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Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Cueing on Aging Gait: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Shashank Ghai1,*, Ishan Ghai2, Alfred O. Effenberg1
1Institute for Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
2School of Life Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Germany
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Abstract  

Rhythmic auditory cueing has been widely used in gait rehabilitation over the past decade. The entrainment effect has been suggested to introduce neurophysiological changes, alleviate auditory-motor coupling and reduce cognitive-motor interferences. However, a consensus as to its influence over aging gait is still warranted. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on spatiotemporal gait parameters among healthy young and elderly participants. This systematic identification of published literature was performed according to PRISMA guidelines, from inception until May 2017, on online databases: Web of science, PEDro, EBSCO, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and PROQUEST. Studies were critically appraised using PEDro scale. Of 2789 records, 34 studies, involving 854 (499 young/ 355 elderly) participants met our inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed enhancements in spatiotemporal parameters of gait i.e. gait velocity (Hedge’s g: 0.85), stride length (0.61), and cadence (1.1), amongst both age groups. This review, for the first time, evaluates the effects of auditory entrainment on aging gait and discusses its implications under higher and lower information processing constraints. Clinical implications are discussed with respect to applications of auditory entrainment in rehabilitation settings.

Keywords cueing      stability      rehabilitation      cognitive-motor interference      balance      entrainment      dual task     
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Corresponding Authors: Ghai Shashank   
Just Accepted Date: 09 November 2017   Issue Date: 06 November 2017
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Shashank Ghai
Ishan Ghai
Alfred O. Effenberg
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Shashank Ghai,Ishan Ghai,Alfred O. Effenberg. Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Cueing on Aging Gait: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis[J]. A&D, 10.14336/AD.2017.1031
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2017.1031     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y0/V/I/131
Figure 1.  PRISMA flow chart for the inclusion of studies.
AuthorSample description, age: (M ± S.D years)PEDro scoreAssessment toolsResearch designAuditory feedback elementsConclusion
Dotov, et al. [100]7F, 12M (60)6Coefficient of variation of inter-stride interval, cadence, gait velocity, stride length, DFA of short-long term series of inter-response-interval correlations, circular statistics for synchronization of footfall & beatPre-test, gait performance with/without RAC (no variability, biological variability, non-biological variability; randomized), post-testRAC with no variability, biological variability & non-biological variability at +10% of preferred cadenceMagnitude of biological & non-biological variability: 2% of inter-beat-interval Metronome sequence: triangle timbre Musical excerpts Amplitude modulated noise: Modulated on musical excerpt with drum ensemble, discarding tonal informationSignificant enhancement in coefficient of variation for inter-stride interval after RAC in all conditions.Significant effect of RAC that was amplitude modulated for biological variability as compared to IC on short-long term correlation for term series of inter-response-interval correlations. Enhanced synchronization, cadence but reduced short-long term correlation for term series of inter-response-interval correlations during metronome based IC as compared to feedback with amplitude modulated for biological variability.
Maculewicz, et al. [141]5F, 15M (24.4±3.2)4Mean square error for the asynchrony between target & performed measure & trend of tempo change obtained from slope of line fitted to measured tempo, questionnaireGait performance with/without real-time auditory feedback (adaptive), RAC (constant) &/or haptic feedback, with instructions to perform gait at preferred cadence or the tempo of the soundReal-time auditory feedback (adaptive), RAC (constant) by sine, wood & gravel soundsSignificantly enhanced step wise interaction with real time auditory feedback with (sinusoid >wood>gravel).Significant reduction in asynchrony with audio-haptic feedback & real-time auditory feedback as compared to no feedback. Significant enhancement in comfort for perceiving haptic & audio-haptic feedback as compared to haptic only or no feedback in self-reported questionnaire.
Schreiber, et al. [97]5F, 12M (37.4±15.7)4Cadence, gait speed, rhythmicity, stance time, double support time, gait symmetry, step length, stride length, step width, EMG activity of (tibialis anterior, soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus medius & gluteus maximus), kinematics for pelvis, hips, knees & ankle joint (sagittal, frontal, transverse plane)Gait performance with/without RAC cueing at preferred, reduced cadence (instructions & cueing randomized)RAC at preferred & reduced cadenceSignificantly reduced gait speed with RAC at preferred cadence as compared to preferred speed gait without cueing.No effect of RAC on cadence, rhythmicity, stance time, double support time, gait symmetry for RAC at preferred or reduced cadence as compared to no cueing. Significantly reduced step width with RAC at reduced cadence as compared to reduced speed gait without cueing. Significantly enhanced step length with RAC at reduced cadence as compared to reduced speed gait without cueing. Significant differences for ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion & hip abduction of the gait cycle with RAC at reduced cadence as compared to reduced speed gait without cueing.
Hamacher, et al. [104]Young: 8F, 12M (24.9±4.1)Old: 11F, 9M (67.4±5.3) 5Stride length, minimum foot clearance, stride time, stride to stride analysis (mean & coefficient of variation)Gait performance with/without dual-task (arithmetic subtraction in 3's task) &/ RAC (randomized)RAC at preferred cadenceSignificant enhancement in stride length, stride time with RAC (with/without dual-task) in both younger & older adults.Significantly enhanced coefficient of variation of stride time in older participants under dual-task condition & with RAC Enhancement in coefficient of variation of stride to stride in older participants under dual-task condition & with RAC
Terrier [96]22F, 14M (33±10)4DFA of coefficient of variability for stride time, stride length, stride speed, stride length, stride speed & stride timeGait performance on treadmill with/without visual (stepping stones), RACRAC at preferred cadenceSignificant reduction in stride time & stride speed with RAC as compared to no cueing.No effect on coefficient of variation for stride length, stride time & stride speed (mean & coefficient of variation) with RAC
Roerdink, et al. [162]5F, 7M (28±6)5Stride-to-stride DFA for persistence of stride time, stride length, stride speed & anterior-posterior center of pressure swayTreadmill gait performed with/without RAC with isochronous metronome & non-isochronous metronome containing inter-beat interval sequences with distinct scaling exponents (randomized)RAC with (IC) containing equidistant inter-beat interval & 4 (non-isochronous) metronome containing inter-beat interval sequences with distinct scaling exponentsFrequency: 600Hz RAC with mean inter-beat intervals being equal to mean stride time of preferred cadence.Significant effect of IC cueing for changing the stride-to-stride fluctuations of stride length & stride time to anti-persistent & vice versa for the non-IC.Significant effect of isochronous & non-isochronous metronome cueing for changing the stride-to-stride fluctuations of stride speed to anti-persistent for both the cueing.
Wright, Spurgeon and Elliott [163]8F, 2M (20-33)5Mean asynchrony, step time variability & mean percentage step correctionGait performance with/without RAC &/or visual cueingRAC, 500 ms (cue duration 30 ms), 800HzSignificant enhancement in & mean percentage step correction with audio & audio-visual cueing as compared to only visual cueingSignificant reduction in mean synchrony of step with RAC with audio-visual cueing as compared to only audio or visual cueing. Significant reduction in step time variability with audio & audio-visual cueing as compared to only visual cueing
Leow, et al. [105]24F, 19M (18-20)5Stride velocity, step length, step time, stride width, double support, & coefficient of variability for stride lengthGait performance with/without rhythmic music, RAC (low/high groove) at 0% & +22.5% of preferred cadenceRAC (low/high groove music) at 0% & +22.5% of preferred cadence (50ms 1kHz sine tones)Significant enhancement in stride velocity with rhythmic music cueing (high groove) & metronome at +22.5% of preferred cadence as compared to no cueing.Significant reduction in double support with metronome cueing at 0% & +25% of preferred cadence as compared to no cueing. Significant reduction in step length with high groove music at +25% of preferred cadence. Significant reduction in step time in low (0% also), high groove music cueing & RAC at +25% of preferred cadence cueing as compared to no cueing. Significant enhancement in coefficient of variability for stride length with low & high groove RAC at 0% & +25% of preferred cadence.
Sejdić, et al. [164]8F, 7M (23.9±4.7)5Gait speed, mean stride interval, stride interval variability, stride interval dynamics, dynamic stability of gait in anterior-posterior, vertical & medio-lateral dimension (short: between 0th & 1st stride & long: between 4th & 10th stride, term Lyapunov exponent)Gait performance with rhythmic auditory, visual & haptic cueing (randomly spate or together) at preferred cadence during 2 sessionsRAC at preferred cadenceSignificantly reduced stride interval variability with RAC (alone & combined with visual & haptic cueing) as compared to no cueing condition.Significantly reduced stride interval dynamics (long term Lyapunov exponent) with RAC (alone & combined with visual & haptic cueing) as compared to no cueing condition. Significant enhancement in dynamic stability of gait with RAC (alone & combined with visual & haptic cueing) as compared to no cueing condition.
Terrier and Dériaz [165]10F, 10M (36±11)4DFA on time series of stride time, stride length & stride speedShort & long-term local dynamic stability in anterior-posterior & medial-lateral directionGait performance on treadmill at slow (0.7 times preferred cadence), fast (1.3 times preferred cadence) & at preferred cadence with/ without RAC (randomly)RAC at slow (0.7 times slower than preferred cadence), fast (1.3 times faster than preferred cadence) cadenceSignificant enhancement in long term local dynamic stability with RACSignificant reduction of stride time & stride length variability at slow speed with RAC No effect on short term local dynamic stability with RAC
Roerdink, et al. [166]10F, 10M (63.2±3.6)5Cadence, mean relative timing between footfalls & auditory stimuli, variability of mean relative timing (by circular statistics)Participants performed gait at preferred cadence followed by 7 random trials with adjusted RAC i.e. 77.5%, 85%, 92.5%, 100%, 107.5%, 115% or 122.5%Auditory input from drum RAC at 77.5%, 85%, 92.5%, 100%, 107.5%, 115% or 122.5% of preferred cadenceDifferent pitch to pace for RAC i.e. for step left: 440Hz, right: 1000HzSignificant effect of RAC on cadence, mean relative timing & variability of mean relative timing between footfalls & auditory inputs.Significantly fewer steps required to reach synchronization
Lohnes and Earhart [67]Young: 7F, 4M (24±0.8)Old: 7F, 4M (70.8±10.4) 5Gait velocity, cadence & stride lengthPatients performed gait with/without RAC at -10%, +10% of preferred cadence or with additional cueing strategy “think about larger strides” with/without -10% & +10% of auditory inputs tone, with/without dual-task “word generation task”RAC at ±10% of preferred cadence.Significant effect on gait velocity stride length, cadence for both groups with ±10% of RAC under both single and dual-task conditions.Larger effects noted in young participants as compared to older counterparts. Verbal instructions had no influence on cadence among both groups under both single and dual-task conditions.
Trombetti, et al. [167]Exp: 64F, 2M (75±8)Ct: 65F, 3M (76±6)8Gait velocity, stride length, cadence, double, single support phase, stride time/length variability, TUG test, trunk angular displacement, Tinetti tests & assessment of fallsExp: Pre-test, gait & exercise training with auditory input performed for 1-hour session/ week for 12 months, 6-month test, post-test, with/without dual-task (counting backward aloud task)Ct: started 6-month delayed intervention, with/without dual-task (counting backward aloud task)RAC as piano musicSingle task: Significant enhancement in gait velocity, stride length & stride time variability for the Exp as compared to Ct.Dual-task: Significant enhancement in stride length, decrease in stride length variability in Exp as compared to Ct Significant enhancement in 1 legged stance, Tinetti tests, TUG & decreased mediolateral angular velocity. Significantly reduced incidences of falls in Exp as compared to Ct.
Wittwer, et al. [136]12F, 7M (79±7.8)4Swing time, stride time, velocity, stride length, double support %, stride width, stride length & time variabilityParticipants performed gait with/without auditory feedback “randomly” i.e. music or RACMusic or metronome or RAC at participants preferred cadenceSignificant enhancement in velocity, stride length with music as compared to no sound.Significant reduction in stride time, double limb support & enhancement in cadence with both music & RAC input, as compared to no auditory input. No effect on mean step width, mean temporal or spatial gat variability.
Yu, et al. [93]13F (21.8±0.4)5Stride length, cadence & gait speedGait performance with/without RAC at 0% & ±10% of preferred cadenceRAC at 0% & ±10% of preferred cadenceSignificant enhancement in stride length, cadence & gait speed with +10% RAC as compared to all conditions.Significant reduction in cadence & gait speed with -10% of RAC as compared to 0% & no cueing.
Almeida, et al. [92]Exp I: 9 (42.7±6.6)Exp II: 10 (42.4±4.5) Ct: 9 (41.7±5)4Gait speed, heart rate, maximal oxygen consumption, rating of perceived exertionGait performance with/without (Ct) RAC at 90 bpm (Exp II) & 140 bpm (Exp I) for 30 minutes with re-tests at every 5-minute intervalRAC at 90 & 140 bpmSignificant enhancement in gait performance in Exp I as compared to Exp II & Ct.No effect on heart rate & maximal oxygen consumption in Exp or Ct.
Hunt, McGrath and Stergiou [168]4F, 6M (28.1±5.3)4Stride time, sample entropy of stride time interval for individualized fractal RAC, DFA for auditory signals scaling exponent & stride time scaling exponentGait performance with/without individualized fractal RAC for white, pink & brown noise (randomized)Individualized fractal RAC (embedding white, pink & brown noise variables into inter-beat interval of music)Inter-beat interval: stretched or compressed based on dynamics of pink, white or brown noise time series Amplitude: standard deviation of inter-beat intervals matched standard deviation of step time Tempo: at preferred cadenceSignificant effect of RAC on sample entropy of stride interval time series (brown>pink>white>no sound)Significant enhancement of fractal scaling exponent with auditory feedback of stride interval time series (brown>pink>white>no sound)
Marmelat, et al. [169]7F (28±6)5DFA of inter slide interval variability, inter-beat interval variability & asynchrony with metronome between two successive right heel strikesGait performed on treadmill with /without RAC with either IC or fractal feedbackRAC with either IC or fractal feedbackInter-beat intervals contained fractal Gaussian noise with corresponding scaling exponent (600 Hz)Significant effects of pacing rhythmic metronome feedback on global exponents of inter-beat & slide intervals (persistent correlations)No effect on inter slide interval, asynchrony with RAC Participants anticipated the metronome & adapted with pacing stimuli No significant correlations between inter-beat intervals & inter-slide intervals (increased correlation with increased variability)
5F, 7M (28±6)5DFA of inter slide interval variability, inter-beat interval variability & asynchrony with metronome between two successive right heel strikesGait performed on treadmill with /without RAC with either IC or fractal feedbackRAC with non-IC (different scaling exponents)Significant effects of pacing rhythmic metronome feedback on global exponents of inter-slide intervals (anti-persistent correlations)No significant correlations between inter-beat intervals & interslide intervals (increased correlation with increased variability)
Franěk, et al. [68]30F, 42M (20.2±1.2)4Gait speed, synchronization (inter step times)Gait performed with/without rhythmic music feedback at 114, 124, 133 bpmRAC at 114, 124, 133 bpmSignificant enhancement in gait speed with faster tempo music feedback as compared to slower tempo RAC & no feedback.No effect on synchronization with rhythmic music feedback.
60F, 61M (20.6±1.5)4Gait speed, synchronization (inter step times)Gait performed with/without] RAC (music motivational/non-motivational)RAC (music motivational: 131-200 bpm, non-motivational: 52-96 bpm)Significant enhancement in gait speed with motivational rhythmic music feedback as compared to non-motivational RAC & no feedback.
Leman, et al. [142]11F, 7M (22-51)4Gait speed, gait tempo, synchronization of steps to tempoGait performance with 52 rhythmic music excerpts (activating & relaxing)RAC (relaxing or activating effects) at 130 beats per minute, short fade in of 50 ms & fade out of 100 ms applied to each musical excerptRAC superimposed at position 1, 12, 23, 34, 45, & 58 Significant effect of activating (increased gait speed), relaxing (reduced gait speed) in gait speed with RAC with same tempo.Significant enhancement in synchronization of steps with RAC
Peper, et al. [170]Young: 4F, 8M (22-28)Old: 5F, 7M (55-69)5Mean reaction time, gait speed, step length, step widthGait performed with/without RAC & visual feedback (stepping stones), dual-task (probe reaction task generating vibrating stimuli)RAC Left (440Hz), right (1000Hz)Temporal shift of ±1/6th of interval between consecutive ipsilateral beeps, causing ±60º phase delay/advanceSignificantly enhanced step length & step width RAC No effect on gait speed in young & older adults with RACSignificantly enhanced reaction times with RAC as compared to no cueing. Significantly reduced reaction time with RAC as compared to visual cueing.
Bank, Roerdink and Peper [171]10F, 10 M (63.2±3.6)5Mean normalized step time, step length, relative phase shift between gait & cuesGait performance with RAC ±22.5% (introduced in steps of ±7.5% randomly) of preferred cadence &/or stepping stone visual feedbackRAC at ±22.5% of preferred cadenceTemporal shift of ±1/6th of interval between consecutive ipsilateral beeps, causing ±60º phase delay/advanceSignificant effect of phase delay on increasing/decreasing step length, step time with auditory & visual feedback. However visual cueing > RACSignificantly enhanced phase shift from auditory to visual cueing condition. Significant reduction in coordination of RAC with gait as compared to visual cueing
Wellner, et al. [91]17 (28±8)4Obstacle hit %, average obstacle clearance & individually chosen gait speedGait performance on robot assisted device with/without Rhythmic auditory feedback (distance to obstacle &/or foot clearance feedback)Rhythmic real-time feedback for distance to obstacle & foot clearanceObstacle distance: Rhythm (repeating sound with shorter pause interval as distance decreases), continuous/discrete pitch (continuous sound with higher pitch as distance increases/decreases), dynamics (increase in volume as distance decreases) Absolute foot clearance: harmony (dissonant/consonant chords below/above obstacle), pitch with 2 & 3 levels, noise (Gaussian noise below, no sound above obstacle)Significantly enhanced self-chosen gait speed with auditory feedback as compared to only visual feedback.Significant enhancement in gait speed with rhythmic feedback for distance to obstacle &/or foot clearance as compared to no feedback
Arias and Cudeiro [102]6F, 5M (65.7±7.6)5Cadence, gait velocity, step amplitude, coefficient of variation for step amplitude & stride timePatients performed gait with/without rhythmic cueing from auditory, visual & audio-visual condition, with frequency ranging from 70-110% increment/decrement at ±10% of preferred cadenceRAC with wave frequency of 4625 Hz delivered at frequency ranging from 70-110% increment/decrement at ±10% of preferred cadenceSignificant enhancement in cadence, step amplitude in Ct with RACNo effects on gait velocity, coefficient of variability for stride time & stride amplitude.
Baker, et al. [172]7F, 5M (71.5±2.5)7Gait speed, coefficient of velocity for (step time, double limb support time)Pre-test, functional gait performance with/without RAC -10% of preferred cadence, attentional cue instructions "try to take big steps", together "take a big step with the beat", & with/without a dual-task (a tray with 2 cups of water on top), post-testRAC at -10% of preferred cadenceSignificant effect of RAC back and verbal instructions on enhancing stride length, gait velocity.Significantly reduced cadence with RAC and verbal instructions. Reduced gait speed, cadence with -10% RAC No effect on stride length.
Hausdorff, et al. [117]14F, 12M (64.6±6.8)5Stride time, gait speed, stride length, swing time, stride time variability & swing time variabilityPre-test, gait performance with/without RAC at preferred cadence, +10%, Post-test 2 & 15 min short term retention testRAC at 0% & +10% of preferred cadenceSignificant enhancement in gait speed with +10% RACSignificant reduction in stride time with +10% RAC No effect on stride length, swing time, stride time variability, swing time variability with RAC
Willems, et al. [103]9 (68.1±7.3)5Steps (number, time, height, width, length), step length, step width, step duration, coefficient of variation of step durationGait performance while turning with/without RACRAC at preferred cadenceEnhancement in step length.No effects on steps (number, time, height, width), step length, step width, step duration, coefficient of variation of step duration with RAC
Baram and Miller [99]6F, 5M (25.4±1.9)4Gait speed, stride length, 10 meters walking testPre-test, followed by rhythmic auditory feedback & 10 min follow-up short term residual performance testRhythmic auditory feedback generated with gait step in real-timeNo effects on stride length and gait velocity with rhythmic feedback generated in real-time
Willems, et al. [173]10 (67.2±9.1)4Step frequency, gait speed, stride length & double support (%) phasePre-test, gait performance at 0%, -20%, -10%, +10%, +20% of RAC (randomized), post-testRAC at 0%, -20%, -10%, +10%, +20% preferred cadenceSignificant effect of RAC on cadence, gait speed, with 0%, -10%, +10%, +20% pacing of RACNo significant effects on double limb support, stride length
Baker, et al. [101]7F, 4M (71.5±2.5)6Gait speed, step amplitude & step frequencyPre-test, functional gait performance with/without RAC -10% of preferred cadence, attentional cue instructions "try to take big steps", together "take a big step with the beat", & with/without a dual-task (a tray with 2 cups of water on top), post-testRAC at -10% of preferred cadenceSignificant effect of RAC & attentional cue "big steps with beat" on step frequency in gait speed (single-task only), step amplitude, step frequency in Ct in both single & dual-task conditionsNon-significant effects on gait speed, step amplitude & step frequency with RAC only. Effects not evitable once the RAC was removed, in post-test
Rochester, et al. [94]4F, 6M (63.5±7)6Step length, step frequency, walking speed, time duration & cadenceComplex functional walking & sitting task under single & dual-motor task (carrying a tray) condition with/without RACRAC generated per preferred speed of patients.No effects of RAC on gait speed, step length & cadence under single/dual-task conditions. However, reduction in cadence under dual-task conditions with RAC
Thaut, et al. [174]10F, 6M (25-40)4Stride symmetry, stride duration & EMG amplitude variability (Gastrocnemius)Gait performance tested with/without RAC 3 times for 5 weeksRAC at 4/4-time signature (1st & 3rd beat accentuated by tambourine beat, 70dB) at preferred cadence, at slower, faster than preferred cadenceSignificant enhancement in stride rhythmicity between right & left limb with RACSignificantly delayed & shortened onset of gastrocnemius EMG activity with RAC Significant reduction in EMG variability of gastrocnemius muscle with RAC Significantly enhanced integrated amplitude ratios for gastrocnemius EMG activity
McIntosh, et al. [175]6F, 4M (72±5)4Gait velocity, stride length, cadence & cadence-auditory stimulus synchronizationGait performance by participants with pre-test, with & without RAC at +10% of preferred cadence, post-testRAC at 0%, +10% of preferred cadenceSignificant enhancement in gait velocity and cadence with RACEnhancement in stride length. No effect on gait symmetry
Table 1  Studies analyzing the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait.
Figure 2.  Funnel plot for Hedge's g & standardized effect for each effect in the meta-analysis. Each of the effect is represented in the plot as a circle. Funnel boundaries represent area where 95% of the effects are expected to abstain if there were no publication bias. The vertical line represents mean standardized effect of zero. Absence of publication bias is represented when the effects should be equally dispersed on either side of the line.
Figure 3.  Risk of bias across studies.
Figure 4.  Forest plot illustrating individual studies evaluating the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait velocity among healthy young and elderly participants. A negative effect size indicated reduction in gait velocity; a positive effect size indicated enhancement in gait velocity. Weighted effect sizes; Hedge’s g (boxes) and 95% C.I (whiskers) are presented, demonstrating repositioning errors for individual studies. The (Diamond) represents pooled effect sizes and 95% CI. A negative mean difference indicates a favorable outcome for control groups; a positive mean difference indicates a favorable outcome for experimental groups. (O: Old, Y: Young, FP: Fast paced, SP: Slow paced, DT: Dual-task, I: Isosynchronous, B: Biological variability, LG: Low groove, HG: High groove, INS: Instructions, Mt: Motivating feedback, NMt: Non-motivating feedback).
Figure 5.  Forest plot illustrating individual studies evaluating the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on stride length among healthy young and elderly participants. A negative effect size indicated reduction in stride length; a positive effect size indicated enhancement in stride length. Weighted effect sizes; Hedge’s g (boxes) and 95% C.I (whiskers) are presented, demonstrating repositioning errors for individual studies. The (Diamond) represents pooled effect sizes and 95% CI. A negative mean difference indicates a favorable outcome for control groups; a positive mean difference indicates a favorable outcome for experimental groups. (O: Old, Y: Young, FP: Fast paced, SP: Slow paced, DT: Dual-task, I: Isosynchronous, B: Biological variability, LG: Low groove, HG: High groove, INS: Instructions, Mt: Motivating feedback, NMt: Non-motivating feedback).
Figure 6.  Forest plot illustrating individual studies evaluating the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on cadence among healthy young and elderly participants. A negative effect size indicated reduction in step frequency; a positive effect size indicated enhancement in step frequency. Weighted effect sizes; Hedge’s g (boxes) and 95% C.I (whiskers) are presented, demonstrating repositioning errors for individual studies. The (Diamond) represents pooled effect sizes and 95% CI. A negative mean difference indicates a favorable outcome for control groups; a positive mean difference indicates a favorable outcome for experimental groups. (O: Old, Y: Young, FP: Fast paced, SP: Slow paced, DT: Dual-task, I: Isosynchronous, B: Biological variability, LG: Low groove, HG: High groove, INS: Instructions, Mt: Motivating feedback, NMt: Non-motivating feedback)
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