Wang Jue1,2, Cao Bin1, Zhao Haiping2,*, Feng Juan1,*
1Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, China 2Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China
Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus that has been viewed as a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been revealed that several extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, such as Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and some bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the use of Ganoderma lucidum as an elixir has been around for thousands of years, studies revealing its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg. Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to be anti-aging are too few compared with the large amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect and its clinical application.
Inhibit ROS production, lipid peroxidation, advanced oxidation protein products; Increase production of mitochondrial electron transport complexes, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenger activities and FRAP
Increase expressions of TLR4 and MyD88
Increase expression and phosphorylation of Nrf2 to induce the upregulation of HO-1
Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA)
Increase radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power
Inhibit synaptophysin transportation, JNK and p38 signaling pathway to antagonize neuronal apoptosis
Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract
Neuronal differentiation promoting effect
Induce Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation Increase the secretion of non-amyloidogenic protein secretion (sAPPα) and expression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP)
[40, 41, 43]
Water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK)
Inhibit lipid peroxidation and ROS production Increase SOD, CAT and GSH productions
Ganodermasides A, B, C and D
Lifespan elongation activity
Increase expression of Skn7 to induce production of UTH1
Table 1 The origin, function and mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum extracts in anti-aging or anti-aging related effects.
Figure 1. The structure of Ganodermasides
A, B, C and D. 1 represents A, 2 represents B, 3 represents C, 4 represents D; 1: R1=H, R2=OH, R3=H; 2: R1=H, R2=H, R3=OH; 3: R1=OH, R2, R3=O; 4: R1=OH, R2=H, R3=H.
Ara, Rha, Xyl, Man, Glu
4.66: 1.23: 3.14: 0.61: 1.29
Ara, Xyl, Glu
2.82: 1.33: 0.87
Ara, Rha, Xyl, Gal, Man, Glu
5.09: 0.52: 1.07: 1.29: 0.48: 2.76
Ara, Rha, Fuc, Xyl, Man, Glu
4.73: 0.65: 0.72: 2.27: 0.52: 0.92
Table 2 Monosaccharide composition of GLPI, GLPII, GLPIII and GLPIV.
Binding to TIR-1 and activating the rab-1/pmk-1 signaling pathway to induce the expression of DAF-2
Increase hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging activities as well as metal chelating activity
G. lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV
Increase scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, reactions with free oxygen species or ROOH and increase metal chelating activity
Increase the production of NADPH, SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px; protect the mitochondria in macrophages against t-BOOH induced injury; increase the oxidation of LDL
Induce the productions of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH and inhibit protein and lipid peroxidation
Total G. lucidum triterpenes
Increase the production of IL-1, IL-2 and IFN-γ; increase the numbers of CD14+CD26+ monocyte/macrophage, CD83+CD1a+ dendritic cells and CD16+CD56+ NK cells; increase the cytotoxicity of CD56+ NK cells
Increase the proliferation of macrophages and their activation through increase in the production of NO
G. lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV
Activate NF-κB pathway to decrease the production of IL-8 and MCP-1
Inhibit the production of TNF-a, INF-γ and the secretion of IL-17a
Promotion of stem/progenitor cell survival
Increase the expression of CAM, IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES; Increase the secretion of BMP-2, IL-11 and aggrecan; Boost TPO- and GM-CSF-like functions
Table 3 Function, mechanism and origin of bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related properties.
Figure 2. The structure of Reishi Polysaccharide fraction 3 (RF3) with different glycol backbone
A) The structure of RF3 with β-glucan backbone. B) The structure of RF3 with α-mannan backbone.
Figure 3. The structure of Ganoderic acid C1 (GAC1).
Aqueous extracts of G lucidum and G. neo-japonicum
Fruit bodies of G lucidum and G. neo-japonicum
Promote neuritogenesis through the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways
Methanolic extract of G. lucidum, G. lucidum antler and G. tsugae
Fruit bodies of G. lucidum, G. lucidum antler and G. tsugae
Strong DPPH scavenging effect and ferrous ion chelating activity
G. atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1)
Fruit body of G. atrum
Decrease oxidative stress in aged mice; Relieve immune dysfunction through upregulation of serum IL-2 level and increasing lymphocyte proliferation
Increase the production of SOD, CAT, GSH and GPx; decrease the level of MDA and ROS
[92, 93, 94]
Induce production of IL-2 and increase activation of spleen lymphocytes through Ca2+/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway or protein kinase C (PKC)/NFAT pathway; Induce the release of TNF-α during macrophage activation through the TLR4/ROS/PI3K/Akt/MAPKs/NF-κB pathway
[95, 96, 97]
Polysaccharide from submerged fermentation culturing mycelium powder of G. capense
Culturing mycelium powder of G. capense
Promotion of neuronal differentiation
Strong 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging abilities
Inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products
Table 4 The origin, function and mechanisms of extractions or bioactive components from other Ganoderma species exerting potential anti-aging effects.
Figure 4. The structures of polysaccharides from submerged fermentation culturing mycelium powder of Ganoderma capense (GCPB-1b and GCPB-2)
A) The chemical structure of GCPB-1b. B) The chemical structure of GCPB-2.
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