This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on how lncRNAs are influencing aging and cancer metabolism. Recent research has shown that senescent cells re-enter cell-cycle depending on intrinsic or extrinsic factors, thus restoring tissue homeostasis in response to age-related diseases (ARDs). Furthermore, maintaining proteostasis or cellular protein homeostasis requires a correct quality control (QC) of protein synthesis, folding, conformational stability, and degradation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, regulate gene expression through RNA-binding protein (RBP) interaction. Their association is linked to aging, an event of proteostasis collapse. The current review examines approaches that lead to recognition of senescence-associated lncRNAs, current methodologies, potential challenges that arise from studying these molecules, and their crucial implications in clinical practice.
-suppression of RBmRNA via miR675; -DNA methylation; cell division cycle
, , 
-prostate cancer -CRC
- regulation of AR-dependent gene activation events-
-tumor type-specific super-enhancer
-premature neural aging in terc KO mice
- Promotion of telomere extension -controlling the survival of NSCs - prevention of premature senescence and aging
, , 
-Suppression of telomere extension -survival of NSCs
-upregulated in prostate cancer; - myocardial infarction - hyper-cholesterolemia
-Protein turnover; -Scaffold function
-CBX7 - let-7a/TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway
-proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells - antisenescence function -histone modification
Table 1 lncRNAs in proteostasis.
Figure 1. Altered HOTAIR regulation contributes to ARDs/ senescence. HOTAIR, overexpressed during aging, activates proliferation and invasion. miR-141 levels are inversely correlated with malignacy by binding to this lncRNA and thus abrogating its transcription. Both interact with/are linked to Argonaute 2 (Ago 2) complex. A positive feedback mechanism from senescent cells upregulates miR-141. The level of HOTAIR could be reduced in a micro-dependent manner by an RNA binding protein (RBP), the senescence-repressor HuR, which degrades this lncRNA. In addition, HOTAIR facilitates ubiquitination and proteolysis of Snurportin-1 and Ataxin-1. HOTAIR interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligases and with their ubiquitination substrates, Ataxin-1 and Snurportin-1. HOTAIR facilitates the ubiquitination of Ataxin-1 by Dzip3 and Snurportin-1 by Mex3b and accelerates their degradation. HOTAIR has a key role in cellular senescence through inducing extended expression of NF-κB target genes and also NF-κB activation during DNA damage. An NF-κB-HOTAIR axis leads to a positive-feedback loop cascade contributing to cellular senescence and chemotherapy resistance in cancers. Overexpression of miR-203 inhibits HOTAIR, triggering epithelial- mesenchymal-transition (EMT), therefore inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), E-cadherin and claudin is increased by blocking invasion and metastasis while p21 and p27 are downregulated.
Figure 2. Mechanism by which lncRNA HULC activates tumorigenesis. Abbreviations: CLOCK- circadian locomotor output cycles kaput; E2F1-transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis; HCC- hepatocellular carcinoma; HIF-1α- hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha; HMGA2- high mobility group A protein 2; HULC- highly up‐regulated in liver cancer; PRKACB- protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta; PTTG1- pituitary tumor transforming gene; siRNA- small interfering ribonucleic acid; TWIST- the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ; YAP- yes-associated protein 1. lncRNA HULC, highly expressed in liver cancer, modulates the oncogene HMGA2 to activate tumorigenesis and interacts with the CLOCKmRNA, leading to the enhancement of its transcription. HMGA2 plays an essential role in the genesis of lung cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal carcinoma. HULC could be considered a molecular sponge which sequester certain miRNAs such as miR-186, miR-107 as well as miR-372, therefore reducing the translational repression of HMGA2, E2F1 and PRKACB. The expression level of HULC is positively correlated with HMGA2 and opposite to miR-186. In human HCC tissues, HULC upregulated HMGA2 expression via sequestering miR-186 promotes tumorigenesis. Moreover, HULC induces the expression of cyclin A and IL-15 in a dose-dependent manner. In HCC, HMGA2 is inhibited by miR-107 and let-7 miR-107 in breast cancer as well as siRNA as a consequence of HULC inhibition.
Implication in neurodegenerative disorders
Abnormalities in neuronal process/ Clinical features
MEG3 -expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm
-upregulated in the hippocampus of old mice; -downregulated in old induced striatal medium‐sized spiny neurons (MSSNs); - PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling cascade
-cognitive decline -downregulated in HD brain tissue - synaptic plasticity in neurons
- upregulated in AD disease brain affecting Aβ formation
-AD; -Protein aggregation; -cognitive impairment
Six3OS -spatiotemporal expression
- Regulation of Six3 targets through interactions with Eya proteins and the chromatin-modifying protein Ezh2;
- adult mouse neurogenesis
-upregulated in frontal and temporal cortices -increases Aβ secretion
-AD; -Abolish GABA B2 intracellular signaling
- upregulated in human aged SVZ; -upregulated in the hippocampus of old mice; - scaffold for proteins and RNAs
-cognitive decline; -neurodegeneration; -PD
, , 
-downregulated in murine dopaminergic cells; - regulated by a transcription factor Nurr1 required for dopamine cells differentiation
- Neurodegeneration; -PD
-altered expression in all tissues
-AD; - Neurodegeneration;
- high expression of HOTAIR promotes PD
- Increases BACE1 mRNA stability and Aβ42 formation
- up-regulated in AD brains
Table 2 Senescence- associated lncRNAs and neurodegenerative disorders.
Li Y, Zhao H, Huang X, Tang J, Zhang S, Li Y, Liu X, He L, Ju Z, Lui KO, Zhou B (2018). Embryonic senescent cells re-enter cell cycle and contribute to tissues after birth. Cell Res, 28: 775-778.
Grammatikakis I, Panda AC, Abdelmohsen K, Gorospe M (2014). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and the molecular hallmarks of aging. Aging (Albany NY), 6: 992-1009.
Miller BF, Hamilton, KL (2017). Overview: the modulation of ageing through altered proteostasis. J Physiol, 595:6381-6382.
Klaips CL, Jayaraj GG, Hartl FU (2018). Pathways of cellular proteostasis in aging and disease. J Cell Biol, 217:51-63.
Braicu C, Cătană C, Calin GA, Berindan-Neagoe I (2014). NCRNA combined therapy as future treatment option for cancer. Curr. Pharm, 20:6565-6574.
Quan H, Fan Q, Li C, Wang YY, Wang L (2018). The transcriptional profiles and functional implications of long non-coding RNAs in the unfolded protein response. Sci Rep, 8: 4981.
Redis RS, Berindan-Neagoe I, Pop VI, Calin GA (2012). Non- coding RNAs as theranostics in human cancers. J Cell Biochem, 113: 1451-1459.
Cătană CS, Pichler M, Giannelli G, Mader RM, Berindan-Neagoe I (2017). Non-coding RNAs, the Trojan horse in two-way communication between tumor and stroma in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget, 8: 29519-29534.
Gulei D, Mehterov N, Ling H, Stanta G, Braicu C, Berindan-Neagoe I (2017). The “good- cop bad-cop” TGF-beta role in breast cancer modulated by non-coding RNAs General subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1861:1661-1675.
Hartl FU, Bracher A, Hayer-Hartl M (2011). Molecular chaperones in protein folding and proteostasis. Nature, 475(7356):324.
Ghanam AR, Ali W, Abdalla M (2018). Long non-coding RNA-protein interaction: the preliminary step to track their biological functions. Genetics and Molecular Research, 17(4).
Schmitz KM, Mayer C, Postepska A, Grummt I (2010). Interaction of noncoding RNA with the rDNA promoter mediates recruitment of DNMT3b and silencing of rRNA genes. Genes Dev, 24(20):2264-9.
Johnsson P, Ackley A, Vidarsdottir L, Lui WO, Corcoran M, Grandér D, Morris KV (2013). A pseudogene long-noncoding-RNA network regulates PTEN transcription and translation in human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol, (4):440.
Guttman M, Donaghey J, Carey BW, Garber M, Grenier JK, Munson G, Young G, Lucas AB, Ach R, Bruhn L, Yang X (2011). lincRNAs act in the circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation. Nature, 477(7364):295.
Nakagawa S, Naganuma T, Shioi G, Hirose T (2011). Paraspeckles are subpopulation-specific nuclear bodies that are not essential in mice. J Cell Biol, 193(1):31-9.
Li Z, Chao TC, Chang KY, Lin N, Patil VS, Shimizu C, Head SR, Burns JC, Rana TM (2014). The long noncoding RNA THRIL regulates TNFα expression through its interaction with hnRNPL. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 111(3):1002-7.
Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, Finch CE, Laurent III GS, Kenny PJ, Wahlestedt C (2008). Expression of a noncoding RNA is elevated in Alzheimer's disease and drives rapid feed-forward regulation of β-secretase. Nat Med, 14(7):723.
Kretz M, Siprashvili Z, Chu C, Webster DE, Zehnder A, Qu K, Lee CS, Flockhart RJ, Groff AF, Chow J, Johnston D (2013). Control of somatic tissue differentiation by the long non-coding RNA TINCR. Nature, 493(7431):231.
Lee SY, Hwang YK, Yun HS, Han JS (2012). Decreased levels of nuclear glucocorticoid receptor protein in the hippocampus of aged Long-Evans rats with cognitive impairment. Brain research, 1478: 48-54.
Baldassarre A, Masotti A (2012). Long Non-Coding RNAs and p53 Regulation. Intl J Mol Sci, 13: 16708-16717.
Seles M, Hutterer GC, Kiesslich T, et al (2016). Current Insights into Long Non- Coding RNAs in Renal Cell Carcinoma. Int J Mol Sci, 17:573.
Derrien T, Johnson R, Bussotti G, Tanzer A, et al (2012). The GENCODE v7 catalog of human long noncoding RNAs: Analysis of their gene structure, evolution, and expression. Genome Res, 22:1775-1789.
Braicu C, Zimta AA, Harangus A, Iurca I, Irimie A, Coza O, Berindan-Neagoe I (2019). The Function of Non- Coding RNAs in Lung Cancer Tumorigenesis. Cancers (Basel). 11: pii: E605.
Kopp F, Mendell JT (2018). Functional Classification and Experimental Dissection of Long Noncoding RNAs. Cell, 172: 393-407.
Braicu C, Zimta AA, Gulei D, Olariu A, Berindan- Neagoe I (2019). Comprehensive analysis of circular RNAs in pathological states: biogenesis, cellular regulation, and therapeutic relevance. Cell Mol Life Sci, 76: 1559-1577.
Jariwala N, Sarkar D (2016). Emerging role of lncRNA in cancer: a potential avenue in molecular medicine. Ann Transl Med, 4:286
Huarte M (2015). The emerging role of lncRNAs in cancer. Nat Med, 21: 1253-1261.
Balch WE, Morimoto RI, Dillin A, Kelly JW (2008). Adapting proteostasis for disease intervention, Science, 319:916-919.
Powers ET, Morimoto RI, Dillin A, Kelly JW, Balch WE (2009). Biological and Chemical Approaches to Diseases of Proteostasis Deficiency. Annu Rev Biochem, 78:959-991.
Fernandes DP, Bitar M, Jacobs FM, Barry G (2018). Long Non-Coding RNAs in Neuronal Aging. Noncoding RNA. Noncoding RNA, 4 pii: E12.2018.
Ferrè F, Colantoni A, Helmer-Citterich M (2016). Revealing protein-lncRNA interaction. Brief Bioinform, 17: 106-116.
He J, Tu C, Liu Y (2018). Role of lncRNAs in aging and age‐related diseases. Aging Medicine. 1(2):158-75.
Fawzy M, Toraih E, Abdallah H (2017). Long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1): A molecular predictor of poor survival in glioblastoma multiforme in Egyptian patients. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, 18: 231-23.
Tripathi V, Shen V Z, Chakraborty A, Giri S, Freier SM, Wu X, Zhang Y, Gorospe M, Prasanth SG, Lal A, Prasanth, KV (2013). Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 controls cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of oncogenic transcription factor B-MYB. PLoS Genet, 9(3):e1003368
Xie Z, Xia W, Hou M (2017). Long intergenic noncoding RNAp21 mediates cardiac senescence via the Wnt/βcatenin signaling pathway in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Mol Med Rep, 17:2695-2704.
Kim C, Kang D, Lee EK, Lee JS (2017). Long Noncoding RNAs and RNA-Binding Proteins in Oxidative Stress, Cellular Senescence, and Age-Related Diseases. Oxid. Med. Cell Longev, 2017, 2062384.
Hall JR, Messenger Z J, Tam H W, Phillips SL, Recio L, Smart RC (2015). Long noncoding RNA lincRNA-p21 is the major mediator of UVB-induced and p53-dependent apoptosis in keratinocytes. Cell Death Dis, 6:e1700.
Kurokawa R (2011). Promoter-associated long noncoding RNAs repress transcription through a RNA binding protein TLS. Adv Exp Med Biol, 722: 196-208.
Filipits M, Dafni U, Gnant M, et al (2018). Association of p27 and Cyclin D1 Expression and Benefit from Adjuvant Trastuzumab Treatment in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer: A TransHERA Study. Clin Cancer Res, 24:3079-3086.
Yap KL, Li S, Muñoz-Cabello AM, Raguz S, et al (2010). Molecular interplay of the noncoding RNA ANRIL and methylated histone H3 lysine 27 by polycomb CBX7 in transcriptional silencing of INK4a. Mol Cell, 38:662-674.
Zhao B, Lu YL, Yang Y, et al ( 2018). Overexpression of lncRNA ANRIL promoted the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells via regulating let-7a/TGF-β1/ Smad signaling pathway. Cancer Biomark, 21: 613-620.
Wu Y, Zhang L, Wang Y, et al (2014). Long noncoding RNA HOTAIR involvement in cancer. Tumour Biol, 35: 9531-9538.
Cai B, Song XQ, Cai JP, Zhang S (2014). HOTAIR: a cancer-related long non-coding RNA. Neoplasma, 61: 379-391.
Del Vecchio G, De Vito F, Saunders SJ, Risi A, Mannironi C, Bozzoni I, Presutti C (2016). RNA-binding protein HuR and the members of the miR-200 family play an unconventional role in the regulation of c-Jun mRNA. RNA, 22: 1510-1521.
Yoon J H, Abdelmohsen K, Kim J, et al (2013). Scaffold function of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR in protein ubiquitination. Nat. Commun, 4: 2939.
Cătană CS, Calin GA, Berindan-Neagoe I (2015). Inflamma-miRs in Aging and Breast Cancer: Are They Reliable Players? Front Med (Lausanne), 2:85.
Özeş AR, Miller DF, Özeş ON, Fang F, Liu Y, Matei D (2016). NF-κB-HOTAIR axis links DNA damage response, chemoresistance and cellular senescence in ovarian cancer, Oncogene, 35: 5350-5361.
Dasgupta P, Kulkarni P, Majid S, et al (2018). MicroRNA-203 Inhibits Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR and Regulates Tumorigenesis through Epithelial-to-mesenchymal Transition Pathway in Renal, Cell Carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther, 17:1061-1069.
Ummanni R, Jost E, Braig M, et al (2011). Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) is a potential tumour suppressor in prostate cancer and is frequently silenced by promoter methylation. Mol Cancer, 10: 129.
Carrieri C, Cimatti L, Biagioli M, et al (2012). Long non-coding antisense RNA controls Uchl1 translation through an embedded SINEB2 repeat. Nature, 491: 454-457.
Zhang L, Zhou Y, Huang T, et al (2017). The Interplay of LncRNA-H19 and Its Binding Partners in Physiological Process and Gastric Carcinogenesis. Int J Mol Sci, 20: 18(2). pii: E450.
Liu Y, Zhao J, Zhang W, Gan J, Chengen H, Huang G, Zhang Y (2015). lncRNA GAS5 enhances G1 cell cycle arrest via binding to YBX1 to regulate p21 expression in stomach cancer. Sci Rep, 5:10159.
Huang J, Mousley CJ, Dacquay L, Maitra N, et al (2018). A Lipid Transfer Protein Signaling Axis Exerts Dual Control of Cell-Cycle and Membrane Trafficking Systems. Dev Cell, 44:378-391.
Kitagawa M, Kitagawa K, Kotake Y, Niida H,Ohhata T (2013). Cell cycle regulation by long non-coding RNAs. Cell Mol Life Sci, 70:4785-4794.
Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Hedge V L, Farzaneh F GT (2009). GAS5, a non-protein-coding RNA, controls apoptosis and is downregulated in breast cancer. Oncogene, 28:195-208.
Goossens J, Vanmechelen E, Trojanowski JQ, et al (2015). TDP-43 as a possible biomarker for frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a systematic review of existing antibodies. Acta Neuropathol Commun, 3:5.
Hollander MC, Alamo I, Jr. Fornace AJ (1996). A novel DNA damage-inducible transcript, gadd7, inhibits cell growth, but lacks a protein product. Nucleic Acids Res, 24:1589-1593.
Walter P, Blober G (1982). Signal recognition particle contains a 7S RNA essential for protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum. Nature, 299: 691-698.
Deschênes M, Chabo B (2017). The emerging role of alternative splicing in senescence and aging. Aging Cell, 16: 918-933.
Cătană C S, Atanasov A G, Berindan-Neagoe I (2018). Natural products with anti-aging potential: Affected targets and molecular mechanisms. Biotechnol Adv, 36:1649-1656.
Wong SQ, Kumar AV, Mills J, Lapierre LR (2019). Autophagy in aging and longevity. Hum Genet
Zhuo C, Jiang R, Lin X, Shao M (2016). LncRNA H19 inhibits autophagy by epigenetically silencing of DIRAS3 in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oncotarget, 8:1429-1437.
Gu Z, Hou Z, Zheng L, Wang X, Wu L, Zhang C (2018). LncRNA DICER1-AS1 promotes the proliferation, invasion and autophagy of osteosarcoma cells via miR-30b/ATG5, Biomed. Pharmacother, 104: 110-118.
Xiong H, Li B, He J, Zeng Y, Zhang Y, He F (2017). lncRNA HULC promotes the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via stabilizing COX-2 protein. Biochem. Biophys. Res Commun, 490: 693-699.
Wang Y, Xu Z, Jiang J, Xu C, Kang J, Xiao L, Wu M, Xiong J, Guo X, Liu H (2013). Endogenous miRNA sponge lincRNA-RoR regulates Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 in human embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Developmental cell, 25(1):69-80.
Xin X, Wu M, Meng Q, Wang C, et al (2018). Long noncoding RNA HULC accelerates liver cancer by inhibiting PTEN via autophagy cooperation to miR15a. Mol Cancer,17: 94.
Yin D, Liu Z, Zhang ZE, Kong R, Zhang Z, Guo R ( 2015). Decreased expression of long noncoding RNA MEG3 affects cell proliferation and predicts a poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol, 36: 4851-4859.
Ying L, Huang Y, Chen H, Wang Y, Xia L, Chen Y, Liu Y, Qiu F (2013). Downregulated MEG3 activates autophagy and increases cell proliferation in bladder cancer. Mol Biosystems, 9: 407-411.
Cui X, Jing X, Long C, Tian J, Zhu J (2017). Long noncoding RNA MEG3, a potential novel biomarker to predict the clinical outcome of cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Oncotarget, 8: 19049-19056.
Abdelmohsen K, Panda A C, Kang MJ, et al (2014). 7SL RNA represses p53 translation by competing with HuR. Nucleic Acids Res, 42: 10099-100111.
Yan W, Chen ZY, Chen JQ, Chen HM (2018). LncRNA NEAT1 promotes autophagy in MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease through stabilizing PINK1 protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 496:1019-1024.
Gu J, Wang Y, Wang X, Zhou D, Wang X, Zhou M, He Z (2018). Effect of the LncRNA GAS5-MiR-23a-ATG3 axis in regulating autophagy in patients with breast cancer. Cell Physiol Biochem, 48:194-207.
Ribeiro DM, Zanzoni A, Cipriano A, et al (2018). A Lipid Transfer Protein Signaling Axis Exerts Dual Control of Cell-Cycle and Membrane Trafficking Systems. Nucleic Acids Res, 46:917-928.
Park JY, Lee JE, Park JB, Yoo H, Lee SH, Kim JH ( 2014). Roles of Long Non-Coding RNAs on Tumorigenesis and Glioma Development. Brain Tumor Res Treat, 2: 1-6.
Christofori G, Naik P, Hanahan D (1994). A second signal supplied by insulin-like growth factor II in oncogene-induced tumorigenesis. Nature, 369: 414-418.
Yang L, Lin C, Jin C, et al (2013). lncRNA-dependent mechanisms of androgen-receptor-regulated gene activation programs, Nature, 500:598-602.
Song TF, Huang LW, Yuan Y, et al (2018). LncRNA MALAT1 regulates smooth muscle cell phenotype switch via activation of autophagy. Oncotarget, 9: 4411-4426.
Wapinski O, Chang HY (2011). Long noncoding RNAs and human disease. Trends Cell Biol, 21:354-361.
Deng Z, Cambell AE, Lieberamn PM (2010). TERRA, CpG methylation and telomere heterochromatin: lessons from ICF syndrome cells. Cell Cycle, 9: 69-74.
Cubiles MD, Barroso S, Vaquero-Sedas MI, Enguix A, Aguilera A, Vega-Palas MA (2018). Epigenetic features of human telomeres. Nucleic Acids Res, 46: 2347-2355.
Gao D, Lv AE, Li HP, Han DH, Zhang YP (2017). LncRNA MALAT-1 Elevates HMGB1 to Promote Autophagy Resulting in Inhibition of Tumor Cell Apoptosis in Multiple Myeloma, J Cell Biochem, 118: 3341-3348.
Hu M, Wang R, Li X, Fan M, Lin J, Zhen J, Chen L, Lv Z (2017). LncRNA MALAT1 is dysregulated in diabetic nephropathy and involved in high glucose‐induced podocyte injury via its interplay with β-catenin. J Cell Mol Med, 21:2732-2747.
Kotake Y, Kitagawa K, Ohhata T, Sakai S, Uchida C, Niida H., Naemura M, Kitagawa M (2016). Long non-coding RNA, PANDA, contributes to the stabilization of p53 tumor suppressor protein. Anticancer Research, 36: 1605-1611.
Kotake Y, Goto T, Naemura M, Inoue Y, Okamoto H, Tahara K (2017). Long noncoding RNA PANDA positively regulates proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. Anticancer Research, 37:81-85.
Luo G, Liu D, Huang C, Wang M, Xiao X, Zeng F (2017). LncRNA GAS5 Inhibits Cellular Proliferation by Targeting P27Kip1. Mol Cancer Res, 15: 789-799.
Hung T, Wang Y, Lin M F, et al (2011). Extensive and coordinated transcription of noncoding RNAs within cell-cycle promoters. Nature Genetics, 43: 621-629.
Beckedorff FC, Ayupe AC, Crocci-Souza R, et al (2013). The Intronic long noncoding RNA ANRASSF1 recruits PRC2 to the RASSF1A promoter, reducing the expression of RASSF1A and increasing cell proliferation. PLoS Genet, 9: e1003705.
Liu X, Li D, Zhang W, Guo M, Zhan Q (2012). Long non-coding RNA gadd7 interacts with TDP-43 and regulates Cdk6 mRNA decay. EMBO J, 31: 4415-4427.
Zeng S, Yang J, Zhao J, Liu Q, Rong M, Guo Z, Gao W (2014). Silencing Dicer expression enhances cellular proliferative and invasive capacities in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep, 31:867-873.
Xiang JF, Yin QF, Chen T, et al (2014). Human colorectal cancer-specific CCAT1-L lncRNA regulates long-range chromatin interactions at the MYC locus. Cell Research. 24, 513-531.
Samper E, Flores JM, Blasco MA (2001). Restoration of telomerase activity rescues chromosomal instability and premature aging in Terc-/- mice with short telomeres. EMBO Rep, 2: 800-807.
Tan MC, Widagdo J, Chau YQ, et al (2017). The Activity-Induced Long Non-Coding RNA Meg3 Modulates AMPA Receptor Surface Expression in Primary Cortical Neurons. Front Cell Neurosci, 11:124.
Hu G, Niu F, Humburg BA, Liao K, Bendi S, Callen S, Fox HS, Buch S (2018). Molecular mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs and their role in disease pathogenesis. Oncotarget, 9:18648-18663.
Rapicavoli NA, Poth EM, Zhu HS Blackshaw (2011). The long noncoding RNA Six3OS acts in trans to regulate retinal development by modulating Six3 activity. Neural Dev, 6: 32.
Massone S, Vassallo I, Fiorino G, et al (2011). 17A, a novel non-coding RNA, regulates GABA B alternative splicing and signaling in response to inflammatory stimuli and in Alzheimer disease. Neurobiol Dis, 41: 308-317.
Barry G, Guennewig B, Fung S, et al (2015). Long Non-Coding RNA Expression during Aging in the Human Subependymal Zone. Front Neurol, 6:45.
Stilling RM, Benito E, Gertig M, et al (2014). De-regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing affects distinct cellular pathways in the aging hippocampus. Front. Cell. Neurosci, 8:373.
Salta E, De Strooper B (2017). Noncoding RNAs in neurodegeneration. Nat Rev Neurosci, 18: 627-640.
Wang S, Zhang X, Guo Y, Rong H, Liu T (2017). The long noncoding RNA HOTAIR promotes Parkinson's disease by upregulating LRRK2 expression. Oncotarget, 8: 24449-24456.
Riva P, Ratti A, Venturin M (2016). The Long Non-Coding RNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Novel Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. Curr. Alzheimer Res, 13: 1219-1231.
Modarresi F, Faghihi MA, Patel NS, et al ( 2011). Knockdown of BACE1-AS Nonprotein-Coding Transcript Modulates Beta-Amyloid-Related Hippocampal Neurogenesis. Int J Alzheimers Dis, 2011: 929042.
Kitagawa M, Kitagawa K, Kotake Y, Niida H, Ohhata T (2013). Cell cycle regulation by long non-coding RNAs. Cell Mol Life Sci, 70: 4785-4794.
Collette J, Le Bourhis X, Adriaenssens E (2017). Regulation of Human Breast Cancer by the Long Non-Coding RNA H19. Int J Mol Sci, 18: E 2319.
Matouk IJ, Halle D, Raveh E, Gilon M, Sorin V, Hochberg A (2016). The role of the oncofetal H19 lncRNA in tumor metastasis: orchestrating the EMT-MET decision. Oncotarget, 7: 3748-3765.