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Aging and disease    2018, Vol. 9 Issue (3) : 374-390     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0706
Orginal Article |
Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Effects of High Cholesterol Diet on Aged Brain
Yali Chen,Mengmei Yin,Xuejin Cao,Gang Hu,Ming Xiao
Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
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Abstract  

Both hypercholesterolemia and aging are related to cognitive decline or Alzheimer’s disease. However, their interactive influence on the neurodegenerative progress remains unclear. To address this issue, 6-month-old and 16-month-old female mice were fed a 3% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks, followed by hippocampus-related functional, pathological, biochemical and molecular analyses. The high cholesterol diet did not exacerbate age-dependent cognitive decline and hippocampal neuronal death, and even greatly mitigated decreases of synaptophysin and growth associated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus of aged mice. Compared with young controls, aged mice fed normal diet showed mild activation of hippocampal microglia with increased expression of CD68, a marker of the microglial M1 phenotype, and decreased expression of CD206, a marker of the microglial M2 phenotype. More interestingly, the high cholesterol diet not only improved NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression, but also increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-6 in the hippocampus of old mice, suggesting playing pro- and anti-neuroinflammatory effects. In addition, the cholesterol rich diet resulted in a defect of the blood-brain barrier of aged hippocampus, as revealed by increased brain albumin content. These results have revealed both harmful and protective effects of high cholesterol diet on aged brain, which helps us to understand that hypercholesterolemia in the aged population is not associated with dementia and cognitive impairment.

Keywords aging      brain      high cholesterol diet      neuroinflammation      synaptic proteins     
Corresponding Authors: Ming Xiao   
Issue Date: 05 June 2018
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Yali Chen
Mengmei Yin
Xuejin Cao
Gang Hu
Ming Xiao
Cite this article:   
Yali Chen,Mengmei Yin,Xuejin Cao, et al. Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Effects of High Cholesterol Diet on Aged Brain[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(3): 374-390.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2017.0706     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2018/V9/I3/374
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