Aging is a progressive loss of physiological integrity and functionality process which increases susceptibility and mortality to diseases. Vascular aging is a specific type of organic aging. The structure and function changes of endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the main cause of vascular aging, which could influence the threshold, process, and severity of vascular related diseases. Accumulating evidences demonstrate that exosomes serve as novel intercellular information communicator between cell to cell by delivering variety biologically active cargos, especially exosomal non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are associated with most of aging-related biological and functional disorders. In this review, we will summerize the emerging roles and mechanisms of exosomal ncRNAs in vascular aging and vascular aging related diseases, focusing on the role of exosomal miRNAs and lncRNAs in regulating the functions of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, the relationship between the ECs and VSMCs linked by exosomes, the potential diagnostic and therapeutic application of exosomes in vascular aging and the clinical evaluation and treatment of vascular aging and vascular aging related diseases will also be discussed.
Table 1 Exosomal non-coding RNAs implicated in ECs functions.
Exosomal non-coding RNAs
promote phenotype transition
promote phenotype transition
promote phenotype transition
inhibit phenotype transition
VEGF, ANG1, ANG2, MMP9, TSP1
Table 2 Exosomal non-coding RNAs implicated in VSMCs functions.
Figure 1. The communication between ECs and VSMCs via exosomal ncRNAs. The blue and brown arrows indicate that exosomal miR206 and miR-143/145 secreted by ECs regulate the functions of VSMCs. The green and purple arrows indicate that exosomal miR-155 and miR-143 secreted by VSMCs regulate the functions of ECs.
Promote the progression of CAD
Promote the progression of CAD
Inhibit the progression of CAD
Inhibit the progression of CAD
Protect against CMCs apoptosis
Promote the progression of AMI
Promote CMCs loss
Promote the progression of HF
Promote the progression of HF
Activate the axis of RAAS
Activate the axis of RAAS
Regulate the progression of VC
Inhibit microglial activation and inflammatory response
Inhibit autophagy-mediated microglial polarization to M1
promoted BMEC angiogenesis
Inhibit inflammatory effects on damaged astrocytes
Regulate the progression of renal fibrosis
Regulate the progression of CKD
Hind Limb Ischemia
Inhibit functional recovery
Table 3 Roles of exosomal miRNAs in vascular aging related diseases.
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