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Aging and disease    2020, Vol. 11 Issue (3) : 618-628     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0617
Orginal Article |
T1-weighted MRI-driven Brain Age Estimation in Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease
Beheshti Iman1,*, Mishra Shiwangi2, Sone Daichi1, Khanna Pritee2, Matsuda Hiroshi1
1Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
2PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur, India.
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Neuroimaging-driven brain age estimation has introduced a robust (reliable and heritable) biomarker for detecting and monitoring neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we computed and compared brain age in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients using an advanced machine learning procedure involving T1-weighted MRI scans and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) models. Brain age estimation frameworks were built using 839 healthy individuals and then the brain estimated age difference (Brain-EAD: chronological age subtracted from brain estimated age) was assessed in a large sample of PD patients (n = 160) and AD patients (n = 129), respectively. The mean Brain-EADs for GM were +9.29 ± 6.43 years for AD patients versus +1.50 ± 6.03 years for PD patients. For WM, the mean Brain-EADs were +8.85 ± 6.62 years for AD patients versus +2.47 ± 5.85 years for PD patients. In addition, PD patients showed a significantly higher WM Brain-EAD than GM Brain-EAD. In a direct comparison between PD and AD patients, we observed significantly higher Brain-EAD values in AD patients for both GM and WM. A comparison of the Brain-EAD between PD and AD patients revealed that AD patients may have a significantly “older-appearing” brain than PD patients.

Keywords brain age      T1-weighted MRI      estimation      Alzheimer's disease      Parkinson’s disease     
Corresponding Authors: Beheshti Iman   
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These authors contributed equally to this work.

Just Accepted Date: 21 July 2019   Issue Date: 13 May 2020
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Beheshti Iman
Mishra Shiwangi
Sone Daichi
Khanna Pritee
Matsuda Hiroshi
Cite this article:   
Beheshti Iman,Mishra Shiwangi,Sone Daichi, et al. T1-weighted MRI-driven Brain Age Estimation in Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease[J]. Aging and disease, 2020, 11(3): 618-628.
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Training datasetTest dataset

No of Subjects408103227101129160
Age (years)56.48±12.0767.81±12.8575.96±5.0460.24±10.0271.64±5.8164.53±6.98
MDS-UPDRS Totaln/an/an/an/an/a31.97±13.13
MDS-UPDRS Part In/an/an/an/an/a1.35±1.57
MDS-UPDRS Part I Patient questionnairen/an/an/an/an/a4.05±2.79
MDS-UPDRS Part II Patient questionnairen/an/an/an/an/a5.71±3.96
MDS-UPDRS Part IIIn/an/an/an/an/a20.85±8.72
SBR Left Caudaten/an/an/an/an/a1.88±0.60
SBR Right Caudaten/an/an/an/an/a1.87±0.58
SBR Left Putamenn/an/an/an/an/a0.77±0.31
SBR Right Putamenn/an/an/an/an/a0.79±0.31
Table 1  Characteristics of subjects in this study.
Figure 1.  The pipeline of the T1w MRI-driven brain age estimation framework used in this study.
Figure 2.  Chronological age versus estimated brain age in the training set (n = 839) through 10-fold cross-validation strategy. (A) GM model. (B) WM model. The identity line is illustrated with a dashed black line (y = x).
MAE (years)4.384.85
RMSE (years)5.466.06
Correlation (r)0.920.91
Mean Brain-EAD [SD]0.01 [5.46]-0.05 [6.06]
Table 2  Performance of the proposed brain age framework in the training set.
Figure 3.  Comparison of Brain-EAD values between PD patients (blue spot) and AD patients (red spot) for the GM and WM models. The mean brain-EAD values of each group is illustrated with a solid black line. The reference line is illustrated with a dashed black line (y = 0).
Figure 4.  GM and WM Brain-EAD distributions for PD, and AD individuals.
Figure 5.  Chronological age versus estimated brain age among PD patients (blue spot, blue regression line) and AD patients (red spot, red regression line). (A) GM model. (B) WM model. The identity line is illustrated with a dashed black line (y = x).
Figure 6.  Brain-EAD values versus chronological age among PD patients (blue spot, blue regression line) and AD patients (red spot, red regression line). (A) GM model. (B) WM model. The reference line is illustrated with a dashed black line (y = 0).
Table 3  Partial correlation (r) of GM Brain-EAD with adjustment for age and sex among AD patients (n = 129)
Figure 7.  Partial correlations between Brain-EAD results and clinical parameters in the PD group. (A) MoCA, (B) MDS-UPDRS Part I, and (C) UPSIT - Total Score. Variables showing a significant correlation with Brain-EAD are shown.
Duration of disease-0.060.19S&E-0.120.05
MoCA-0.150.04UPSIT - Total Score-0.140.04
MDS-UPDRS Total0.060.23SBR-Left Caudate0.010.48
MDS-UPDRS Part I0.210.005SBR-Right Caudate-0.040.27
MDS-UPDRS Part I Patient Questionnaire0.020.42SBR-Left Putamen0.020.39
MDS-UPDRS Part II Patient Questionnaire-0.020.40SBR-Right Putamen-0.120.06
MDS-UPDRS Part III0.060.06
Table 4  Partial correlation (r) of WM Brain-EAD values with clinical parameters among PD patients with adjustment for age and sex (n = 160).
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