Chronic Remote Ischemic Conditioning May Mimic Regular Exercise:Perspective from Clinical Studies
Zhao Wenbo1,2, Li Sijie2,3,4, Ren Changhong2,3, Meng Ran1, Ji Xunming2,4,*
¹Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Hypoxic Conditioning Translational Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China 3Beijing Municipal Geriatric Medical Research Center, Beijing, China 4National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Beijing, China
Chronic remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), particularly long-term repeated RIC, has been applied in clinical trials with the expectation that it could play its protective roles for protracted periods. In sports medicine, chronic RIC has also been demonstrated to improve exercise performance, akin to improvements seen with regular exercise training. Therefore, chronic RIC may mimic regular exercise, and they may have similar underlying mechanisms. In this study, we explored the common underlying mechanisms of chronic RIC and physical exercise in protecting multiple organs and benefiting various populations, the advantages of chronic RIC, and the challenges for its popularization. Intriguingly, several underlying mechanisms of RIC and exercise have been shown to overlap. These include the production of many autacoids, enhanced ability for antioxidant activity, modulating immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, it appears that chronic RIC, just like regular exercise, has beneficial effects in unhealthy, sub-healthy and healthy individuals. Compared with regular exercise, chronic RIC has several advantages, which may provide novel insights into the area of exercise and health. Chronic RIC may enrich the modes of exercise, and benefit individuals with severe diseases. Also, the disabled, and sub-healthy individuals are likely to benefit from chronic RIC either as an alternative to exercise or an adjunct to pharmacological or non-pharmacological therapy.
Increased HSP Increased NO Improve KATP function Increased antioxidant capacity Induced autophagy Involvement of opioid system Regulation of Immune/inflammatory system
Table 1 Comparison of mechanisms between RIC and exercise.
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