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Aging and disease    2018, Vol. 9 Issue (6) : 1134-1152     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0201
Review |
Molecular Bases of Alzheimer’s Disease and Neurodegeneration: The Role of Neuroglia
Luca Antonina1, Calandra Carmela1, Luca Maria2,*
1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, 95100 Sicily, Italy
2Department of General Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialties, Dermatology Clinic, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, 95100 Sicily, Italy
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Abstract  

Neuroglia is an umbrella term indicating different cellular types that play a pivotal role in the brain, being involved in its development and functional homeostasis. Glial cells are becoming the focus of recent researches pertaining the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in particular. In fact, activated microglia is the main determinant of neuroinflammation, contributing to neurodegeneration. In addition, the oxidative insult occurring during pathological brain aging can activate glial cells that, in turn, can favor the production of free radicals. Moreover, the recent Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) hypothesis of AD suggests that GSK3, involved in the regulation of glial cells functioning, could exert a role in amyloid deposition and tau hyper-phosphorylation. In this review, we briefly describe the main physiological functions of the glial cells and discuss the link between neuroglia and the most studied molecular bases of AD. In addition, we dedicate a section to the glial changes occurring in AD, with particular attention to their role in terms of neurodegeneration. In the light of the literature data, neuroglia could play a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis and progression. Further studies are needed to shed light on this topic.

Keywords neuroglia      Alzheimer’s Disease      neurodegeneration      oxidative stress      neuroinflammation      glycogen synthase kinase 3     
Corresponding Authors: Luca Maria   
About author:

Current address: Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Issue Date: 26 November 2017
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Luca Antonina
Calandra Carmela
Luca Maria
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Luca Antonina,Calandra Carmela,Luca Maria. Molecular Bases of Alzheimer’s Disease and Neurodegeneration: The Role of Neuroglia[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(6): 1134-1152.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2018.0201     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2018/V9/I6/1134
Figure 1.  GSK3, a protein ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Some of the targets and inhibitors of GSK-3, as well as some fundamental brain processes regulated by this kinase. GSK-3: glycogen synthase kinase-3; NF-kB: nuclear factor KB; CREB: cAMP; NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells; APP: amyloid precursor protein.
Figure 2.  Glial cells in normal and pathological brain aging. The figure summarizes the main glial changes occurring in normal versus pathological brain aging. CP: choroid plexus
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