Joanna Gronek1, Michał Boraczyński2, Piotr Gronek1,*, Dariusz Wieliński3, Jacek Tarnas4, Sławomir Marszałek5,6, Yi-Yuan Tang7
1Department of Dance, Poznań University of Physical Education, Poland. 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. 3Department of Anthropology and Biometry, Poznań University of Physical Education, Poland. 4Department of Physical Education and Lifelong Sports, Poznań University of Physical Education, Poland. 5Department of Physiotherapy, Poznań University of Physical Education, Poland. 6Department of Physiotherapy, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland. 7Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, USA.
The beneficial effects of exercise are recognized for preventing physical and cognitive decline during the aging process. However, there is still a gap concerning recommended intensity, volume, frequency and mode of exercise especially for older people. The aim of this study was to investigate an appropriate type of physical activity (PA) model for healthy aging. A commentary of the influence of PA and exercise on healthy aging through an online search of the databases Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar. Two living groups can be considered as potential references: modern hunter-gatherer small-scale population and master athletes. Greater physical activity is proposed for healthy aging than that recommended by WHO. Additionally, mindfulness meditation techniques during exercise are recommended especially for persons practicing long-duration exercises. Complex and compound exercise and workouts should include challenging exercises adjusted and balanced to provide clients, especially older people, with noticeable changes and progress.
Figure 1. Summary of main pathway effect of aerobic exercise.
Figure 2. The main pathway effect of aerobic exercise on the central nervous system.
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