Emerging Anti-Aging Strategies - Scientific Basis and Efficacy
Ashok K. Shetty1,2,*, Maheedhar Kodali1,2, Raghavendra Upadhya1,2, Leelavathi N. Madhu1
1Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine, College Station, Texas 77843, USA 2Olin E. Teague Veterans’ Medical Center, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple, Texas 76504, USA
The prevalence of age-related diseases is in an upward trend due to increased life expectancy in humans. Age-related conditions are among the leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide currently. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find apt interventions that slow down aging and reduce or postpone the incidence of debilitating age-related diseases. This review discusses the efficacy of emerging anti-aging approaches for maintaining better health in old age. There are many anti-aging strategies in development, which include procedures such as augmentation of autophagy, elimination of senescent cells, transfusion of plasma from young blood, intermittent fasting, enhancement of adult neurogenesis, physical exercise, antioxidant intake, and stem cell therapy. Multiple pre-clinical studies suggest that administration of autophagy enhancers, senolytic drugs, plasma from young blood, drugs that enhance neurogenesis and BDNF are promising approaches to sustain normal health during aging and also to postpone age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Stem cell therapy has also shown promise for improving regeneration and function of the aged or Alzheimer’s disease brain. Several of these approaches are awaiting critical appraisal in clinical trials to determine their long-term efficacy and possible adverse effects. On the other hand, procedures such as intermittent fasting, physical exercise, intake of antioxidants such as resveratrol and curcumin have shown considerable promise for improving function in aging, some of which are ready for large-scale clinical trials, as they are non-invasive, and seem to have minimal side effects. In summary, several approaches are at the forefront of becoming mainstream therapies for combating aging and postponing age-related diseases in the coming years.
Targeting Bcl-2 family, regulation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κβ to promote caspase-3 and inactivates ERK1/2
Targeting PI3K, Induction of HIF-1α
Inhibits Akt/mTOR signaling, depletion of the androgen receptor
Decreases Bcl-xL expression and increases acetylation of Histone 3
Interacts with P53 and inhibits PAI-2
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