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Aging and disease    2018, Vol. 9 Issue (6) : 1153-1164     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0112
Review |
Therapeutic Potential and Effective Components of the Chinese Herb Gardeniae Fructus in the Treatment of Senile Disease
Lv Shichao2, Ding Yang3, Zhao Haiping4, Liu Shihao5, Zhang Junping2,*, Wang Jun1,*
1Institute of Basic Theory, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
2Department of Geriatric Medicine, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
3Digestive Disease Center, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
4Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
5Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
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Abstract  

Gardeniae fructus (GF), an evergreen Rubiaceae shrub, is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used for over a thousand years. It is usually prescribed for the treatment of brain aging, vascular aging, bone and joint aging, and other age-related diseases. It has been demonstrated that several effective compounds of GF, such as geniposide, genipin and crocin, have neuroprotective or related activities which are involved in senile disease treatment. These bioactivities include the mitochondrion dysfunction, antioxidative activity, apoptosis regulation and an anti-inflammatory activity, which related to multiple signaling pathways such as the nuclear factor-κB pathway, AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. To lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of GF in treating age-related pathologies, we summarized the available research conducted in the last fifteen years about GF and its effective components, which have been studied in vivo and in vitro

Keywords age-related diseases      gardenia      geniposide      mechanism      Senile Disease      Chinese Herb     
Corresponding Authors: Zhang Junping,Wang Jun   
About author:

Current address: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Issue Date: 18 May 2017
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Lv Shichao
Ding Yang
Zhao Haiping
Liu Shihao
Zhang Junping
Wang Jun
Cite this article:   
Lv Shichao,Ding Yang,Zhao Haiping, et al. Therapeutic Potential and Effective Components of the Chinese Herb Gardeniae Fructus in the Treatment of Senile Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(6): 1153-1164.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2018.0112     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2018/V9/I6/1153
Figure 1.  Chemical structures of the main bioactive components of Gardeniae fructus (GF). (A) Photo of Gardenia. (B) Geniposide (C17H24O10, molecular weight: 300); (C) genipin (C11H14O5, molecular weight: 226.23); (D) crocin (C44H64O24, molecular weight: 976.96).
ModelTissueMechanismsBioactive componentRef.
MiceBrainMAPK signaling pathway↓
ChAT↑, AChE↓
Geniposide[62]
MiceBrainRAGE-dependent signaling, TNF-α, IL-1β and cerebral Aβ accumulation↓Geniposide[46]
APPswe/PS1dE9 miceBrainIncrease axonal mitochondrial density and lengthGeniposide[47]
APP/PS transgenic AD miceBrainInduce the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3Geniposide[48]
Insulin-deficient APP/PS1 transgenic mouseBrainThe phosphorylation of GSK-3β↑
The phosphorylated level of tau↓
Geniposide[49]
The MPTP mouse model of PDBrainBcl-2↓
Bax↑
Geniposide[51]
PD mouseBrainBlock microRNA-21/lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A interactionGeniposide[52]
Spontaneously Hypertensive ratskidneyblood pressure, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cell proliferation, ROS generation↓Genipin[56]
C57/B6 miceHeartAMPKα↑
mammalian target of rapamycin, ERK and endoplasmic reticulum stress↓
Geniposide[57]
RabbitArteryECs shedding, the plaque area, intima/media thickness ratio, intimal foam cells number↓Geniposidic acid[58]
Mouse and ratArterylength of tail thrombus, platelet aggregation, venous thrombosis↓GJ-ext?Geniposide and genipin[60[
Aging ratLivercellular ROS overproduction, MMP, ATP, Akt phosphorylation↓
glucose consumption, glycogen synthesis↑
Genipin[73]
Collagen-induced arthritis ratsJointIL-4, transforming growth factor-beta 1↑
IL-6, IL-17, P-Raf, P-MEK, P-Erk1/2↓
Geniposide[68]
RatAnkle jointSwelling ratio↓Geniposide[72]
Table 1  The anti-aging effects of gardenia and its components.
DiseaseCells/tissuesEffectsMechanismsRef.
ADMiceEnhance cholinergic neurotransmissionMAPK signaling pathway↓
ChAT↑, AChE↓
[45]
MiceAnti-inflammationRAGE-dependent signaling, TNF-α, IL-1β and cerebral Aβ accumulation↓[46]
APPswe/PS1dE9 miceImprove mitochondrial motilityIncrease axonal mitochondrial density and length[47]
APP/PS transgenic AD miceRegulate leptin signalingInduce the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3[48]
AD transgenic mouseAnti-apoptotic
Anti-oxidant
Bcl-2↑
Cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and ROS↓
[49]
Insulin-deficient APP/PS1 transgenic mouseEnhance insulin signalingThe phosphorylation of GSK-3β↑
The phosphorylated level of tau↓
[50]
PDThe MPTP mouse model of PDAnti-apoptoticBcl-2↓
Bax↑
[51]
PD mouseReduce α-synucleinBlock microRNA-21/lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A interaction[52]
Cerebrovascular
aging
BMECsAnti-inflammationThe production of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-1β↓
Expression of P2Y14 receptor and ERK1/2 signaling pathway↓
[53]
Microglial cellsAnti-inflammationRelease of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10↓
NF-κB activation↓
[64]
Hippocampal sliceNeuroprotective effectAmeliorate the neuronal cell death of both the granular and pyramidal cell layer[66]
Table 2  The function and mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of geniposide.
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