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Aging and disease    2019, Vol. 10 Issue (6) : 1302-1310     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1020
Review |
Interplay between Exosomes and Autophagy in Cardiovascular Diseases: Novel Promising Target for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application
Jinfan Tian1,2, Sharif Popal Mohammad1, Yingke Zhao3, Yanfei Liu4, Keji Chen2, Yue Liu 2,*
1Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
2Cardiovascular disease center, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
3Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of HongKong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
4Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
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Abstract  

Exosome, is identified as a nature nanocarrier and intercellular messenger that regulates cell to cell communication. Autophagy is critical in maintenance of protein homeostasis by degradation of damaged proteins and organelles. Autophagy and exosomes take pivotal roles in cellular homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. Currently, the coordinated mechanisms for exosomes and autophagy in the maintenance of cellular fitness are now garnering much attention. In the present review, we discussed the interplay of exosomes and autophagy in the context of physiology and pathology of the heart, which might provide novel insights for diagnostic and therapeutic application of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords exosomes      autophagy      cardiovascular disease      atherosclerosis      myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury     
Corresponding Authors: Liu Yue   
About author: These are co-senior authors.
Just Accepted Date: 20 November 2018   Issue Date: 16 November 2019
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Tian Jinfan
Popal Mohammad Sharif
Zhao Yingke
Liu Yanfei
Chen Keji
Liu Yue
Cite this article:   
Tian Jinfan,Popal Mohammad Sharif,Zhao Yingke, et al. Interplay between Exosomes and Autophagy in Cardiovascular Diseases: Novel Promising Target for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application[J]. Aging and disease, 2019, 10(6): 1302-1310.
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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2018.1020     OR     http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2019/V10/I6/1302
Figure 1.  The crosstalk between autophagic and exosomal process. MVBs which enrich in ILVs generates from early endosomes directed by ESCRT. MVBs can either fuse with lysosomes, which subsequently fuse with auto-phagosome to form autolysosome leading to autophagic degradation, or MVBs could fuse with the plasma membrane to release vesicles as exosomes into the extracellular space. Exosomes contains rich biological signaling materials as non-coding RNAs. ESCRT, endosomal sorting complex required for transport; ILVs, intraluminal vesicles.
non-coding RNACardiovascular diseaseCell typesEffects
IncRNA GAS5Atherosclerosis↑THP-1 cellsThe apoptosis of vascular endothelia cells↑ [16]
miR-143/145Atherosclerosis↓Endothelial cellsCommunication between endothelial and smooth cells↑ [17]
miR-155Atherosclerosis↑Vascular smooth muscles cellsEndothelial permeability↑ [18]
miR-223, miR-339 and miR-21Atherosclerosis↓PlateletNF-κB pathways↓ [19, 20]
miR-21Myocardial infarction↓EnMSCsCardiomyocytes apoptosis↓ [36]
miR-126Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury↓Adipose-derived stem cellsApoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis↓angiogenesis↑ [37]
miR-93-5pMyocardial infarction ↓Adipose-derived stromal cellsHypoxia-induced autophagy and inflammation↓ [11]
miR-451Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury↓Cardiac progenitor cellsOxidative stress-induced apoptosis↓ [40]
miR-21Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury↓Cardiac progenitor cellsOxidative stress-induced apoptosis↓ [41]
Table 1  Overview of exosomes-related non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular disease
miRNAEffects
miR-33ABCA1↓ [56-59]
miR-758ABCA1↓ [61]
miR-20a/bABCA1↓ [62]
miR-19bABCA1↓ [63]
miRNA-302aABCA1↓ [64]
Table 2  Exosomes-related miRNAs regulate ABCA1.
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