Please wait a minute...
 Home  About the Journal Editorial Board Aims & Scope Peer Review Policy Subscription Contact us
 
Early Edition  //  Current Issue  //  Open Special Issues  //  Archives  //  Most Read  //  Most Downloaded  //  Most Cited
Aging and disease    2019, Vol. 10 Issue (1) : 1-11     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0123
Orginal Article |
Is Dementia More Fatal Than Previously Estimated? A Population-based Prospective Cohort Study
Jong Bin Bae1, Ji Won Han2, Kyung Phil Kwak3, Bong Jo Kim4, Shin Gyeom Kim5, Jeong Lan Kim6, Tae Hui Kim7, Seung-Ho Ryu8, Seok Woo Moon9, Joon Hyuk Park10, Jong Chul Youn11, Dong Young Lee1,12, Dong Woo Lee13, Seok Bum Lee14, Jung Jae Lee14, Jin Hyeong Jhoo15, Ki Woong Kim1,2,16,*
1Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggido, Korea.
3Department of Psychiatry, Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju, Korea.
4Department of Psychiatry, Gyeongsang National University, School of Medicine, Jinju, Korea.
5Department of Neuropsychiatry, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.
6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.
7Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju, Korea.
8Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
9Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Konkuk University Chungju Hospital, Chungju, Korea.
10Department of Neuropsychiatry, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju, Korea.
11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyunggi Provincial Hospital for the Elderly, Korea.
12Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
13Department of Neuropsychiatry, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
14Department of Psychiatry, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan, Korea.
15Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kangwon National University Hospital, Korea.
16Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, Korea.
Download: PDF(649 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Abstract  

Dementia increases the risk of mortality (ROM) in the elderly and estimates of hazard ratio (HR) of dementia for mortality have ranged from 1.7 to 6.3. However, previous studies may have underestimated ROM of dementia due to length bias, which occurs when failing to include the persons with rapidly progressive diseases, who died before they could be included in the study. This population-based prospective cohort study conducted on 6,752 randomly sampled Koreans, aged 60 years or older (the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia). Cognitive disorders were evaluated at baseline and 2-year follow-up using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K), and prevalent and incident cases of dementia were identified. The participants’ deaths were confirmed through the National Mortality Database of Statistics Korea. We compared the ROM between prevalent and incident dementia, and estimated HR of dementia for mortality using Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 5,097 responders to the 2-year follow-up assessment, 150 participants had dementia from the baseline (prevalent dementia), and 95 participants developed dementia during the 2-year follow-up period (incident dementia). The ROM of participants with incident dementia was about 3 times higher than the ROM of those with prevalent dementia (HR = 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-6.91). Compared to cognitively normal participants at both the baseline and 2-year follow-up assessments, the ROM of those with incident dementia approximately 8 times higher (HR = 8.37, 95 % CI = 4.23-16.54). In conclusion, the ROM of dementia using prevalent cases was underestimated due to length bias, and dementia may be much more fatal than previously estimated. In clinical settings, the ROM of dementia warrants the attention of physicians, particularly in recently incident dementia cases.

Keywords dementia      Alzheimer’s disease      mortality      death      survival     
Corresponding Authors: Kim Ki Woong   
Issue Date: 28 December 2017
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Bae Jong Bin
Han Ji Won
Kwak Kyung Phil
Kim Bong Jo
Kim Shin Gyeom
Kim Jeong Lan
Kim Tae Hui
Ryu Seung-Ho
Moon Seok Woo
Park Joon Hyuk
Youn Jong Chul
Lee Dong Young
Lee Dong Woo
Lee Seok Bum
Lee Jung Jae
Jhoo Jin Hyeong
Kim Ki Woong
Cite this article:   
Bae Jong Bin,Han Ji Won,Kwak Kyung Phil, et al. Is Dementia More Fatal Than Previously Estimated? A Population-based Prospective Cohort Study[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(1): 1-11.
URL:  
http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2018.0123     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2019/V10/I1/1
Figure 1.  The estimated risks of mortality of dementia according to the interval and duration of follow-up. *Estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and compared to non-demented participants; the error bars indicate 95% confidence. The references are as follows: [2-5, 7-9, 12-20].
Figure 2.  The flowchart of the mortality analysis in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. MCI = mild cognitive impairment.
Baseline characteristicsRespondersNon-respondersStatistics*
T or χ2p
Normal cognition
Number3599878
Age (years ± SD)68.9 ± 6.169.2 ± 6.4-1.1080.268
Sex (men, %)44.845.70.1970.657
Education (years ± SD)8.9 ± 5.38.1 ± 5.34.312< 0.001
Smoking status (yes, %)31.030.80.0040.950
Alcohol consumption (yes, %)34.233.80.0490.824
MHIS (score ± SD)0.7 ± 0.90.6 ± 0.71.5110.131
CIRS score (score ± SD)4.3 ± 2.83.9 ± 2.54.176< 0.001
Depression (yes, %)2.03.13.0590.080
Mild cognitive impairment
Number1348465
Age (years ± SD)71.8 ± 6.772.4 ± 8.0-1.3520.177
Sex (men, %)38.535.51.3000.254
Education (years ± SD)6.9 ± 5.05.7 ± 4.84.590< 0.001
Smoking status (yes, %)26.924.60.8720.350
Alcohol consumption (yes, %)28.324.52.3540.125
MHIS (score ± SD)0.9 ± 1.10.9 ± 1.2-0.9190.358
CIRS score (score ± SD)4.9 ± 2.94.6 ± 3.01.4740.141
Depression (yes, %)5.85.00.3920.531
Dementia
Number150131
Age (years ± SD)77.9 ± 7.979.7 ± 7.7-1.9570.051
Sex (men, %)32.024.41.9690.161
Education (years ± SD)3.8 ± 4.53.3 ± 4.40.8000.424
Smoking status (yes, %)20.422.20.1230.726
Alcohol consumption (yes, %)13.55.54.5220.033
MHIS (score ± SD)1.5 ± 1.91.7 ± 2.6-1.0170.310
CIRS score (score ± SD)4.9 ± 2.85.7 ± 3.7-1.9720.050
Depression (yes, %)12.211.00.0870.776
All
Number50971474
Age (years ± SD)70.0 ± 6.671.1 ± 7.7-5.322< 0.001
Sex (men, %)42.840.62.2860.131
Education (years ± SD)8.2 ± 5.46.9 ± 5.38.615< 0.001
Smoking status (yes, %)29.628.20.9860.321
Alcohol consumption (yes, %)32.028.65.8810.015
MHIS (score ± SD)0.7 ± 1.00.8 ± 1.2-2.1910.029
CIRS score (score ± SD)4.5 ± 2.84.3 ± 2.92.3230.020
Depression (yes, %)3.34.32.9710.085
Table 1  Baseline characteristics of the responders and non-responders, at the 2-year follow-up assessment.
DiagnosisTypeNumber of participantsPerson-yearsNumber of deathsHR (95% CI)*
DementiaPrevalent cases150251.8131.00
Incident cases95158.5153.04 (1.34 - 6.91)
Alzheimer’s diseasePrevalent cases117201.591.00
Incident cases67118.092.90 (1.06 - 7.97)
Mild cognitive impairmentPrevalent cases7441285.0231.00
Incident cases502848.5171.24 (0.65 - 2.34)
Table 2  Comparison of the mortality risks between prevalent and incident cases.
Figure 3.  Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the prevalent and incident cases with dementia.
DiagnosisNo. of participantsDeaths
Person-yearsNo.HR (95% CI)*
NC at both baseline and follow-up30795406.6281.00
Prevalent MCI7441285.0231.94 (1.06 - 3.52)
Incident MCI502848.5172.22 (1.14 - 4.30)
Prevalent dementia§150251.8132.82 (1.28 - 6.22)
Incident dementia§§95158.5158.37 (4.23 - 16.54)
Not demented at both baseline and follow-up48498494.1791.00
Prevalent dementia§150251.8131.82 (0.90 - 3.69)
Incident dementia§§95158.5155.53 (3.06 - 9.98)
Table 3  The risk of mortality according to the diagnosis at baseline and 2-year follow-up assessment.
Study
(year of publication)
NumberAge
(years)
Sex
(F, %)
DiagnosisReference groupHR of dementia
(or AD)
Duration
of follow-up
Follow-up assessmentInterval of follow-up assessment (years)
Aguero-Torres et al.
(1998)
98977+77Incident dementiaNon-demented2.0 (1.5-2.7)5.0Yes3.4
Aevarsson et al.
(1998)
49495+71Prevalent dementia,
AD
Non-demented2.6 (male) 2.9 (female)7.0No
Baldereschi et al.
(1999)
563265+49Prevalent dementiaNon-demented3.56 (2.52-5.04)2.3No
Helmer et al.
(2001)
377765+Incident dementiaNon-demented1.80 (1.46-2.21)8.0Yes2.2
Noale et al.
(2003)
563265+49Prevalent dementiaNon-demented3.72 (3.01-4.60)4.0No
Tschanz et al.
(2004)
468365+57Prevalent dementiaNon-demented2.99 (2.53-3.53)5.0No
Fitzpatrick et al.
(2005)
360265+59Incident dementia,
AD
Non-dementedDementia: 2.8 (2.3-3.4)
AD: 2.1 (1.6-2.7)
6.5Yes1.0
Nitrini et al.
(2005)
195665+Prevalent dementiaNon-demented3.92 (2.80-5.48)4.0No
Ganguli et al.
(2005)
168165+58Prevalent AD
+ Incident AD
Non-demented1.7 (1.4-2.0)10.3Yes2.0
Guhne et al.
(2006)
112475+75Incident dementiaNon-demented2.42 (1.62-3.63)4.5Yes1.6
Scarmeas et al.
(2007)
33865+78Prevalent ADNon-demented2.38 (1.86-3.04)4.4No
Llinàs-Regla et al.
(2008)
115370+57Prevalent dementiaNon-demented2.3 (1.7-3.2)4.3No
Wilson et al.
(2009)
171565+62Prevalent ADNormal cognition2.84 (2.29-3.52)4.7No
Villarejo et al.
(2011)
526265+58Prevalent dementiaNon-demented3.16 (2.74-3.65)13No
Wu et al.
(2011)
2788Prevalent dementiaNon-demented2.18 (1.75-2.71)7.3No
James et al.
(2014)
256665+72Incident ADNon-demented3.13 (2.74-3.58)8.0Yes1.0
Chen et al.
(2014)
297860+Prevalent dementiaNon-demented2.69 (2.11-3.42)5.0No
Park et al.
(2014)
103565+58Prevalent dementiaNormal cognition3.20 (2.30-4.44)8.0No
Paddick et al.
(2015)
119870+71Prevalent dementiaNormal cognition6.33 (3.19-12.58)4.0No
Table 4  Studies investigating the risk of mortality of dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.
[1] Sagare A, Deane R, Bell RD, Johnson B, Hamm K, Pendu R, et al. (2007). Clearance of amyloid-beta by circulating lipoprotein receptors. Nat Med, 13:1029-1031.
[2] Scarmeas N, Luchsinger JA, Mayeux R, Stern Y (2007). Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer disease mortality. Neurology, 69:1084-1093.
[3] Nitrini R, Caramelli P, Herrera E Jr., de Castro I, Bahia VS, Anghinah R, et al. (2005). Mortality from dementia in a community-dwelling Brazilian population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 20:247-253.
[4] Tschanz J, Corcoran C, Skoog I, Khachaturian A, Herrick J, Hayden K, et al. (2004). Dementia: The leading predictor of death in a defined elderly population The Cache County Study. Neurology, 62:1156-1162.
[5] Baldereschi M, Carlo AD, Maggi S, Grigoletto F, Scarlato G, Amaducci L, et al. (1999). Dementia is a major predictor of death among the Italian elderly. Neurology, 52:709-709.
[6] Wilson RS, Aggarwal NT, Barnes LL, Bienias JL, de Leon CFM, Evans DA (2009). Biracial population study of mortality in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 66:767-772.
[7] Aevarsson Ó, Svanborg A, Skoog I (1998). Seven-year survival rate after age 85 years: relation to Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Arch Neurol, 55:1226-1232.
[8] Noale M, Maggi S, Minicuci N, Marzari C, Destro C, Farchi G, et al. (2003). Dementia and disability: Impact on mortality. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 16:7-14.
[9] Wu X, Tang Z, Fang X, Guan S, Liu H, Diao L, et al. (2011). A cohort study on mortality and risk of death among population diagnosis as dementia, at base-line survey, in Beijing. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 32:973-977.
[10] Park JE, Lee JY, Suh GH, Kim BS, Cho MJ (2014). Mortality rates and predictors in community-dwelling elderly individuals with cognitive impairment: an eight-year follow-up after initial assessment. Int Psychogeriatr, 26:1295-1304.
[11] Paddick SM, Kisoli A, Dotchin CL, Gray WK, Chaote P, Longdon A, et al. (2015). Mortality rates in community-dwelling Tanzanians with dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a 4-year follow-up study. Age Ageing, 44:636-641.
[12] Chen R, Hu Z, Wei L, Wilson K (2014). Socioeconomic status and survival among older adults with dementia and depression. Br J Psychiatry, 204:436-440.
[13] Helmer C, Joly P, Letenneur L, Commenges D, Dartigues J (2001). Mortality with dementia: results from a French prospective community-based cohort. Am J Epidemiol, 154:642-648.
[14] James BD, Leurgans SE, Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Yaffe K, Bennett DA (2014). Contribution of Alzheimer disease to mortality in the United States. Neurology, 82:1045-1050.
[15] Ganguli M, Dodge HH, Shen C, Pandav RS, DeKosky ST (2005). Alzheimer disease and mortality: a 15-year epidemiological study. Arch Neurol, 62:779-784.
[16] Guhne U, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC, Riedel-Heller SG (2006). Incident dementia cases and mortality. Results of the leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+). Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 22:185-193.
[17] Agüero-Torres H, Fratiglioni L, Guo Z, Viitanen M, Winblad B (1999). Mortality from dementia in advanced age: a 5-year follow-up study of incident dementia cases. J Clin Epidemiol, 52:737-743.
[18] Fitzpatrick AL, Kuller LH, Lopez OL, Kawas CH, Jagust W (2005). Survival following dementia onset: Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci, 229-230:43-49.
[19] Llin, agrave, s-Regla J, oacute, pez-Pousa S, Vilalta-Franch J, et al. (2008). Mortality after a Diagnosis of Dementia in a Population Aged 75 and Over in Spain. Neuroepidemiology, 31:80-88.
[20] Villarejo A, Benito-Leon J, Trincado R, Posada IJ, Puertas-Martin V, Boix R, et al. (2011). Dementia-associated mortality at thirteen years in the NEDICES Cohort Study. J Alzheimers Dis, 26:543-551.
[21] Fisk JD, Merry HR, Rockwood K (2003). Variations in case definition affect prevalence but not outcomes of mild cognitive impairment. Neurology, 61:1179-1184.
[22] Vassilaki M, Cha RH, Geda YE, Mielke MM, Knopman DS, Petersen RC, et al. (2015). Mortality in mild cognitive impairment varies by subtype, sex, and lifestyle factors: the mayo clinic study of aging. J Alzheimers Dis, 45:1237-1245.
[23] Santabarbara J, Gracia-Garcia P, Pirez G, Lopez-Anton R, De La Camara C, Ventura T, et al. (2016). Mortality in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosed with DSM-5 Criteria and with Petersen’s Criteria: A 17-Year Follow-Up in a Community Study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 24:977-986.
[24] Helzner E, Scarmeas N, Cosentino S, Tang M, Schupf N, Stern Y (2008). Survival in Alzheimer disease A multiethnic, population-based study of incident cases. Neurology, 71:1489-1495.
[25] Applebaum KM, Malloy EJ, Eisen EA (2011). Left truncation, susceptibility, and bias in occupational cohort studies. Epidemiology, 22:599-606.
[26] Delgado-Rodriguez M, Llorca J (2004). Bias. J Epidemiol Community Health, 58:635-641.
[27] Wolfson C, Wolfson DB, Asgharian M, M’Lan CE, Østbye T, Rockwood K, et al. (2001). A Reevaluation of the Duration of Survival after the Onset of Dementia. N Engl J Med, 344:1111-1116.
[28] Little DM, Crooks VC, Petitti DB, Chiu V, Schellenberg GD, Slezak JM, et al. (2009). Mortality, dementia, and apolipoprotein E genotype in elderly white women in the United States. J Am Geriatr Soc, 57:231-236.
[29] Guehne U, Luck T, Busse A, Angermeyer MC, Riedel-Heller SG (2007). Mortality in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+). Neuroepidemiology, 29:226-234.
[30] Yaffe K, Petersen RC, Lindquist K, Kramer J, Miller B (2006). Subtype of mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia and death. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 22:312-319.
[31] Agüero-Torres H, Fratiglioni L, Guo Z, Viitanen M, Winblad B (1998). Prognostic factors in very old demented adults: a seven-year follow-up from a population-based survey in Stockholm. J Am Geriatr Soc, 46:444-452.
[32] Kim TH, Park JH, Lee JJ, Jhoo JH, Kim B-J, Kim J-L, et al. (2013). Overview of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. Alzheimers Dement, 9:P626-P627.
[33] Yoo S-W, Kim Y-S, Noh J-S, Oh K-S, Kim C-H, NamKoong K, et al. (2006). Validity of Korean version of the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview. Anxiety Mood, 2.
[34] Fortin M, Bravo G, Hudon C, Vanasse A, Lapointe L (2005). Prevalence of multimorbidity among adults seen in family practice. Ann Fam Med, 3:223-228.
[35] Rosen WG, Terry RD, Fuld PA, Katzman R, Peck A (1980). Pathological verification of ischemic score in differentiation of dementias. Ann Neurol, 7:486-488.
[36] American Psychiatric Association A, Association AP (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
[37] McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM (1984). Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group* under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology, 34:939-939.
[38] Petersen RC (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med, 256:183-194.
[39] Lacor PN, Buniel MC, Chang L, Fernandez SJ, Gong Y, Viola KL, et al. (2004). Synaptic targeting by Alzheimer’s-related amyloid β oligomers. J Neurosci, 24:10191-10200.
[40] 2012. Is increasing private expenditure, especially in tertiary education, associated with less public funding and less equitable access? In Education Indicators in Focus: OECD. 1-4.
[41] Staekenborg SS, Pijnenburg YA, Lemstra AW, Scheltens P, Vd Flier WM (2016). Dementia and Rapid Mortality: Who is at Risk? J Alzheimers Dis, 53:135-142.
[42] Hui J, Wilson R, Bennett D, Bienias J, Gilley D, Evans D (2003). Rate of cognitive decline and mortality in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 61:1356-1361.
[43] Anstey KJ, von Sanden C, Salim A, O’kearney R (2007). Smoking as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol, 166:367-378.
[44] Jacobs DR, Adachi H, Mulder I, Kromhout D, Menotti A, Nissinen A, et al. (1999). Cigarette smoking and mortality risk: twenty-five-year follow-up of the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med, 159:733-740.
[45] Velayudhan L, Poppe M, Archer N, Proitsi P, Brown RG, Lovestone S (2010). Risk of developing dementia in people with diabetes and mild cognitive impairment. Br J Psychiatry, 196:36-40.
[46] Feil D, Marmon T, Unützer J (2003). Cognitive Impairment, Chronic Medical Illness, and Risk of Mortality in an Elderly Cohort. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 11:551-560.
[47] Byers AL, Yaffe K (2011). Depression and risk of developing dementia. Nat Rev Neurol, 7:323-331.
[48] Schulz R, Beach SR, Ives DG, Martire LM, Ariyo AA, Kop WJ (2000). Association between depression and mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med, 160:1761-1768.
[1] Tian Zhi-Ying, Wang Chun-Yan, Wang Tao, Li Yan-Chun, Wang Zhan-You. Glial S100A6 Degrades β-amyloid Aggregation through Targeting Competition with Zinc Ions[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(4): 756-769.
[2] Yamanaka Takehiko, Uchida Yuto, Sakurai Keita, Kato Daisuke, Mizuno Masayuki, Sato Toyohiro, Madokoro Yuta, Kondo Yuko, Suzuki Ayuko, Ueki Yoshino, Ishii Fumiyasu, Borlongan Cesar V, Matsukawa Noriyuki. Anatomical Links between White Matter Hyperintensity and Medial Temporal Atrophy Reveal Impairment of Executive Functions[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(4): 711-718.
[3] Li Yu-Sheng, Yang Zhi-Hua, Zhang Yao, Yang Jing, Shang Dan-Dan, Zhang Shu-Yu, Wu Jun, Ji Yan, Zhao Lu, Shi Chang-He, Xu Yu-Ming. Two Novel Mutations and a de novo Mutation in PSEN1 in Early-onset Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(4): 908-914.
[4] Tao Qing-Qing, Chen Yu-Chao, Wu Zhi-Ying. The role of CD2AP in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(4): 901-907.
[5] Bi Christopher, Bi Stephanie, Li Bin. Processing of Mutant β-Amyloid Precursor Protein and the Clinicopathological Features of Familial Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(2): 383-403.
[6] Jeon Seong Gak, Song Eun Ji, Lee Dongje, Park Junyong, Nam Yunkwon, Kim Jin-il, Moon Minho. Traditional Oriental Medicines and Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(2): 307-328.
[7] Shetty Ashok K., Upadhya Raghavendra, Madhu Leelavathi N., Kodali Maheedhar. Novel Insights on Systemic and Brain Aging, Stroke, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(2): 470-482.
[8] Tseng Chin-Hsiao. Metformin and the Risk of Dementia in Type 2 Diabetes Patients[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(1): 37-48.
[9] Poyin Huang,Cheng-Sheng Chen,Yuan-Han Yang,Mei-Chuan Chou,Ya-Hsuan Chang,Chiou-Lian Lai,Hsuan-Yu Chen,Ching-Kuan Liu. REST rs3796529 Genotype and Rate of Functional Deterioration in Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(1): 94-101.
[10] Antonina Luca, Carmela Calandra, Maria Luca. Molecular Bases of Alzheimer’s Disease and Neurodegeneration: The Role of Neuroglia[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(6): 1134-1152.
[11] Calvin Pak-Wing Cheng, Sheung-Tak Cheng, Cindy Woon-Chi Tam, Wai-Chi Chan, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Linda Chiu-Wa Lam. Relationship between Cortical Thickness and Neuropsychological Performance in Normal Older Adults and Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(6): 1020-1030.
[12] Stefano Rizza, Marina Cardellini, Alessio Farcomeni, Pasquale Morabito, Daniele Romanello, Giovanni Di Cola, Maria Paola Canale, Massimo Federici. Low Molecular Weight Adiponectin Increases the Mortality Risk in Very Old Patients[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(5): 946-951.
[13] Sone Daichi, Imabayashi Etsuko, Maikusa Norihide, Ogawa Masayo, Sato Noriko, Matsuda Hiroshi, Japanese-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer’s Disease (VSRAD) on 3-tesla Normal Database: Diagnostic Accuracy in Two Independent Cohorts with Early Alzheimer’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(4): 755-760.
[14] Morroni Fabiana, Sita Giulia, Graziosi Agnese, Turrini Eleonora, Fimognari Carmela, Tarozzi Andrea, Hrelia Patrizia. Neuroprotective Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in A Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Involves Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(4): 605-622.
[15] Xu Yangqi, Liu Xiaoli, Shen Junyi, Tian Wotu, Fang Rong, Li Binyin, Ma Jianfang, Cao Li, Chen Shengdi, Li Guanjun, Tang Huidong. The Whole Exome Sequencing Clarifies the Genotype- Phenotype Correlations in Patients with Early-Onset Dementia[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(4): 696-705.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
Copyright © 2014 Aging and Disease, All Rights Reserved.
Address: Aging and Disease Editorial Office 3400 Camp Bowie Boulevard Fort Worth, TX76106 USA
Fax: (817) 735-0408 E-mail: editorial@aginganddisease.org
Powered by Beijing Magtech Co. Ltd