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Aging and disease    2020, Vol. 11 Issue (3) : 480-488     DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0402
Perspective |
COVID-19 in India: Are Biological and Environmental Factors Helping to Stem the Incidence and Severity?
Chakrabarti Sankha Shubhra1, Kaur Upinder2, Banerjee Anindita3, Ganguly Upasana3, Banerjee Tuhina4, Saha Sarama5, Parashar Gaurav6, Prasad Suvarna7, Chakrabarti Suddhachitta8, Mittal Amit9, Agrawal Bimal Kumar10, Rawal Ravindra Kumar11, Zhao Robert Chunhua12, Gambhir Indrajeet Singh13, Khanna Rahul14, Shetty Ashok K15, Jin Kunlin16, Chakrabarti Sasanka17,*
1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India.
2Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Gorakhpur, UP, India.
3Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
4Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, UP, India.
5Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.
6Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.
7Department of Biochemistry, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.
8Health Department, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, West Bengal, India.
9Department of Radiodiagnosis, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.
10Department of General Medicine, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.
11Department of Chemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.
12School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China.
13Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India.
14Department of General Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India.
15Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, College Station, Texas, USA.
16Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.
17Department of Biochemistry and Central Research Cell, MM Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar (deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.
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Abstract  

The ongoing Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic has witnessed global political responses of unimaginable proportions. Many nations have implemented lockdowns that involve mandating citizens not to leave their residences for non-essential work. The Indian government has taken appropriate and commendable steps to curtail the community spread of COVID-19. While this may be extremely beneficial, this perspective discusses the other reasons why COVID-19 may have a lesser impact on India. We analyze the current pattern of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, testing, and mortality in India with an emphasis on the importance of mortality as a marker of the clinical relevance of COVID-19 disease. We also analyze the environmental and biological factors which may lessen the impact of COVID-19 in India. The importance of cross-immunity, innate immune responses, ACE polymorphism, and viral genetic mutations are discussed.

Keywords COVID-19      India      transmission      mortality      ACE2      cross-immunity     
Corresponding Authors: Chakrabarti Sasanka   
About author:

These authors shared first-authorship.

Just Accepted Date: 03 April 2020   Issue Date: 13 May 2020
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Chakrabarti Sankha Shubhra
Kaur Upinder
Banerjee Anindita
Ganguly Upasana
Banerjee Tuhina
Saha Sarama
Parashar Gaurav
Prasad Suvarna
Chakrabarti Suddhachitta
Mittal Amit
Agrawal Bimal Kumar
Rawal Ravindra Kumar
Zhao Robert Chunhua
Gambhir Indrajeet Singh
Khanna Rahul
Shetty Ashok K
Jin Kunlin
Chakrabarti Sasanka
Cite this article:   
Chakrabarti Sankha Shubhra,Kaur Upinder,Banerjee Anindita, et al. COVID-19 in India: Are Biological and Environmental Factors Helping to Stem the Incidence and Severity?[J]. Aging and disease, 2020, 11(3): 480-488.
URL:  
http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2020.0402     OR
Figure 1.  Representation of total COVID-19 tests performed in different countries for total confirmed cases of COVID-19. The status of India is shown with respect to other major nations. X-axis: total COVID-19 cases (logarithmic scale); Y-axis: total COVID-19 tests performed (logarithmic scale) (Figure courtesy https://ourworldindata.org/search?q=corona).
Age (years)GenderStateHistory of foreign travel in past 3 weeksCo-morbidities
38MBiharYes, returned from QatarRenal disease
68FDelhiSon returned from SwitzerlandDiabetes mellitus, hypertension
70M
Gujarat
No, but domestic travel to Delhi#Cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension
69MNo, but domestic travel to Delhi & Jaipur##Asthma, kidney disease, sepsis, septic shock
85FYes (details NM)Yes, details NM
45MNMDiabetes mellitus
46MNMDiabetes mellitus, hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis
69MHimachal PradeshYes, returned from US------
65MJammu & KashmirNo, but domestic travel to multiple cities including Delhi----
Died of cardiac arrest
50s-60s,
confusion in age
MNo, met a couple from Saudi ArabiaLiver disease
76MKarnatakaYes, returned from Saudi ArabiaAsthma
70 or 75FYes, returned from Mecca, Saudi ArabiaDiabetes mellitus, chest pain, hip fracture
65MNo, but domestic travel to DelhiNM
69MKeralaYes, returned from DubaiHypertension, brought dead to hospital
35 or 65,
(confusion in age)
M
Madhya Pradesh
NoYes, NM
65FNo---
47M (suspected)No---
65F
Maharashtra
No----
65FNo----
68MYes, returned from PhilippinesDiabetes mellitus, asthma, acute renal failure
63 or 64 (confusion in age)MYes, returned from DubaiDiabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease
40FNMHypertension, chest pain for last few days
71MYes, returned from Saudi ArabiaDiabetes mellitus, hypertension, CABG
45**MNMNM, yet to be found
70 or 72 (confusion in age)MPunjabYes, returned from Germany & Italy----
Died of cardiac arrest
73MRajasthanNMDiabetes mellitus, renal failure
54MTamil NaduNMSteroid dependant COPD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension
74MTelanganaNo, but domestic travel to DelhiYes, NM, Brought dead to hospital
57MWest BengalNo, but domestic travel to Bilaspur*----
Died of cardiac cause
Table 1  Demographic characteristics, travel history and health status of patients dying with COVID-19 positivity in India.
Figure 2.  Representation of country-wise timeline of COVID-19 case fatality rate. The status of India is shown with respect to other major nations. (Figure courtesy https://ourworldindata.org/search?q=corona).
Figure 3.  Representation of total confirmed cases with respect to total confirmed deaths in India, in comparison with other major nations. X-axis: total COVID-19 cases (logarithmic scale); Y-axis: total confirmed deaths due to COVID-19 (logarithmic scale) (Figure courtesy https://ourworldindata.org/search?q=corona).
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