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Aging and disease    2018, Vol. 9 Issue (5) : 831-842     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.1027
Orginal Article |
Searching for Factors Raising the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome Among 45-60-Year-Old Women
Szkup Małgorzata1, Brodowski Jacek2, Aleksander Jerzy Owczarek3, Choręza Piotr3, Jurczak Anna4,*,  Grochans Elżbieta1
1Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
2Primary Care Department, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
3Department of Statistics, Department of Instrumental Analysis, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
4Department of Clinical Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract  

Metabolic syndrome is an increasing health problem, whose pathogenesis may be associated with genetic factors. The main purpose of our study was to assess relationships between MetS and the presence of the FTO rs9939609, the MC4R rs17782313, and the PPAR-γ rs1801282 polymorphisms in 45-60-year-old women. The study included patients from the general population of the Westpomeranian Province (Poland). The mean age was 54.3 ± 4.2 years. The research procedure involved taking structured history, physical examination, anthropometric measurements, and collecting blood for biochemical and genetic analysis. The patients who met the diagnostic criteria for MetS constituted 38.35% of all participants (sample size: 425 patients). The comparison of blood biochemical parameters revealed numerous differences between the women with MetS and those from the control group. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the T allele of the FTO gene was a factor substantially decreasing the incidence of MetS in the study sample (ORT vs. A = 0.734; 95% CI: 0.555 - 0.970; p < 0.05). Other polymorphisms were not directly related to MetS incidence. Conclusions: 1. MetS-related abnormalities are widespread in the population of 45-60-year-old Polish women. Those most common are the elevated serum total cholesterol and LDL levels, increased insulin resistance and BMI scores, as well as visceral obesity. 2. No direct relationships were demonstrated between MetS and the gene polymorphisms analyzed in our study except for the FTO rs9939609, whose A allele and A/A genotype seemed to predispose to metabolic disorders.

Keywords Metabolic Syndrome X      Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO) Protein      Melanocortin Melanocortin 4 Receptor      Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma     
Corresponding Authors: Jurczak Anna   
About author: These authors contributed equally to this work.
Issue Date: 05 October 2017
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Małgorzata Szkup
Jacek Brodowski
Jerzy Owczarek Aleksander
Piotr Choręza
Anna Jurczak
Elżbieta Grochans
Cite this article:   
Małgorzata Szkup,Jacek Brodowski,Jerzy Owczarek Aleksander, et al. Searching for Factors Raising the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome Among 45-60-Year-Old Women[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(5): 831-842.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2017.1027     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2018/V9/I5/831
Reference rangeBelow the norm
[n (%)]
The norm
[n (%)]
Above the norm [n (%)]
Insulin [uIU/ml]2.6 — 24.9 uIU/ml3 (0.71%)399 (93.88%)23 (5.41%)
Total cholesterol [mg/dl]115 — 190 mg/dl1 (0.23%)105 (24.71%)319 (75.06%)
HDL [mg/dl]> 50 mg/dl110 (25.94%)314 (74.06%)
LDL [mg/dl]< 115 mg/dl135 (31.76%)290 (68.24%)
TG [mg/dl]< 150 mg/dl332 (78.12%)93 (21.88%)
Non-HDL [mg/dl]< 145 mg/dl177 (41.65%)248 (58.35%)
Glucose [mg/dl]60 — 99 mg/dl321 (75.53%)104 (24.47%)
CRP [mg/l]0.0 — 5.0 mg/l378 (88.94%)47 (11.06%)
HOMA-IR≤ 2.5 [36]269 (63.29%)156 (36.71%)
sRR [mmHg}≤ 130 mmHg199 (46.82%)226 (53.18%)
dRR [mmHg}≤ 85 mmHg298 (70.12%)127 (29.88%)
Waist size [cm]≤ 80 cm [3]115 (27.06%)310 (72.94%)
Underweight
[n (%)]
Norm
[n (%)]
Overweight
[n (%)]
Obesity
[n (%)]
BMI
(refernce range: 18.5 - 24.99 kg/m2)
2 (0.47%)135 (31.91%)162 (38.30%)126 (29.79%)
Gynoid fat distribution
WHR < 0.8 [n (%)]
Android fat distribution
WHR ≥ 0.8 [n (%)]
WHR79 (18.59%)(346) 81.41%
Table 1  Characteristics of the biochemical and anthropometric parameters of the women with regard to the normal ranges.
MetS (+) (n = 162)MetS (-) (n = 263)p
Insulin [uIU/ml]12.89 (9.26 — 17.20)8.70 (6.30 — 10.30)< 0.001
Fasting glycemia [mg/dl]101.0 (90.0 — 117.0)84.0 (78.0 — 91.0)< 0.001
HOMA-IR4.741 (2.240 — 4.447)1.790 (1.260 — 2.334)< 0.001
Total cholesterol [mg/dl]219.0 ± 52.3218.1 ± 36.70.858
LDL [mg/dl]133.4 ± 46.6132.1 ± 34.40.761
HDL [mg/dl]55.3 ± 16.767.8 ± 15.4< 0.001
TG [mg/dl]147.0 (103.0 — 194.0)84.0 (67.0 — 109.0)< 0.001
Non-HDL [mg/dl]164.2 ± 51.4150.3 ± 37.5< 0.01
CRP [mg/dl]1.5 (1.1 - 2.8)2.4 (1.3 - 3.8)< 0.001
Body mass [kg]77.5 ± 13.071.0 ± 13.0< 0.001
BMI [kg/m2]28.93 (25.80 — 33.20)25.80 (23.40 — 29.00)< 0.001
Hip size [cm]103.9 (98.6 — 109.0)100.4 (96.0 — 105.9)< 0.001
Waist size [cm]91.4 ± 10.785.5 ± 10.0< 0.001
WHR0.872 ± 0.0730.841 ± 0.073< 0.001
sRR [mmHg]135.5 ± 14.6122.2 ± 14.3< 0.001
dRR [mmHg]81.8 ± 9.676.9 ± 10.3< 0.001
Table 2  Comparative analysis of particular biochemical and anthropometric parameters, and blood pressure in the women with regard to MetS.
MetS (+) (n = 162)
[n (%)]
MetS (-) (n = 263)
[n (%)]
p
Menstruation [N (%)]18 (11.11%)52 (19.77%)< 0.05
Smoking [N (%)]32 (19.75%)52 (19.77%)0.870
Coronary heart disease [N (%)]16 (9.88%)2 (0.76%)< 0.001
Type 2 diabetes [N (%)]49 (30.25%)7 (2.66%)< 0.001
Hyperlipidemia [N (%)]51 (31.48%)10 (3.80%)< 0.001
Table 3  Comparative analysis of particular elements of the women’s health functioning with regard to MetS.
FTO genotypeFTO allele
A/A
n (%)
A/T
n (%)
T/T
n (%)
A allele
n (%)
T allele
n (%)
MetS (+)41 (25.31%)72 (44.44%)49 (30.25%)154 (42.3%)170 (35.0%)
MetS (-)42 (15.97%)126 (47.91%)95 (36.12%)210 (57.7%)316 (65.0%)
83 (19.53%)198 (46.59%)144 (33.88%)
pp = 0.056p < 0.05
MC4R genotypeMC4R allele
C/C
n (%)
C/T
n (%)
T/T
n (%)
C allele
n (%)
T allele
n (%)
MetS (+)2 (1.23%)58 (35.80%)102 (60.69%)62 (38.5%)262 (38.0%)
MetS (-)8 (3.04%)83 (31.56%)172 (65.40%)99 (61.5%)427 (62.0%)
10 (2.35%)141 (33.18%)274 (64.47%)
pp = 0.363p = 0.909
PPAR genotypePPAR allele
C/C
n (%)
C/G
n (%)
G/G
n (%)
C allele
n (%)
G allele
n (%)
MetS (+)107 (66.05%)47 (29.01%)8 (4.94%)261 (37.7%)63 (40.9%)
MetS (-)186 (71.26%)59 (22.61%)16 (6.13%)431 (62.3%)91 (59.1%)
293 (69.27%)106 (25.06%)24 (5.67%)
pp = 0.320p = 0.461
Table 4  Analysis of the distribution of the FTO rs9939609, the MC4R rs17782313, and the PPAR-γ rs1801282 polymorphisms with regard to MetS.
ModelGenotypeMetS (+)MetS (-)OR (95% CI)p-valueBIC
Association between PPAR-γ and MetS (n = 423, crude analysis)
CondominantC/C107 (66.0%)186 (71.3%)1.000.32578.9
C/G47 (29.0%)59 (22.6%)1.38 (0.88 - 2.17)
G/G8 (4.9%)16 (6.1%)0.87 (0.36 - 2.10)
DominantC/C107 (66.0%)186 (71.3%)1.000.26573.8
C/G-G/G55 (34.0%)75 (28.7%)1.27 (0.84 - 1.94)
RecessiveC/C-C/G154 (95.1%)245 (93.9%)1.000.60574.8
G/G8 (4.9%)16 (6.1%)0.80 (0.33 - 1.90)
OverdominantC/C-G/G115 (71.0%)202 (77.4%)1.000.14572.9
C/G47 (29.0%)59 (22.6%)1.40 (0.90 - 2.19)
Association between FTO and MetS (n = 425, crude analysis)
CondominantT/T-A/T49 (30.2%)95 (36.1%)1.000.06577.4
A/T72 (44.4%)126 (47.9%)1.11 (0.71-1.74)
A/A41 (25.3%)42 (16%)1.89 (1.09-3.28)
DominantT/T49 (30.2%)95 (36.1%)1.000.21575.5
A/T-A/A113 (69.8%)168 (63.9%)1.30 (0.86-1.98)
RecessiveT/T-A/T121 (74.7%)221 (84%)1.00< 0.05571.6
A/A41 (25.3%)42 (16%)1.78 (1.10-2.89)
OverdominantT/T-A/A90 (55.6%)137 (52.1%)1.000.49576.6
A/T72 (44.4%)126 (47.9%)0.87 (0.59-1.29)
Association between MC4R and MetS (n = 425, crude analysis)
CondominantT/T102 (63%)172 (65.4%)1.000.34580.9
C/T58 (35.8%)83 (31.6%)1.18 (0.78-1.79)
C/C2 (1.2%)8 (3%)0.42 (0.09-2.02)
DominantT/T102 (63%)172 (65.4%)1.000.61576.8
C/T-C/C60 (37%)91 (34.6%)1.11 (0.74-1.67)
RecessiveT/T-C/T160 (98.8%)255 (97%)1.000.21575.5
C/C2 (1.2%)8 (3%)0.40 (0.08-1.90)
OverdominantT/T-C/C104 (64.2%)180 (68.4%)1.000.37576.2
C/T58 (35.8%)83 (31.6%)1.21 (0.80-1.83)
Table 5  Odds ratios (OR) for the relationships between MetS and the FTO rs9939609, the MC4R rs17782313, and the PPAR-γ rs1801282 SNPs calculated assuming different models of inheritance
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