxidative damage but promotes health in elderly men. Age (Dordr), 35:407-417.
[35] Kalinkovich A, Livshits G (2015). Sarcopenia-The search for emerging biomarkers. Ageing Res Rev, 22:58-71.
[36] Woodhouse LJ, Mukherjee A, Shalet SM, Ezzat S (2006). The influence of growth hormone status on physical impairments, functional limitations, and health related quality of life in adults. Endocr Rev, 26:287-317.
[37] Cappola AR, Bandeen-Roche K, Wand GS, Volpato S, Fried LP (2001). Association of IGF-I levels with muscle strength and mobility in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 86:4139-4146.
[38] Ding Q, Vaynman S, Akhavan M, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F (2006). Insulin-like growth factor I interfaces with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity to modulate aspects of exercise-induced cognitive function. Neurosci, 140:823-833.
[39] Kaplan RC, McGinn AP, Pollak MN, Kuller L, Strickler HD, Rohan TE, Xue X, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Psaty BM (2008). Total insulin like growth factor 1 and insulin like growth factor binding protein levels, functional status, and mortality in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc, 56:652-660.
[40] Nakahashi T, Fujimura H, Altar CA, Li J, Kambayashi J, Tandon NN, Sun B (2000). Vascular endothelial cells synthesize and secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor. FEBS Letter, 470:113-117.
[41] Gielen A, Khademi M, Muhallab S, Olsson T, Piehl F (2003). Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in white blood cells of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Scand J Immunol, 57:493-497.
[42] Matthews VB, Aström MB, Chan MH, et al. (2009). Brain- derived neurotrophic factor is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetologia, 52:1409-1418.
[43] Bocchio-Chiavetto L, Bagnardi V, Zanardini R, et al. (2010). Serum and plasma BDNF levels in major depression: a replication study and meta-analyses. World J Biol Psychiatry, 11:763-773.
[44] Scicchitano BM, Rizzuto E, Musarò A (2009). Counteracting muscle wasting in aging and neuromuscular diseases: the critical role of IGF-1. Aging, 13:451-457.
[45] Forti LN, Van Roie E, Njemini R, Coudyzer W, Beyer I, Delecluse C, Bautmans I (2015). Dose-and gender-specific effects of resistance training on circulating levels of brain derived neurotrophic fator (BDNF) in community-dwelling older adults. Exp Gerontol, 70:144-149.
[46] Goekint M, De Pauw K, Roelands B, Njemini R, Bautmans I, Mets T, Meeusen R [2010]. Strength training does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Eur J Appl Physiol, 110:285-293.
[47] Taekema DG, Ling CH, Blauw GJ, Meskers CG, Westendorp RG, de Craen AJ, Maier AB [2011]. Circulating levels of IGF1 are associated with muscle strength in middle-aged- and oldest-old women. Eur J Endocrinol, 164:189-196.
[48] Barreiro E, Coronell C, Lavina B, Ramirez-Sarmiento A, Orozcoevi M, Gea J [2006]. Aging, sex differences, andoxidative stress in human respiratory and limb muscles. Free Radic Biol Med, 41: 797-809.
[49] Moylan JS, Reid MB [2007]. Oxidative stress, chronic disease and muscle wasting. Muscle Nerve, 35:411-429.
[50] Sullivan-Gunn MJ, Lewandowski PA [2013]. Elevated hydrogen peroxide and decreased catalase and glutathione peroxidase protection are associated with aging sarcopenia. BMC Geriatr, 13:104.
[51] Parise G, Phillips SM, Kaczor JJ, Tarnopolsky MA [2005]. Antioxidant activity enzyme is up regulated after unilateral resistance exercise training in older adults. Free Radic Biol Med, 15:289-295.
[52] Nyberg M, Mortensen SP, Cabo H, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Viña J, Hellsten Y [2014]. Roles of sedentary aging and life long physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Biol Med, 73:166-173.
[53] Samiec PS, Drews-Botsch C, Flagg EW, Kurtz JC, Sternberg P Jr, Reed RL, Jones DP [1998]. Glutathione in human plasma: decline in association with aging, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetes. Free Radic Biol Med, 24:699-704.
[54] Elokda AS, Nielsen DH [2007]. Effects of exercise training on the glutathione antioxidant system. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil, 14:630-637.
[55] Sekhar RV, Patel SG, Guthikonda AP, Reid M, Balasubramanyam A, Taffet GE, Jahoor F [2011]. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr, 94:847-853.
[56] Soares JP, Silva AM, Oliveira MM, Peixoto F, Gaivão I, Mota MP [2015]. Effects of combined physical exercise training on DNA damage and repair capacity: role of oxidative stress changes. Age [Dordr], 37:97-99.
[57] Krabbe KS, Pedersen M, Bruunsgaard H [2004]. Inflammatory mediators in the elderly. Exp Gerontol, 39:687-699.
[58] Petersen AM, Pedersen BK [2005]. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol, 98:1154-1162.
[59] Thompson D, Markovitch D, Betts JA, Mazzatti D, Turner J, Tyrrell RM [2010]. Time course of changes in inflammatory markers during a 6-mo exercise intervention in sedentary middle-aged men: a randomized-controlled trial. J Appl Physiol, 108:769-779.
[60] Taaffe DR, Harris TB, Ferrucci L, Rowe J, Seeman TE [2000]. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein with physical performance in elderly persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 55:709-715.
[61] Cesari M, Penninx BWJH, Pahor M, Lauretani F, Corsi AM, Williams GR, Guralnik JM, Ferruci L [2004]. Inflammatory markers and physical performance in older persons: the In CHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 59:242-248.
[1] Feng Tang,Meng-Hao Pan,Yujie Lu,Xiang Wan,Yu Zhang,Shao-Chen Sun. Involvement of Kif4a in Spindle Formation and Chromosome Segregation in Mouse Oocytes[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(4): 623-633.
[2] Fabiana Morroni,Giulia Sita,Agnese Graziosi,Eleonora Turrini,Carmela Fimognari,Andrea Tarozzi,Patrizia Hrelia. Neuroprotective Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in A Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Involves Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(4): 605-622.
[3] Christina Brandenberger,Katharina Maria Kling,Marius Vital,Mühlfeld Christian. The Role of Pulmonary and Systemic Immunosenescence in Acute Lung Injury[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(4): 553-565.
[4] J. Thomas Mock,Sherilynn G Knight,Philip H Vann,Jessica M Wong,Delaney L Davis,Michael J Forster,Nathalie Sumien. Gait Analyses in Mice: Effects of Age and Glutathione Deficiency[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(4): 634-646.
[5] Jiayu Wu,Weiying Ren,Li Li,Man Luo,Kan Xu,Jiping Shen,Jia Wang,Guilin Chang,Yi Lu,Yiming Qi,Binger Xu,Yuting He,Yu Hu. Effect of Aging and Glucagon-like Peptide 2 on Intestinal Microbiota in SD Rats[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(4): 566-577.
[6] Carmen G Vinagre,Fatima R Freitas,Carlos H de Mesquita,Juliana C Vinagre,Ana Carolina Mariani,Roberto Kalil-Filho,Raul C Maranhão. Removal of Chylomicron Remnants from the Bloodstream is Delayed in Aged Subjects[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(4): 748-754.
[7] Aurore Marie,Johann Meunier,Emilie Brun,Susanna Malmstrom,Veronique Baudoux,Elodie Flaszka,Gaëlle Naert,François Roman,Sylvie Cosnier-Pucheu,Sergio Gonzalez-Gonzalez. N-acetylcysteine Treatment Reduces Age-related Hearing Loss and Memory Impairment in the Senescence-Accelerated Prone 8 (SAMP8) Mouse Model[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(4): 664-673.
[8] Jiao Lu,Xuefeng Duan,Wenming Zhao,Jing Wang,Haoyu Wang,Kai Zhou,Min Fang. Aged Mice are More Resistant to Influenza Virus Infection due to Reduced Inflammation and Lung Pathology[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(3): 358-373.
[9] Yali Chen,Mengmei Yin,Xuejin Cao,Gang Hu,Ming Xiao. Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Effects of High Cholesterol Diet on Aged Brain[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(3): 374-390.
[10] Wenzhi Sun,Jiewen Tan,Zhuo Li,Shibao Lu,Man Li,Chao Kong,Yong Hai,Chunjin Gao,Xuehua Liu. Evaluation of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Rats Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(3): 391-400.
[11] Can Zhang,Nicole R. Brandon,Kerryann Koper,Pei Tang,Yan Xu,Huanyu Dou. Invasion of Peripheral Immune Cells into Brain Parenchyma after Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(3): 412-425.
[12] Chengjie Zhang,Yanbing Zhu,Song Wang,Zheng Zachory Wei,Michael Qize Jiang,Yongbo Zhang,Yuhualei Pan,Shaoxin Tao,Jimei Li,Ling Wei. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(2): 249-261.
[13] Changjun Yang,Kelly M. DeMars,Eduardo Candelario-Jalil. Age-Dependent Decrease in Adropin is Associated with Reduced Levels of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Increased Oxidative Stress in the Rat Brain[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(2): 322-330.
[14] Meng Zhang,Yong-Ning Deng,Jing-Yi Zhang,Jie Liu,Yan-Bo Li,Hua Su,Qiu-Min Qu. SIRT3 Protects Rotenone-induced Injury in SH-SY5Y Cells by Promoting Autophagy through the LKB1-AMPK-mTOR Pathway[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(2): 273-286.
[15] Pedro Carrera-Bastos,Óscar Picazo,Maelán Fontes-Villalba,Helios Pareja-Galeano,Staffan Lindeberg,Manuel Martínez-Selles,Alejandro Lucia,Enzo Emanuele. Serum Zonulin and Endotoxin Levels in Exceptional Longevity versus Precocious Myocardial Infarction[J]. A&D, 2018, 9(2): 317-321.
Full text



Copyright © 2014 Aging and Disease, All Rights Reserved.
Address: Aging and Disease Editorial Office 3400 Camp Bowie Boulevard Fort Worth, TX76106 USA
Fax: (817) 735-0408 E-mail:
Powered by Beijing Magtech Co. Ltd