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Aging and disease    2018, Vol. 9 Issue (4) : 634-646     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0925
Orginal Article |
Gait Analyses in Mice: Effects of Age and Glutathione Deficiency
Mock J. Thomas, Knight Sherilynn G, Vann Philip H, Wong Jessica M, Davis Delaney L, Forster Michael J, Sumien Nathalie*
Department of Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience Discovery, Institute for Healthy Aging, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX, 76107 USA.
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Abstract  

Minor changes (~0.1 m/s) in human gait speed are predictive of various measures of decline and can be used to identify at-risk individuals prior to further decline. These associations are possible due to an abundance of human clinical research. However, age-related gait changes are not well defined in rodents, even though rodents are used as the primary pre-clinical model for many disease states as well as aging research. Our study investigated the usefulness of a novel automated system, the CatWalk™ XT, to measure age-related differences in gait. Furthermore, age-related functional declines have been associated with decreases in the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio leading to a pro-oxidizing cellular shift. Therefore the secondary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic glutathione deficiency led to exacerbated age-associated impairments. Groups of male and female wild-type (gclm+/+) and knock-out (gclm-/-) mice aged 4, 10 and 17 months were tested on the CatWalk and gait measurements recorded. Similar age-related declines in all measures of gait were observed in both males and females, and chronic glutathione depletion was associated with some delays in age-related declines, which were further exacerbated. In conclusion, the CatWalk is a useful tool to assess gait changes with age, and further studies will be required to identify the potential compensating mechanisms underlying the effects observed with the chronic glutathione depletion.

Keywords Aging      glutathione deficiency      gait      speed      catwalk     
Corresponding Authors: Sumien Nathalie   
About author:

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Issue Date: 01 August 2018
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Mock J. Thomas
Knight Sherilynn G
Vann Philip H
Wong Jessica M
Davis Delaney L
Forster Michael J
Sumien Nathalie
Cite this article:   
Mock J. Thomas,Knight Sherilynn G,Vann Philip H, et al. Gait Analyses in Mice: Effects of Age and Glutathione Deficiency[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(4): 634-646.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2017.0925     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2018/V9/I4/634
MalesFemalesTotal
Age (months)410174101741017
Gclm+/+15151513159283024
Gclm-/-15158141212292720
Table 1  Number of animals per group according to genotype and age
Gait speedRate of body movement in cm/s
Base of supportWidth between the two front or two hind paws in cm
Stride LengthDistance between subsequent placements of the same paw
for the two front or two hind paws in cm
Swing SpeedRate of movement of a paw during the swing phase
for the two front or two hind paws in cm/s
Step Cycle DurationTime to go through both the stand and swing phases
for the two front or two hind paws in s
Table 2  Gait variable definitions
Figure 1.  Effects of age, sex and genotype on body weights (g) in young (4 month), adult (10 month), and old (17 month) gclm<sup>+/+</sup> and gclm<sup>-/-</sup> mice

Each value represents the mean + SEM. + p<0.05 compared to age and genotype-matched males; *p < 0.05 compared to genotype-matched young; †p<0.05 adult compared to genotype-matched old; #p < 0.05 compared to age-matched gclm+/+.

Figure 2.  Effects of sex, age and genotype on gait speed (cm/s) in young (4 month), adult (10 month), and old (17 month) gclm<sup>+/+</sup> and gclm<sup>-/-</sup> mice

Each value represents the mean + SEM. *p < 0.05 compared to genotype-matched young; †p<0.05 adult compared to genotype-matched old; #p < 0.05 compared to age-matched gclm+/+.

Figure 3.  Effects of sex, age and genotype on width of the front and hind paw base of support (cm) in young (4 month), adult (10 month), and old (17 month) gclm<sup>+/+</sup> and gclm<sup>-/-</sup> mice

Each value represents the mean + SEM. *p < 0.05 compared to genotype-matched young; †p<0.05 adult compared to genotype-matched old; #p < 0.05 compared to age-matched gclm+/+.

Figure 4.  Effects of sex, age and genotype on the front and hind paw stride length (cm) in young (4 month), adult (10 month), and old (17 month) gclm<sup>+/+</sup> and gclm<sup>-/-</sup> mice

Each value represents the mean + SEM. *p < 0.05 compared to genotype-matched young; †p<0.05 adult compared to genotype-matched old; #p < 0.05 compared to age-matched gclm+/+.

Figure 5.  Effects of sex, age and genotype on the front and hind paw swing speed (cm/s) in young (4 month), adult (10 month), and old (17 month) gclm<sup>+/+</sup> and gclm<sup>-/-</sup> mice

Each value represents the mean + SEM. *p < 0.05 compared to genotype-matched young; †p<0.05 adult compared to genotype-matched old; #p < 0.05 compared to age-matched gclm+/+.

Figure 6.  Effects of sex, age and genotype on the front and hind paw step cycle duration (s) in young (4 month), adult (10 month), and old (17 month) gclm<sup>+/+</sup> and gclm<sup>-/-</sup> mice

Each value represents the mean + SEM. *p < 0.05 compared to genotype-matched young; †p<0.05 adult compared to genotype-matched old; #p < 0.05 compared to age-matched gclm+/+.

Figure 7.  Relationship of speed with base of support, stride length, step cycle duration, and swing speed in the front and hind paws of young (4 month), adult (10 month), and old (17 month) gclm<sup>+/+</sup> and gclm<sup>-/-</sup> male and female mice

Each value represents a single animal.

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