Physical Activity and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Narrative Review
Piotr Gronek1, Stefan Balko2, Joanna Gronek1, Adam Zajac3, Adam Maszczyk4, Roman Celka1, Agnieszka Doberska1, Wojciech Czarny5, Robert Podstawski6, Cain C. T Clark7,*, Fang Yu8
1Faculty of Physical Education, Sport and Rehabilitation, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poland. 2Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Education, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic. 3Department of Physical Education, University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland. 4Department of Methodology and Statistics, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland. 5Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Human Sciences, University of Rzeszow, ul. Towarnickiego 3, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland. 6Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland. 7Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom. 8School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Although age is a dominant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), epidemiological studies have shown that physical activity may significantly decrease age-related risks for AD, and indeed mitigate the impact in existing diagnosis. The aim of this study was to perform a narrative review on the preventative, and mitigating, effects of physical activity on AD onset, including genetic factors, mechanism of action and physical activity typology. In this article, we conducted a narrative review of the influence physical activity and exercise have on AD, utilising key terms related to AD, physical activity, mechanism and prevention, searching the online databases; Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar, and, subsequently, discuss possible mechanisms of this action. On the basis of this review, it is evident that physical activity and exercise may be incorporated in AD, notwithstanding, a greater number of high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed, moreover, physical activity typology must be acutely considered, primarily due to a dearth of research on the efficacy of physical activity types other than aerobic.
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