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Aging and disease    2018, Vol. 9 Issue (6) : 988-998     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0203
Orginal Article |
Muscle Fatigue Does Not Change the Effects on Lower Limbs Strength Caused by Aging and Parkinson’s Disease
Alota Ignacio Pereira Vinicius1, Augusto Barbieri Fabio1,*, Moura Zagatto Alessandro1, Cezar Rocha dos Santos Paulo2, Simieli Lucas1, Augusto Barbieri Ricardo3, Pivetta Carpes Felipe4, Teresa Bucken Gobbi Lilian2
1Human Movement Research Laboratory (MOVI-LAB), Department of Physical Education, Sao Paulo State University (Unesp), Bauru, Brazil.
2Posture and Gait Studies Laboratory (LEPLO), Department of Physical Education, Sao Paulo State University (Unesp), Rio Claro, Brazil.
3Graduate Program in Physical Education and Sport at School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirao Preto (EEFERP), University of Sao Paulo, Centro Universitário Estacio de Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.
4Applied Neuromechanics Group, Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, Brazil.
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The aim of this study was to determine the impact of aging and Parkinson’s disease (PD) on lower limb muscle strength before and after muscle fatigue. One hundred thirty-five individuals were distributed over seven groups according to their age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 years old) and disease. Participants performed maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) in a leg press device followed by the muscle fatigue protocol (repeated sit-to-stand task). Immediately after muscle fatigue (less than 2 min), the MVIC were repeated. The peak force, peak rate of force development (first 50, 100, 200 ms), and root mean square and peak values of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscle activity during MVIC were calculated before and after muscle fatigue. We found more pronounced reductions in lower limb muscle strength parameters (lower limb force, RFD-100 and RFD-200 - p<0.05) in individuals over 50 years of age and with PD. In addition, there was an inverse relation between aging and lower limb muscle strength parameters. The main findings were the lack of changes in peak force, RFDs and muscle activity of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis after muscle fatigue according to aging and PD, and similar lower limb muscle strength parameters (before and after muscle fatigue) and effect of muscle fatigue in PD compared to the aged groups (60 and 70 years old groups).

Keywords movement disorders      muscle strength      exhaustion      human movement     
Corresponding Authors: Augusto Barbieri Fabio   
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These authors contributed equally to this work

Issue Date: 18 October 2017
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Alota Ignacio Pereira Vinicius
Augusto Barbieri Fabio
Moura Zagatto Alessandro
Cezar Rocha dos Santos Paulo
Simieli Lucas
Augusto Barbieri Ricardo
Pivetta Carpes Felipe
Teresa Bucken Gobbi Lilian
Cite this article:   
Alota Ignacio Pereira Vinicius,Augusto Barbieri Fabio,Moura Zagatto Alessandro, et al. Muscle Fatigue Does Not Change the Effects on Lower Limbs Strength Caused by Aging and Parkinson’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2018, 9(6): 988-998.
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Figure 1.  Flow diagram of the participants and experimental set-up.
Age (years)24 ± 332 ± 344 ± 354 ± 364 ± 375 ± 468 ± 9
Body mass (kg)77.96±14.7479.26 ± 14.2384.74 ± 15.9382.17 ± 13.4077.99 ± 12.6172.45 ± 12.4072.97 ± 9.10
Height (m)1.78 ± 0.041.74 ± 0.061.74 ± 0.061.71 ± 0.071.71 ± 0.061.65 ± 0.061.65 ± 0.07
BMI (score)24.36 ± 4.2626.02 ± 3.9827.45 ± 4.3127.86 ± 4.3226.55 ± 3.6526.51 ± 3.2926.66 ± 2.64
Time to fatigue (min)12.00 ± 10.5012.90 ± 11.008.78 ± 10.066.50 ± 7.004.8 ± 3.433.09 ± 2.511.53 ± 0.82
Rating of perceived exertion (scale)Initial7.35 ± 1.426.85 ± 1.357.95 ± 2.017.30 ± 1.728.45 ± 2.248.82±1.198.16 ± 1.80
(6 - 11)(6 - 11)(6 - 13)(6 - 11)(6-13)(7-11)(6 - 11)
Final19.15 ± 1.1418.70 ± 1.4218.58 ± 1.3519.32 ± 0.8218.60 ± 1.6017.53±1.5517.21 ± 2.70
(17 - 20)(16 - 20)(15 - 20)(17 - 20)(15-20)(15-20)(13 - 20)
Level of physical activity (score)8.15 ± 2.677.98 ± 1.897.93 ± 1.787.11 ± 8.565.82 ± 5.616.88±6.634.50 ± 3.18
Level of fatigue (score)47.20 ± 8.0845.70 ± 8.6043.84 ± 9.8539.05 ± 11.2337.45±9.4336.71±6.3453.42 ± 14.97
H&Y (score)1.79 ± 0.35
(1 - 2.5)
UPDRS-motor (score)34.32 ± 8.47
(10 - 48)
Table 1  Means and standard deviations of participant characteristics, body mass index (BMI), time to fatigue, rating of perceived exertion (initial and final, with range of values between parentheses), level of physical activity and level of fatigue for each group. In addition, H&Y and UPDRS-motor values for people with PD are presented.
Effects of aging and PD - without muscle fatigueEffects of aging and PD - under muscle fatigue
Lower limb forceG20, G30, G40>G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 0.86 to 2.98
G50>GPD - large effect size: 1.65
G20>G70, GPD - large effect size: 1.38 and 2.18, respectively
G30, G40>G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.41 to 3.84 G30, G50>GPD - large effect size: 3.07 to 2.15, respectively

RFD-50G20>G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, GPD - moderate to large effect size: from 0.67 to 2.94
G40>G70, GPD - large effect size: 1.54 and 2.29, respectively G50>GPD - large effect size: 2.80
G20, G30, G40>G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 0.86 to 2.73
G30, G40>G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.20 to 5.95 G30, G50>GPD - large effect size: 5.95 to 2.81, respectively

RFD-100G20, G30, G40>G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.18 to 5.05
G50>GPD - large effect size: 3.21
G20, G30, G40>G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 0.83 to 3.06
G30, G40>G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.80 to 6.79 G30, G50>GPD - large effect size: 6.79 to 3.46, respectively

RFD-200G20, G30, G40>G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 0.81 to 2.80
G50>GPD - large effect size: 2.44
G30, G40>G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.32 to 6.89
G20>G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.80 to 3.40 G30, G50>GPD - large effect size: 6.89 to 3.52, respectively

RMS VLG20>G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 0.88 to 1.71
G40>GPD - large effect size: 1.55
G20>G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.69 to 3.26
G30>G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.17 to 1.50

RMS VMG20>G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.69 to 2.42G20>G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, GPD - large effect size: from 1.63 to 2.35

Peak VLNo effectsG30, G50>GPD - large effect size: 1.45 to 1.20, respectively

Peak VMNo effectsNo effects
Table 2  Summary of the effects of aging and PD on lower limb muscle strength parameters before and after muscle fatigue and its effects size.
Figure 2.  Means and standard deviations of lower limb strength parameters (lower limb muscle force and rate of force development in 50, 100, and 200 ms - RFD-50, RFD-100, RFD-200) before and after muscle fatigue for each group.
Figure 3.  Association between aging, PD, and lower limb muscle strength parameters before (left panel) and after (right panel) muscle fatigue.
RMS vastus lateralis184.10 (135.36)323.96 (132.80)90.88 (65.62)124.77 (102.53)44.62 (19.06)57.05 (29.01)53.01 (29.28)38.42 (23.49)43.90 (29.80)35.96 (11.16)43.32 (20.41)42.74 (19.80)19.96 (11.88)16.88 (8.96)
RMS vastus medialis191.59 (102.14)187.29 (102.68)64.58 (30.01)47.29 (22.95)85.72 (71.79)58.14 (44.39)43.68 (36.94)35.02 (27.54)25.66 (15.32)29.79 (18.84)50.05 (28.73)29.80 (18.56)15.62 (10.90)16.29 (9.53)
Peak value of vastus lateralis (%)96.97 (4.45)82.14 (16.48)95.86 (4.46)88.16 (17.46)92.90 (5.50)83.89 (23.67)95.27 (6.05)70.14 (13.92)91.29 (5.73)86.18 (14.33)94.91 (5.82)72.03 (8.58)95.11 (6.76)67.11 (10.84)
Peak value of vastus medialis (%)97.75 (8.05)76.46 (21.53)93.66 (5.58)75.90 (21.52)95.72 (4.13)88.39 (14.15)96.37 (5.78)71.13 (20.68)95.83 (4.28)83.74 (23.84)94.09 (5.63)59.04 (14.21)95.98 (5.56)82.81 (12.14)
Table 3  Means and standard deviations of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscle activity (RMS and peak value) before (BMF) and after (AMF) muscle fatigue for each group.
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