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Aging and Disease    2017, Vol. 8 Issue (5) : 590-610     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0430
Review |
Age-related Impairment of Vascular Structure and Functions
Xianglai Xu1,2,*,Brian Wang2,Changhong Ren2,4,Jiangnan Hu2,David A. Greenberg5,Tianxiang Chen6,Liping Xie3,*,Kunlin Jin2,*
1Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
2Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA.
3Department of Urology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province, China.
4Institute of Hypoxia Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University. Beijing, China.
5Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945, USA.
6Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.
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Among age-related diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are major causes of death. Vascular dysfunction is a key characteristic of these diseases wherein age is an independent and essential risk factor. The present work will review morphological alterations of aging vessels in-depth, which includes the discussion of age-related microvessel loss and changes to vasculature involving the capillary basement membrane, intima, media, and adventitia as well as the accompanying vascular dysfunctions arising from these alterations.

Keywords vascular aging      vascular remodeling      endothelial dysfunction      arterial stiffness     
Corresponding Authors: Xianglai Xu,Liping Xie,Kunlin Jin   
Just Accepted Date: 02 May 2017   Issue Date: 26 September 2017
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Xianglai Xu
Brian Wang
Changhong Ren
Jiangnan Hu
David A. Greenberg
Tianxiang Chen
Liping Xie
Kunlin Jin
Cite this article:   
Xianglai Xu,Brian Wang,Changhong Ren, et al. Age-related Impairment of Vascular Structure and Functions[J]. A&D, 2017, 8(5): 590-610.
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Figure 1.  Illustrated histology of the normal vessel and histological alterations of vascular aging and atherosclerosis

Cross sectional view of the arterial wall. (A) Normal artery. (B) Aged artery. It is characterized by a thickened vessel wall, thickened subendothelial layer, elastin fragments, VSMCs migration and invasion. (C) Atherosclerosis. It is characterized by the accumulation of plaque and the invasion of macrophages and foam cells.

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