Potential Biochemical Mechanisms of Brain Injury in Diabetes Mellitus
Ma Wei-Xing1,2,3, Tang Jing3, Lei Zhi-Wen3, Li Chun-Yan1,4, Zhao Li-Qing3, Lin Chao3, Sun Tao3, Li Zheng-Yi3, Jiang Ying-Hui3, Jia Jun-Tao3, Liang Cheng-Zhu3, Liu Jun-Hong2, Yan Liang-Jun1,*
1Department of Pharmaceutical, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA 2Chemical Engineering Institute, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong, China 3Technological Center, Qingdao Customs, Qingdao, Shandong, China 4Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China
The goal of this review was to summarize current biochemical mechanisms of and risk factors for diabetic brain injury. We mainly summarized mechanisms published in the past three years and focused on diabetes induced cognitive impairment, diabetes-linked Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetic stroke. We think there is a need to conduct further studies with increased sample sizes and prolonged period of follow-ups to clarify the effect of DM on brain dysfunction. Additionally, we also think that enhancing experimental reproducibility using animal models in conjunction with application of advanced devices should be considered when new experiments are designed. It is expected that further investigation of the underlying mechanisms of diabetic cognitive impairment will provide novel insights into therapeutic approaches for ameliorating diabetes-associated injury in the brain.
Figure 1. Signaling pathways and risk factors that are potentially involved in development of cognitive impairment induced by diabetes.
Figure 2. Signaling pathways and risk factors that are potentially involved in diabetic AD.
Figure 3. Signaling pathways and risk factors potentially involved in diabetic stroke.
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