1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India. 2Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Gorakhpur, UP, India. 3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 4Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, UP, India. 5Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. 6Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India. 7Department of Biochemistry, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India. 8Health Department, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, West Bengal, India. 9Department of Radiodiagnosis, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India. 10Department of General Medicine, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India. 11Department of Chemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India. 12School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China. 13Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India. 14Department of General Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India. 15Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, College Station, Texas, USA. 16Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. 17Department of Biochemistry and Central Research Cell, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.
The ongoing Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic has witnessed global political responses of unimaginable proportions. Many nations have implemented lockdowns that involve mandating citizens not to leave their residences for non-essential work. The Indian government has taken appropriate and commendable steps to curtail the community spread of COVID-19. While this may be extremely beneficial, this perspective discusses the other reasons why COVID-19 may have a lesser impact on India. We analyze the current pattern of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, testing, and mortality in India with an emphasis on the importance of mortality as a marker of the clinical relevance of COVID-19 disease. We also analyze the environmental and biological factors which may lessen the impact of COVID-19 in India. The importance of cross-immunity, innate immune responses, ACE polymorphism, and viral genetic mutations are discussed.
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Figure 1. Representation of total COVID-19 tests performed in different countries for total confirmed cases of COVID-19. The status of India is shown with respect to other major nations. X-axis: total COVID-19 cases (logarithmic scale); Y-axis: total COVID-19 tests performed (logarithmic scale) (Figure courtesy https://ourworldindata.org/search?q=corona).
Table 1 Demographic characteristics, travel history and health status of patients dying with COVID-19 positivity in India.
Figure 2. Representation of country-wise timeline of COVID-19 case fatality rate. The status of India is shown with respect to other major nations. (Figure courtesy https://ourworldindata.org/search?q=corona).
Figure 3. Representation of total confirmed cases with respect to total confirmed deaths in India, in comparison with other major nations. X-axis: total COVID-19 cases (logarithmic scale); Y-axis: total confirmed deaths due to COVID-19 (logarithmic scale) (Figure courtesy https://ourworldindata.org/search?q=corona).
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