Aging is a common risk factor for the occurrence and development of many diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and cancer, among others, and is a key problem threatening the health and life expectancy of the elderly. Oxidative damage is an important mechanism involved in aging. The latest discovery pertaining to oxidative damage is that 8-oxoGsn (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine), an oxidative damage product of RNA, can represent the level of oxidative stress. The significance of RNA oxidative damage to aging has not been fully explained, but the relationship between the accumulation of 8-oxoGsn, a marker of RNA oxidative damage, and the occurrence of diseases has been confirmed in many aging-related diseases. Studying the aging mechanism, monitoring the aging level of the body and exploring the corresponding countermeasures are of great significance for achieving healthy aging and promoting public health and social development. This article reviews the progress of research on 8-oxoGsn in aging-related diseases.
Figure 1. The formation of 8-oxo(d)Gsn. (Up panel) Deoxyguanine (dG) in double-stranded DNA becomes 8-oxodG(GO) under oxidative stress. At this time, 8-oxodG can be directly removed by OGG, or during DNA replication, 8-oxodG is paired with adenine (A) instead of cytosine (C), MYH excision of A is paired with 8-oxodG, and then OGG excision of 8oxodG occurs. (Botton panel) During DNA transcription, G becomes 8-oxoG under oxidative stress, and 8-oxoG is specifically bound and degraded by Y-box binding protein-1 and PNP. The removed 8-oxo(d)G is transformed into 8-oxo(d)Gsn by MTH1, MTH2, NUDT5, and NUDT8 and then enters into tissues, cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine.
Floyd RA, West MS, Eneff KL, Schneider JE, Wong PK, Tingey DT (1990). Conditions influencing yield and analysis of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in oxidatively damaged DNA. Anal Biochem, 188: 155-8.
Mark KS, Bruce NA (1991). Assays for 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine: a biomarker of in vivo oxidative DNA damage. Free Radic Biol Med, 10:211-216.
Sekiguchi M (2006). Molecular devices for high fidelity of DNA replication and gene expression. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci, 82:278-296.
Nakabeppu Y, Kajitani K, Sakamoto K, Yamaguchi H (2006). MTH1, an oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase, prevents the cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity of oxidized purine nucleotides. DNA Repair (Amst), 5(7):761-72.
Marcus SC, Mark DE Oxidative damage to nucleic acids. Springer, 2007.
Xiaoqiang G, Caiqing Y (2006). Mechanism of 8-oxoG Excision Repair. J Med Mol Biol, 3(5):397-400.
Harman D (1956). Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol, 11: 298-300.
Mecocci P, MacGarvey U, Beal MF (1994). Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is increased in Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol, 36: 747-51.
Nunomura A, Perry G, Pappolla MA, Wade R, Hirai K, Chiba S (1999). RNA oxidation is a prominent feature of vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci, 19(6):1959-1964.
Barciszewski J, Barciszewska MZ, Siboska G, Rattan SI, Clark BF (1999). Some unusual nucleic acid bases are products of hydroxyl radical oxidation of DNA and RNA. Mol Biol Rep, 26(4):231-8.
Toyokuni S (1999). Reactive oxygen species-induced molecular damage and its application in pathology. Pathol Int, 49:91-102.
Luo J, Hosoki K, Bacsi A, Radak Z, Hegde ML, Sur S (2014). 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1-mediated DNA repair is associated with Rho GTPase activation and α -smooth muscle actin polymerization. Free Radic Biol Med, 73:430-8.
Steen S, Slobodan VJ (1997). How Easily Oxidizable Is DNA? One-Electron Reduction Potentials of Adenosine and Guanosine Radicals in Aqueous Solution. J Am Chem Soc, 119(3): 617-618.
Shimoda R, Nagashima M, Sakamoto M, Yamaguchi N, Hirohashi S, Yokota J (1994). Increased formation of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, in human livers with chronic hepatitis. Cancer Res, 54(12):3171.
Zhongwei L, Jinhua Wu, Christopher DJ (2010). RNA damage and surveillance under oxidative stress. Iubmb Life, 58:581-588.
Damien Brégeon, Alain Sarasin (2005). Hypothetical role of RNA damage avoidance in preventing human disease. Mutat Res Mol Mech Mutagen, 577: 293-302.
Moreira PI, Nunomura A, Nakamura M, Takeda A, Shenk JC, Alievn G, et al (2008). Nucleic acid oxidation in Alzheimer disease. Free Radic Biol Med, 44(8):1493-1505.
Mundt JM, Hah SS, Sumbad RA, Schramm V, Henderson PT (2008). Incorporation of extracellular 8-oxodG into DNA and RNA requires purine nucleoside phosphorylase in MCF-7 cells. Nucleic Acids Research, 36: 228-36.
Zhongzhou S, Weijia W, Stanley LH (2000). Activated Leukocytes Oxidatively Damage DNA, RNA, and the Nucleotide Pool through Halide-Dependent Formation of Hydroxyl Radical. Biochemistry, 39:5474-5482.
Warner WG, Wei RR (1997). In vitro Photooxidation of Nucleic Acids by Ultraviolet A Radiation. Photochem Photobiol, 65(3): 560-563.
Hofer T, Badouard C, Cotgreave IA, Nucle A (2005). Hydrogen peroxide causes greater oxidation in cellular RNA than in DNA. Biol Chem, 386: 333-7.
Hofer T, Seo AY, Prudencio M, Leeuwenburgh C (2006). A method to determine RNA and DNA oxidation simultaneously by HPLC-ECD: greater RNA than DNA oxidation in rat liver after doxorubicin administration. Biol Chem, 387: 103-11.
Hofer T, Marzetti E, Xu J, Seo AY, Gulec S, Knutson MD (2008). Increased iron content and RNA oxidative damage in skeletal muscle with aging and disuse atrophy. Experimental Gerontology, 43:563-570.
Fiala ES, Conaway CC, Mathis JE (1989). Oxidative DNA and RNA Damage in the Livers of Sprague-Dawley Rats Treated. Cancer Res, 49:5518-5522.
Taddei F, Hayakawa H, Bouton M (1997). Counteraction by MutT Protein of Transcriptional Errors Caused by Oxidative Damage. Science, 278:128-130.
Tanaka M, Chock PB, Stadtman ER (2007). Oxidized messenger RNA induces translation errors. PNAS, 104(1): 66-71.
Poulsen HE, Specht E, Broedbaek K, Henriksen T, Ellervik C, Mandrup-poulsen T (2012). RNA modifications by oxidation: A novel disease mechanism? Free Radic Biol Med, 52:1353-1361.
Qiongman K, Chien-liang GL (2010). Oxidative damage to RNA: mechanisms, consequences, and diseases. Cell Mol Life Sci, 67: 1817-1829.
Martinet W, De Meyer GRY, Herman AG, Kockx MM (2004). Reactive oxygen species induce RNA damage in human atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest, 34: 323-7.
Nunomura A, Hofer T, Moreira PI, Castellani RJ, Smith MA, Perry G (2009). RNA oxidation in Alzheimer disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. Acta Neuropathol, 118: 151-66.
Broedbaek K, Siersma V, Henriksen T, Weimann A, Petersen M, Andersen JT (2013). Association between urinary markers of Nucleic Acid Oxidation andMortality in Type 2 Diabetes A population-based cohort study. Diabetes Care, 36: 669-76.
Andreoli R, Mutti A, Goldoni M, Manini P, Apostoli P, Palma GD (2011). Reference ranges of urinary biomarkers of oxidized guanine in (2 ′-deoxy) ribonucleotides and nucleic acids. Free Radic Biol Med, 50: 254-61.
Broedbaek K, Siersma V, Henriksen T, Weimann A, Petersen M, Andersen JT (2011). Urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and long-term mortality of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care, 34: 2594-6.
Gan W, Nie B, Shi F, Xu XM, Qian JC, Takagi Y (2012). Age-dependent increases in the oxidative damage of DNA, RNA, and their metabolites in normal and senescence-accelerated mice analyzed by LC-MS/MS: Urinary 8-oxoguanosine as a novel biomarker of aging. Free Radic Biol Med, 52: 1700-7.
Shi F, Nie B, Gan W, Zhou X, Takagi Y, Hayakawa H (2012). Oxidative damage of DNA, RNA and their metabolites in leukocytes, plasma and urine of Macaca mulatta: 8-oxoguanosine in urine is a useful marker for aging. Free Radic Res, 46:1093-1098.
Nie B, Gan W, Shi F, Hu GX, Chen LG, Hayakawa H (2013). Age-Dependent Accumulation of 8-Oxoguanine in the DNA and RNA in Various Rat Tissues. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2013: 1-9.
Munkholm K, He P, Lv K, Elevated VM (2015). Elevated levels of urinary markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord, 17: 257-68.
Fromme JC, Banerjee A, Huang SJ, Verdine GL (2004). Structural basis for removal of adenine mispaired with 8-oxoguanine by MutY adenine DNA glycosylase. Nature, 427: 652-6.
Boiteux S, Gellon L, Guibourt N (2002). Repair of 8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: interplay of DNA repair and replication mechanisms. Free Radic Biol Med, 32: 1244-53.
Ohtsubo T, Nishioka K, Imaiso Y, Iwai S, Shimokawa H, Oda H, et al. (2000). Identification of human MutY homolog (hMYH) as a repair enzyme for 2-hydroxyadenine in DNA and detection of multiple forms of hMYH located in nuclei and mitochondria. Nucleic Acids Res, 28: 1355-64.
Ohtsubo T, Nishioka K, Imaiso Y, Iwai S, Shimokawa H, Oda H, et al. (2015). Identification of human MutY homolog (hMYH) as a repair enzyme for 2-hydroxyadenine in DNA and detection of multiple forms of hMYH located in nuclei and mitochondria. Nucleic Acids Res, 43:3870-1.
Oka S, Nakabeppu Y (2011). DNA glycosylase encoded by MUTYH functions as a molecular switch for programmed cell death under oxidative stress to suppress tumorigenesis. Cancer Sci, 102: 677-82.
Hayakawa H, Uchiumi T, Fukuda T, Ashizuka M, Kohno K (2002). Binding Capacity of Human YB-1 Protein for RNA Containing 8-Oxoguanine. Biochem, 41:12739-12744.
Hayakawa H, Sekiguchi M (2006). Human Polynucleotide Phosphorylase Protein in Response to Oxidative Stress. Biochem, 45:6749-6755.
Ishii T, Sekiguchi M (2019). Two ways of escaping from oxidative RNA damage: Selective degradation and cell death. DNA Repair (Amst), 102666.
Yoshimura D, Sakumi K, Ohno M, Sakai Y, Furuichi M, Iwai S, et al (2003). An oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase, MTH1, suppresses cell death caused by oxidative stress. J Biol Chem, 278:37965-73.
Cai J, Ishibashi T, Takagi Y, Hayakawa H, Sekiguchi M (2003). Mouse MTH2 protein which prevents mutations caused by 8-oxoguanine nucleotides. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 305: 1073-7.
Ishibashi T, Hayakawa H, Sekiguchi M (2003). A novel mechanism for preventing mutations caused by oxidation ofguanine nucleotides. EMBO Rep, 4:479-83.
Takagi Y, Setoyama D, Ito R, Kamiya H, Yamagata Y, Sekiguchi M (2012). Human MTH3 (NUDT18) Protein Hydrolyzes Oxidized Forms of Guanosine and Deoxyguanosine Diphosphates, 287: 21541-9.
Nakabeppu Y (2014). Cellular Levels of 8-Oxoguanine in either DNA or the Nucleotide Pool Play Pivotal Roles in Carcinogenesis and Survival of Cancer Cells. Int J Mol Sci, 15:12543-57.
Nakabeppu Y (2001). Molecular genetics and structural biology of human MutT homolog, MTH1. Mutation Research, 477: 59-70.
Nakabeppu Y (2001). Regulation of intracellular localization of human MTH1, OGG1, and MYH proteins for repair of oxidative DNA damage. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol, 68:75-94.
Hu C, Chao M, Sie C (2010). Urinary analysis of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS with automated solid-phase extraction: Study of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine stability. Free Radic Biol Med, 48: 89-97.
Andreoli R, Manini P, De Palma G, Alinovi R, Goldoni M, et al. (2010). Quantitative determination of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine, and their non-oxidized forms: daily concentration profile in healthy volunteers. Biomarkers, 15:221-31.
Hajas G, Bacsi A, Aguilera-aguirre L, Hegde ML, Tapas KH, Sur S (2013). 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 links DNA repair to cellular signaling via the activation of the small GTPase Rac1. Free Radic Biol Med, 61: 384-94.
Malayappan B, Garrett TJ, Segal M, Leeuwenburgh C (2007). Urinary analysis of 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoguanosine, fapy-guanine and 8-oxo-2 -deoxyguanosine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry as a measure of oxidative stress. J Chromatogr A, 1167: 54-62.
Evans DA, Funkenstein HH, Albert MS, Scherr PA, Cook NR, Chown MJ, et al. (1989). Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a community population of older persons. Higher than previously reported. JAMA, 262: 2551-6.
Andersen JK (2004). Oxidative stress in neurodegeneration: cause or consequence? Nat Med, 10 Suppl: S18-25.
Bowling AC, Schulz JB, Brown RH Jr, Beal MF (1993). Superoxide dismutase activity, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial energy metabolism in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurochem, 61: 2322-5.
Coyle JT, Puttfarcken P (1993). Oxidative stress, glutamate, and neurodegenerative disorders. Science, 262: 689-95.
Barnham KJ, Masters CL, Bush AI (2004). Neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 3: 205-14.
Ischiropoulos H, Beckman JS (2003). Oxidative stress and nitration in neurodegeneration: cause, effect, or association? J Clin Invest, 111:163-9.
Jenner P (2003). Oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol, 53 Suppl 3S:26-36.
Lin MT, Beal MF (2006). Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature, 443: 787-95.
Nunomura A, Castellani RJ, Zhu X, Moreira PI, Perry G, Smith MA (2006). Involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 65: 631-41.
Sayre LM, Smith MA, Perry G (2001). Chemistry and biochemistry of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Curr Med Chem, 8(7):721-38.
Rosen DR, Siddique T, Patterson D, Figlewicz DA, Sapp P, Hentati A (1993). Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature, 362(6415):59-62.
Rosen DR (1993). Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature, 364(6435):362.
Nunomura A, Perry G, Pappolla MA, Wade R, Hirai K, Chiba S (1999). RNA oxidation is a prominent feature of vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci, 19(6):1959-64.
Zhang J, Perry G, Smith MA, Robertson D, Olson SJ, Graham DG (1999). Parkinson’s disease is associated with oxidative damage to cytoplasmic DNA and RNA in substantia nigra neurons. Am J Pathol, 154(5):1423-9.
Nunomura A (2013). RNA Oxidation in Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases. Brain Nerve, 65(2):179-94.
Nunomura A, Moreira PI, Takeda A, Smith MA (2007). Oxidative RNA damage and neurodegeneration. Curr Med Chem, 14(28): 2968-75.
Lovell MA, Gabbita SP, Markesbery WR (1999). Increased DNA oxidation and decreased levels of repair products in Alzheimer’s disease ventricular CSF. J Neurochem, 72(2):771-6.
Abe T, Tohgi H, Isobe C, Murata T, Sato C (2002). Remarkable increase in the concentration of 8-hydroxyguanosine in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci Res, 70(3): 447-50.
Abe T, Isobe C, Murata T, Sato C, Tohgi H (2003). Alteration of 8-hydroxyguanosine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett, 336(2):105-8.
Xiu S, Tashiro H, Chien-liang GL (2003). The identification and characterization of oxidized RNAs in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci, 23(12): 4913-21.
Xiu S, Chien-liang GL (2006). Quantification of oxidized RNAs in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging, 27(5): 657-62.
Xiu S, Yueming C, Chien-liang GL (2007). Messenger RNA oxidation is an early event preceding cell death and causes reduced protein expression. FASEB J, 21: 2753-64.
Bradley-Whitman MA, Timmons MD, Beckett TL, Murphy MP, Lynn BC, Lovell MA (2014). Nucleic acid oxidation: an early feature of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurochem, 128(2): 294-304.
Lusis AJ (2000). Atherosclerosis. Nature, 407(6801): 233-41.
Irani K (2000). Oxidant signaling in vascular cell growth, death, and survival: a review of the roles of reactive oxygen species in smooth muscle and endothelial cell mitogenic and apoptotic signaling. Circ Res, 87(3):179-83.
Stocker R, Keaney JF Jr (2004). Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. Physiol Rev, 84(4): 1381-478.
Shishehbor MH, Hazen SL (2004). Inflammatory and oxidative markers in atherosclerosis: Relationship to outcome. Curr Atheroscler Rep, 6: 243-50.
Martinet W, Knaapen MW, De Meyer GR, Herman AG, Kockx MM (2001). Oxidative DNA damage and repair in experimental atherosclerosis are reversed by dietary lipid lowering. Circ Res, 88(7):733-9.
Martinet W, Knaapen MW, De Meyer GR, Herman AG, Kockx MM (2002). Elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage and DNA repair enzymes in human atherosclerotic plaques. Circulation, 106(8): 927-32.
Wang D, Kreutzer DA, Essigmann JM (1998). Mutagenicity and repair of oxidative DNA damage: insights from studies using defined lesions. Mutat Res, 400(1-2): 99-115.
Martinet W, de Meyer GR, Herman AG, Kockx MM (2004). Reactive oxygen species induce RNA damage in human atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest, 34(5):323-7.
Martinet W, De Meyer GR, Herman AG, Kockx MM (2005). RNA damage in human atherosclerosis: pathophysiological significance and implications for gene expression studies. RNA Biol, 2(1):4-7.
Cong Z, Xiangyu L, Xiaojie L (2016). An observational study of urinary 8-oxo-Gsn level and its clinical significance in patients with coronary heart disease. Chin J Cardiovasc Med, 21(3):21-26.
Obst B, Wagner S, Sewing KF, Beil W (2000). Helicobacter pylori causes DNA damage in gastric epithelial cells. Carcinog, 21(6):1111-5.
Everett SM, White KL, Drake IM, Schorah CJ, Calvert RJ, Skinner C (2002). The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on levels of DNA damage in gastric epithelial cells. Helicobacter, 7(5):271-80.
Ladeira MS, Rodrigues MA, Freire-Maia DV, Salvadori DM (2005). Use of Comet assay to assess DNA damage in patients infected by Helicobacter pylori: comparisons between visual and image analyses. Mutat Res, 586(1):76-86.
Raza Y, Khan A, Farooqui A, Mubarak M, Facista A, Akhtar SS (2014). Oxidative DNA damage as a potential early biomarker of Helicobacter pylori associated carcinogenesis. Pathol Oncol Res, 20(4): 839-46.
Xiao L, Qingfeng L, Zhenhe W, Jianping Cai, Huahong W (2016). Clinical significance of DNA and RNA oxidative damage in human gastric mucosa infected with helicobacter py-lori. Chin J Clin Healthc, 2016(2):138-140.
Xiao L, Yawei L, Qingfeng L (2018). Determination of the Level of RNA Damage in Gastric Mucosa and Urine in Patients with Helicobacter Pylori Infection. J Med Res, 47(5):98-101.
Pillon Barcelos R, Freire Royes LF, Gonzalez-Gallego J, Bresciani G (2017). Oxidative stress and inflammation: liver responses and adaptations to acute and regular exercise. Free Radic Res, 51(2): 222-236.
Ha HL, Shin HJ, Feitelson MA, Yu DY (2010). Oxidative stress and antioxidants in hepatic pathogenesis. World J Gastroenterol, 16(48):6035-43.
Shimoda R, Nagashima M, Sakamoto M, Yamaguchi N, Hirohashi S, Yokota J (1994). Increased formation of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, in human livers with chronic hepatitis. Cancer Res, 54(12): 3171-2.
Xinmin X, Qinghua W, Jie G, Qian F, Xiangyu L, Zhe C, Jian G (2018). Evaluation of Urinary 8-oxo-Gsn and 8-oxo-dGsn for the Extent of Liver Damage Caused by HBV Infection. J Med Res, 47(2):74-78.
Poulsen HE, Nadal LL, Broedbaek K, Nielsen PE, Weimann A (2014). Detection and interpretation of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua in urine, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1840(2):801-8.
Piconi L, Quagliaro L, Ceriello A (2003). Oxidative stress in diabetes. Clin Chem Lab Med, 41(9):1144-9.
Broedbaek K, Weimann A, Stovgaard ES, Poulsen HE (2011). Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker in type 2 diabetes. Free Radic Biol Med, 51(8):1473-9.
Hoffman WH, Siedlak SL, Wang Y, Castellani RJ, Smith MA (2011). Oxidative damage is present in the fatal brain edema of diabetic ketoacidosis. Brain Res, 1369: 194-202.
Abdo S, Zhang SL, Chan JS (2015). Reactive Oxygen Species and Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Activation in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Hidden Target. J Diabetes Metab, 6(6).
Broedbaek K, Siersma V, Henriksen T, Weimann A, Petersen M, Andersen JT (2011). Urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and long-term mortality of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care, 34(12): 2594-6.
Broedbaek K, Siersma V, Henriksen T, Weimann A, Petersen M (2013). Association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and mortality in type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Diabetes Care, 36(3): 669-76.
Broedbaek K, Siersma V, Henriksen T, Weimann A, Petersen M, Andersen JT (2015). Urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and cancer in type 2 diabetes. Redox Biol, 4:34-9.
Xinle L, Wei G, Yuangao Z, Bin Y, Zhenzhen S, Jin D (2016). Elevated Levels of Urinary Markers of Oxidative DNA and RNA Damage in Type 2 Diabetes with Complications. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016: 4323198.
Puchades MJ, Saez G, Muñoz MC, Gonzalez M, Torregrosa I, Juan I (2013). Study of oxidative stress in patients with advanced renal disease and undergoing either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol, 80(3):177-86.
Wan-Xia W, Shun-Bin L, Meng-Ming X, Yong-Hui M, Xiao-Yang Z, Ping J (2015). Analysis of the oxidative damage of DNA, RNA, and their metabolites induced by hyperglycemia and related nephropathy in Sprague Dawley rats. Free Radic Res, 49(10):1199-209.
Yong-Hui M, Qing-Hua W, Leng-Nan X, Xiang-Yu L, Ban Z, Ying S (2017). Levels of 8-oxo-dGsn and 8-oxo-Gsn in random urine are consistent with 24 h urine in healthy subjects and patients with renal disease. Free Radic Res, 51(6): 616-621.
Lengnan X, Ban Z, Haitao W, Jianping C, YonghuiM Value of RNA oxidation product 8-oxo-Gsn in evaluating renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (2018). Natl Med J China, 98(42):3415-3419.
Li C, Liu Y, Ling Y, Xia-Ying K, Wen-Jia Z, Shan L (2018). Characterization of PIK3CA and PIK3R1 somatic mutations in Chinese breast cancer patients. Nat Commun, 9(1):1357.
Cohen AL, Holmen SL, Colman H (2013). IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep,13(5): 345.
Wood LD, Calhoun ES, Silliman N, Ptak J, Szabo S, Powell SM (2006). Somatic mutations of GUCY2F, EPHA3, and NTRK3 in human cancers. Hum Mutat, 27(10):1060-1.
Jiang D, Rusling JF (2019). Oxidation Chemistry of DNA and p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene. ChemistryOpen, 8(3): 252-265.
Raza Y, Khan A, Farooqui A, Mubarak M, Facista A, Akhtar SS (2014). Oxidative DNA damage as a potential early biomarker of Helicobacter pylori associated carcinogenesis. Pathol Oncol Res, 20(4):839-46.
Wen-Jie S, Ping J, Jian-Ping C, Zhi-Qiang Z (2015). Expression of Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-Gsn and MTH1 Correlates with Pathological Grading in Human Gastric Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16(15):6335-8.
Iida T, Furuta A, Kawashima M, Nishida J, Nakabeppu Y, Iwaki T (2001). Accumulation of 8-oxo-2’-deoxyguanosine and increased expression of hMTH1 protein in brain tumors. Neuro Oncol, 3(2):73-81.
Roszkowski K, Jozwicki W, Blaszczyk P, Mucha-Malecka A, Siomek A (2011). Oxidative damage DNA: 8-oxoGua and 8-oxodG as molecular markers of cancer. Med Sci Monit, 17(6):CR329-33.