Therapeutic Potential and Effective Components of the Chinese Herb Gardeniae Fructus in the Treatment of Senile Disease
Lv Shichao2, Ding Yang3, Zhao Haiping4, Liu Shihao5, Zhang Junping2,*, Wang Jun1,*
1Institute of Basic Theory, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China 3Digestive Disease Center, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, China 4Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China 5Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Gardeniae fructus (GF), an evergreen Rubiaceae shrub, is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used for over a thousand years. It is usually prescribed for the treatment of brain aging, vascular aging, bone and joint aging, and other age-related diseases. It has been demonstrated that several effective compounds of GF, such as geniposide, genipin and crocin, have neuroprotective or related activities which are involved in senile disease treatment. These bioactivities include the mitochondrion dysfunction, antioxidative activity, apoptosis regulation and an anti-inflammatory activity, which related to multiple signaling pathways such as the nuclear factor-κB pathway, AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. To lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of GF in treating age-related pathologies, we summarized the available research conducted in the last fifteen years about GF and its effective components, which have been studied in vivo and in vitro
Lv Shichao,Ding Yang,Zhao Haiping, et al. Therapeutic Potential and Effective Components of the Chinese Herb Gardeniae Fructus in the Treatment of Senile Disease[J]. Aging and disease,
2018, 9(6): 1153-1164.
Table 1 The anti-aging effects of gardenia and its components.
Enhance cholinergic neurotransmission
MAPK signaling pathway↓ ChAT↑, AChE↓
RAGE-dependent signaling, TNF-α, IL-1β and cerebral Aβ accumulation↓
Improve mitochondrial motility
Increase axonal mitochondrial density and length
APP/PS transgenic AD mice
Regulate leptin signaling
Induce the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3
AD transgenic mouse
Bcl-2↑ Cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and ROS↓
Insulin-deficient APP/PS1 transgenic mouse
Enhance insulin signaling
The phosphorylation of GSK-3β↑ The phosphorylated level of tau↓
The MPTP mouse model of PD
Block microRNA-21/lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A interaction
The production of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-1β↓ Expression of P2Y14 receptor and ERK1/2 signaling pathway↓
Release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10↓ NF-κB activation↓
Ameliorate the neuronal cell death of both the granular and pyramidal cell layer
Table 2 The function and mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of geniposide.
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