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Aging and disease    2017, Vol. 8 Issue (6) : 691-707     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0410
Review |
Emerging Roles of Ganoderma Lucidum in Anti-Aging
Wang Jue1,2, Cao Bin1, Zhao Haiping2,*, Feng Juan1,*
1Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, China
2Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China
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Abstract  

Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus that has been viewed as a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been revealed that several extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, such as Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and some bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the use of Ganoderma lucidum as an elixir has been around for thousands of years, studies revealing its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg. Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to be anti-aging are too few compared with the large amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect and its clinical application.

Keywords Ganoderma lucidum      anti-aging      antioxidant      immunomodulation      anti-neurodegeneration     
Corresponding Authors: Zhao Haiping,Feng Juan   
About author:

These authors contributed equally to the development of manunscript.

Issue Date: 01 December 2017
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Wang Jue
Cao Bin
Zhao Haiping
Feng Juan
Cite this article:   
Wang Jue,Cao Bin,Zhao Haiping, et al. Emerging Roles of Ganoderma Lucidum in Anti-Aging[J]. Aging and disease, 2017, 8(6): 691-707.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2017.0410     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2017/V8/I6/691
ExtractionOriginFunctionMechanismsRefs.
Ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL)Fruit bodyLifespan elongation activityInhibit ROS production, lipid peroxidation, advanced oxidation protein products;
Increase production of mitochondrial electron transport complexes, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenger activities and FRAP
[20-24, 26]
Immunomodulatory effectIncrease expressions of TLR4 and MyD88[28]
Antioxidant activityIncrease expression and phosphorylation of Nrf2 to induce the upregulation of HO-1[29, 34]
Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA)Fruit bodyAntioxidant activityIncrease radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power[38]
Anti-neurodegenerationInhibit synaptophysin transportation, JNK and p38 signaling pathway to antagonize neuronal apoptosis[39]
Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extractMyceliaNeuronal differentiation promoting effectInduce Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation
Increase the secretion of non-amyloidogenic protein secretion (sAPPα) and expression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP)
[40, 41, 43]
Water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK)MyceliaAntioxidant activityInhibit lipid peroxidation and ROS production
Increase SOD, CAT and GSH productions
[47-49]
Ganodermasides A, B, C and DSporesLifespan elongation activityIncrease expression of Skn7 to induce production of UTH1[50]
Table 1  The origin, function and mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum extracts in anti-aging or anti-aging related effects.
Figure 1.  The structure of Ganodermasides

A, B, C and D. 1 represents A, 2 represents B, 3 represents C, 4 represents D; 1: R1=H, R2=OH, R3=H; 2: R1=H, R2=H, R3=OH; 3: R1=OH, R2, R3=O; 4: R1=OH, R2=H, R3=H.

SampleCompositionMolar ratio
GLPIAra, Rha, Xyl, Man, Glu4.66: 1.23: 3.14: 0.61: 1.29
GLPIIAra, Xyl, Glu2.82: 1.33: 0.87
GLPIIIAra, Rha, Xyl, Gal, Man, Glu5.09: 0.52: 1.07: 1.29: 0.48: 2.76
GLPIVAra, Rha, Fuc, Xyl, Man, Glu4.73: 0.65: 0.72: 2.27: 0.52: 0.92
Table 2  Monosaccharide composition of GLPI, GLPII, GLPIII and GLPIV.
FunctionMechanismBioactive componentsOriginReferences
Lifespan extensionBinding to TIR-1 and activating the rab-1/pmk-1 signaling pathway to induce the expression of DAF-2RF3Fruit body[61]
Antioxidant activityIncrease hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging activities as well as metal chelating activityG. lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IVMycelia[64-66]
Increase scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, reactions with free oxygen species or ROOH and increase metal chelating activityGLPFruit body[67, 69]
Increase the production of NADPH, SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px; protect the mitochondria in macrophages against t-BOOH induced injury; increase the oxidation of LDLGLPPFruit body[70-72]
Induce the productions of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH and inhibit protein and lipid peroxidationTotal G. lucidum triterpenesFruit body[73]
Immunomodulatory effectIncrease the production of IL-1, IL-2 and IFN-γ; increase the numbers of CD14+CD26+ monocyte/macrophage, CD83+CD1a+ dendritic cells and CD16+CD56+ NK cells; increase the cytotoxicity of CD56+ NK cellsRF3Fruit body[74, 75]
Increase the proliferation of macrophages and their activation through increase in the production of NOG. lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IVMycelia[64]
Activate NF-κB pathway to decrease the production of IL-8 and MCP-1GLPPFruit body[76]
Inhibit the production of TNF-a, INF-γ and the secretion of IL-17aGAC1Fruit body[59, 77]
Promotion of stem/progenitor cell survivalIncrease the expression of CAM, IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES; Increase the secretion of BMP-2, IL-11 and aggrecan; Boost TPO- and GM-CSF-like functionsRF3Fruit body[81]
Table 3  Function, mechanism and origin of bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related properties.
Figure 2.  The structure of Reishi Polysaccharide fraction 3 (RF3) with different glycol backbone

A) The structure of RF3 with β-glucan backbone. B) The structure of RF3 with α-mannan backbone.

Figure 3.  The structure of Ganoderic acid C1 (GAC1).
Bioactive componentsOriginFunctionMechanismRefs.
Aqueous extracts of G lucidum and G. neo-japonicumFruit bodies of G lucidum and G. neo-japonicumNeuroprotectionPromote neuritogenesis through the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways[82, 83]
Methanolic extract of G. lucidum, G. lucidum antler and G. tsugaeFruit bodies of G. lucidum, G. lucidum antler and G. tsugaeAntioxidant activityStrong DPPH scavenging effect and ferrous ion chelating activity[84]
G. atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1)Fruit body of G. atrumLifespan extensionDecrease oxidative stress in aged mice; Relieve immune dysfunction through upregulation of serum IL-2 level and increasing lymphocyte proliferation[86, 87]
Antioxidant activityIncrease the production of SOD, CAT, GSH and GPx; decrease the level of MDA and ROS[92, 93, 94]
ImmunomodulationInduce production of IL-2 and increase activation of spleen lymphocytes through Ca2+/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway or protein kinase C (PKC)/NFAT pathway; Induce the release of TNF-α during macrophage activation through the TLR4/ROS/PI3K/Akt/MAPKs/NF-κB pathway[95, 96, 97]
Polysaccharide from submerged fermentation culturing mycelium powder of G. capenseCulturing mycelium powder of G. capensePromotion of neuronal differentiationStrong 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging abilities[99, 100]
Anti-glycation activityInhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products[101]
Table 4  The origin, function and mechanisms of extractions or bioactive components from other Ganoderma species exerting potential anti-aging effects.
Figure 4.  The structures of polysaccharides from submerged fermentation culturing mycelium powder of Ganoderma capense (GCPB-1b and GCPB-2)

A) The chemical structure of GCPB-1b. B) The chemical structure of GCPB-2.

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