A Review of Exercise as Medicine in Cardiovascular Disease: Pathology and Mechanism
Piotr Gronek1,*, Dariusz Wielinski2, Piotr Cyganski3, Andrzej Rynkiewicz3, Adam Zając4, Adam Maszczyk5, Joanna Gronek1, Robert Podstawski6, Wojciech Czarny7, Stefan Balko8, Cain CT. Clark9, Roman Celka1
1Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Dance and Gymnastics, Poznań University of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland. 2 Department of Anthropology and Biometry, Poznań University of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland. 3Department of Cardiology and Cardiosurgery, Ist Cardiology Clinic, City Hospital in Olsztyn, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. 4Department of Sports Training, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland. 5Department of Methodology and Statistics, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland. 6Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland. 7Department of Human Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszów, Poland. 8Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Education, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic. 9School of Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom.
Physical inactivity and resultant lower energy expenditure contribute unequivocally to cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, which are considered major causes of disability and mortality worldwide.
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical activity (PA) and exercise on different aspects of health - genetics, endothelium function, blood pressure, lipid concentrations, glucose intolerance, thrombosis, and self - satisfaction. Materials and
In this article, we conducted a narrative review of the influence PA and exercise have on the cardiovascular system, risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, searching the online databases; Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar, and, subsequently, discuss possible mechanisms of this action.
Results and Discussion
Based on our narrative review of literature, discussed the effects of PA on telomere length, nitric oxide synthesis, thrombosis risk, blood pressure, serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and indicated possible mechanisms by which physical training may lead to improvement in chronic cardiovascular diseases.
PA is effective for the improvement of exercise tolerance, lipid concentrations, blood pressure, it may also reduce the serum glucose level and risk of thrombosis, thus should be advocated concomitant to, or in some cases instead of, traditional drug-therapy.
Same (skeletal muscle) telomere length in runners vs. sedentary individuals. Shorter telomere length in subjects with longer exercise history vs. shorter training history. Shorter telomere length in subjects with greater volume of training hours vs. lower volume of training hours.
25 healthy young and 32 older adults
Vigorous aerobic exercise ?5 days/week, >45 min/Day, ?5 years
Same leukocyte telomere length in older athletes vs. older sedentary subjects.
Table 1 Effect of exercise on telomere length.
Figure 1. Summary of main pathways effect of aerobic exercise.
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