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Cover Illustration
2015, Vol.6  No.6
Remote ischemic PerC reduced TJ gap formation. Representative images of claudin-5 positive vessels (green) in the penumbra of the rat brain. Vessels in the penumbra of sham-operated br [Detail] ...

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  • Table of Content
      01 December 2015, Volume 6 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Original Article
    Limb Ischemic Perconditioning Attenuates Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption by Inhibiting Activity of MMP-9 and Occludin Degradation after Focal Cerebral Ischemia
    Ren Changhong, Li Ning, Wang Brian, Yang Yong, Gao Jinhuan, Li Sijie, Ding Yuchuan, Jin Kunlin, Ji Xunming
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 406-417.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0812
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1434KB) ( 917 )

    Remote ischemic perconditioning (PerC) has been proved to have neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia, however, the effect of PerC on the BBB disruption and underlying mechanisms remains largely unknown. To address these issues, total 90 adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used. The rats underwent 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and the limb remote ischemic PerC was immediately applied after the onset of MCAO. We found that limb remote PerC protected BBB breakdown and brain edema, in parallel with reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits, after MCAO. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that MCAO resulted in disrupted continuity of claudin-5 staining in the cerebral endothelial cells with significant gap formation, which was significantly improved after PerC. Western blot analysis demonstrated that expression of tight junction (TJ) protein occludin was significantly increased, but other elements of TJ proteins, claudin-5 and ZO-1, in the BBB endothelial cells were not altered at 48 h after PerC, compared to MCAO group. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9), which was involved in TJ protein degradation, was decreased after PerC. Interestingly, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2), an upstream of MMP-9 signaling, was significantly reduced in the PerC group. Our data suggest that PerC inhibits MMP-9-mediated occludin degradation, which could lead to decreased BBB disruption and brain edema after ischemic stroke.

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    Cortisol Supplement Combined with Psychotherapy and Citalopram Improves Depression Outcomes in Patients with Hypocortisolism after Traumatic Brain Injury
    Luo Lanlan, Chai Yan, Jiang Rongcai, Chen Xin, Yan Tao
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 418-425.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0507
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1025KB) ( 898 )

    Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in people with Traumatic brain injury (TBI). Depression after TBI is closely related with social and psychological factors and hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding effective treatment approaches for depression. A total of 68 patients with depression following closed TBI were recruited. Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) was employed to demonstrate the severity of neurological deficits and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was employed to measure functional outcome after TBI. The severity of depression was quantified using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in line with DSM-IV. Citalopram and Prednisone were administered to subjects with normal cortisol levels or hypocortisolism separately, based on psychotherapeutic interventions. We investigated the relationship between degree of depression of TBI patients and the severity and progression of TBI with the therapeutic effects of Citalopram in combination with psychotherapeutic and Prednisone in depressed patients. There was no relationship between the severity of depression and the severity and progression of TBI. The basic treatment of psychotherapeutic interventions could partially relieve depressive symptoms. Combination of psychotherapeutic support and Citalopram significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with normal cortisol levels, but not in hypocortisolic patients. Combination of Prednisone administration with psychotherapeutic treatment and Citalopram significantly improved depression outcome in hypocortisolic patients after TBI. Hypocortisolism after TBI may regulate depression. Combination of Prednisone with psychotherapeutic treatment and Citalopram may provide better therapeutic effects in depression patients with hypocortisolism after TBI.

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    Low Cerebral Glucose Metabolism: A Potential Predictor for the Severity of Vascular Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s Disease
    Xu Yunqi, Wei Xiaobo, Liu Xu, Liao Jinchi, Lin Jiaping, Zhu Cansheng, Meng Xiaochun, Xie Dongsi, Chao Dongman, J Fenoy Albert, Cheng Muhua, Tang Beisha, Zhang Zhuohua, Xia Ying, Wang Qing
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 426-436.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0204
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1030KB) ( 605 )

    This study explored the association between cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRGlc) and the severity of Vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). A cross-sectional study was performed to compare CMRGlc in normal subjects vs. VP and PD patients. Twelve normal subjects, 22 VP, and 11 PD patients were evaluated with the H&Y and MMSE, and underwent 18F-FDG measurements. Pearson’s correlations were used to identify potential associations between the severity of VP/PD and CMRGlc. A pronounced reduction of CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen was detected in patients with VP and PD when compared with normal subjects. The VP patients displayed a slight CMRGlc decrease in the caudate putamen and frontal lobe in comparison with PD patients. These decreases in CMRGlc in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen were significantly correlated with the VP patients’ H&Y, UPDRS II, UPDRS III, MMSE, cardiovascular, and attention/memory scores. Similarly, significant correlations were observed in patients with PD. This is the first clinical study finding strong evidence for an association between low cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of VP and PD. Our findings suggest that these changes in glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and caudate putamen may underlie the pathophysiological mechanisms of VP and PD. As the scramble to find imaging biomarkers or predictors of the disease intensifies, a better understanding of the roles of cerebral glucose metabolism may give us insight into the pathogenesis of VP and PD.

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    Topography of Cortical Microbleeds in Alzheimer’s Disease with and without Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Post-Mortem 7.0-Tesla MRI Study
    De Reuck J., Auger F., Durieux N., Deramecourt V., Cordonnier C., Pasquier F., Maurage C.A., Leys D., Bordet R.
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 437-443.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0429
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1014KB) ( 1309 )

    Cortical microbleeds (CMBs) detected on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered as a possible hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI study investigates whether topographic differences exist in Alzheimer’s brains without (AD) and with CAA (AD-CAA). The distribution of CMBs in thirty-two post-mortem brains, consisting of 12 AD, 8 AD-CAA and 12 controls, was mutually compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere. The mean numbers of CMBs were determined in twenty-two different gyri. As a whole there was a trend of more CMBs on GRE MRI in the prefrontal section of the AD, the AD-CAA as well as of the control brains. Compared to controls AD brains had significantly more CMBs in the superior frontal, the inferior temporal, the rectus and the cinguli gyrus, and in the insular cortex. In AD-CAA brains CMBs were increased in all gyri with exception of the medial parietal gyrus and the hippocampus. AD-CAA brains showed a highly significant increase of CMBs in the inferior parietal gyrus (p value: 0.001) and a significant increase in the precuneus and the cuneus (p value: 0.01) compared to the AD brains. The differences in topographic distribution of CMBs between AD and AD-CAA brains should be further investigated on MRI in clinically suspected patients.

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    Inflammatory Cytokines Induce Expression of Chemokines by Human Retinal Cells: Role in Chemokine Receptor Mediated Age-related Macular Degeneration
    N. Nagineni Chandrasekharam, K. Kommineni Vijay, Ganjbaksh Nader, K. Nagineni Krishnasai, J. Hooks John, Detrick Barbara
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 444-455.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0323
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1423KB) ( 798 )

    Chemokine reeptor-3 (CCR-3) was shown to be associated with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a vision threatening retinal disease that affects the aging population world-wide. Retinal pigment epithelium and choroid in the posterior part of the retina are the key tissues targeted in the pathogenesis of CNV in AMD. We used human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) and choroidal fibroblast (HCHF) cells, prepared from aged adult human donor eyes, to evaluate the expression of major CCR-3 ligands, CCL-5, CCL -7, CCL-11,CCL-24 and CCL-26. Microarray analysis of gene expression in HRPE cells treated with inflammatory cytokine mix (ICM= IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-1β) revealed 75 and 23-fold increase in CCL-5 and CCL-7 respectively, but not CCL-11, CCL-24 and CCL-26. Chemokine secretion studies of the production of CCL5 and CCL7 by HRPE corroborated with the gene expression analysis data. When the HRPE cells were treated with either individual cytokines or the ICM, both CCL-5 and CCL-7 were produced in a dose dependent manner. Similar to the gene expression data, the ICM did not enhance HRPE production of CCL-11, CCL-24 and CCL-26. CCL-11 and CCL-26 were increased with IL-4 treatment and this HRPE production was augmented in the presence of TNF-α and IL1β. When HCHF cells were treated with either individual cytokines or the ICM, both CCL-5 and CCL-7 were produced in a dose dependent fashion. IL-4 induced low levels of CCL-11 and CCL-26 in HCHF and this production was significantly enhanced by TNF-α. Under these conditions, neither HRPE nor HCHF were demonstrated to produce CCL-24. These data demonstrate that chronic inflammation triggers CCL-5 and CCL-7 release by HRPE and HCHF and the subsequent interactions with CCR3 may participate in pathologic processes in AMD.

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    Genistein, the Isoflavone in Soybean, Causes Amyloid Beta Peptide Accumulation in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line: Implications in Alzheimer's Disease
    Gargi Chatterjee, Debashree Roy, Vineet Kumar Khemka, Mrittika Chattopadhyay, Sasanka Chakrabarti
    A&D. 2015, 6 (6): 456-465.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0327
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1529KB) ( 891 )

    The isoflavone, genistein, present in soybean is being actively investigated for its potential beneficial effect against Alzheimer’s disease. Our data, however, show that in SHSY5Y cells genistein causes increased expression (mRNA and protein) of amyloid precursor protein (APP), increased mRNA expression and activity of β-secretase and diminished level of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) which also degrades amyloid beta peptide. These effects of genistein lead to enhanced accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ42) in SHSY5Y cells. The results do not support the view that genistein could be a putative drug against AD and instead strengthen the epidemiological study which implies that genistein content of soybean food product (Tofu) leads to cognitive impairment.

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    Influence of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Lung Function Changes After the Lung Resection for Primary Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Mujovic Natasa, Mujovic Nebojsa, Subotic Dragan, Ercegovac Maja, Milovanovic Andjela, Nikcevic Ljubica, Zugic Vladimir, Nikolic Dejan
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 466-477.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0503
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (977KB) ( 930 )

    Influence of physiotherapy on the outcome of the lung resection is still controversial. Study aim was to assess the influence of physiotherapy program on postoperative lung function and effort tolerance in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The prospective study included 56 COPD patients who underwent lung resection for primary non small-cell lung cancer after previous physiotherapy (Group A) and 47 COPD patients (Group B) without physiotherapy before lung cancer surgery. In Group A, lung function and effort tolerance on admission were compared with the same parameters after preoperative physiotherapy. Both groups were compared in relation to lung function, effort tolerance and symptoms change after resection. In patients with tumors requiring a lobectomy, after preoperative physiotherapy, a highly significant increase in FEV1, VC, FEF50 and FEF25 of 20%, 17%, 18% and 16% respectively was registered with respect to baseline values. After physiotherapy, a significant improvement in 6-minute walking distance was achieved. After lung resection, the significant loss of FEV1 and VC occurred, together with significant worsening of the small airways function, effort tolerance and symptomatic status. After the surgery, a clear tendency existed towards smaller FEV1 loss in patients with moderate to severe, when compared to patients with mild baseline lung function impairment. A better FEV1 improvement was associated with more significant loss in FEV1. Physiotherapy represents an important part of preoperative and postoperative treatment in COPD patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer.

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    Overexpression of miR-1260b in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer is Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis
    Xu Limin, Li Liqin, Li Jing, Li Hongwei, Shen Qibin, Ping Jinliang, Ma Zhihong, Zhong Jing, Dai Licheng
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 478-485.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0620
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1031KB) ( 1310 )

    Lymph node (LN) metastasis is often an early event in the progression of malignant tumors and it contributes to the majority of cancer mortalities. MiRNAs play key roles in tumor metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the specific miRNAs as putative indicators of metastasis early diagnosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, five NSCLC cases with LN metastasis and four cases without metastasis (NLN) were enrolled for Agilent Human miRNA array. The interested differentially expressed miRNA was validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the LN metastasis (n = 46) and NLN (n = 39) groups. The microarray results revealed that three miRNAs (miR-1260b, miR-423-3p, miR-23a-5p) were differentially expressed in LN metastasis group compared with NLN group. The expression of miR-1260b was tested by qRT-PCR and the mean relative expression fold change (2-ΔΔCt) in LN metastasis was significantly higher than that in the NLN group (3.942, 1.743 respectively, P = 1.179E-04). The patients with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage III were identified more frequently in LN metastasis group (P = 1.772E-11) and with a higher expression level of miR-1260b (5.126, P = 1.147E-06). In addition, the LN metastasis cases were associated with a poorly differentiated degree (P = 0.007). The overexpression of miR-1260b in NSCLC with LN metastasis can be regarded as a specific signature for early progression and prognosis of NSCLC.

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    Relationship between CYP17A1 Genetic Polymorphism and Essential Hypertension in a Chinese Population
    Dai Chuan-Fang, Xie* Xiang, Ma* Yi-Tong, Yang Yi-Ning, Li Xiao-Mei, Fu Zhen-Yan, Liu Fen, Chen Bang-Dang, Gai Min-Tao
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 486-498.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0505
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1188KB) ( 851 )

    The relationship between CYP17A1 genetic polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYP17A1 genetic polymorphisms with EH in Han and Uighur populations in China. A Han population including 558 people (270 EH patients and 288 controls) and a Uighur population including 473 people (181 EH patients and 292 controls) were selected. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4919686, rs1004467, rs4919687, rs10786712, and rs2486758) were genotyped using real-time PCR (TaqMan). In the Uighur population, for the total and the men, rs4919686, rs4919687 and rs10786712 were found to be associated with EH (rs4919686: P≤0.02, rs4919687: P≤0.002, rs10786712: P≤0.004, respectively). The difference remained statistically significant after the multivariate adjustment (all P<0.05). The overall distributions of the haplotypes established by SNP1-SNP3, SNP1-SNP4, SNP1-SNP3-SNP5 and SNP1-SNP4-SNP5 were significantly different between the EH patients and the control subjects (for the total: P=0.013, P=0.008, P=0.032, P=0.010, for men: P<0.001, P=0.001, P=0.010, P=0.00). In the Han population, for men, rs2486758 was found to be associated with EH in a recessive model (P=0.007); the significant difference was not retained after the adjustment for the covariates (date not shown). The A allele of rs4919686 could be a susceptible genetic marker, and the T allele of rs10786712 could be a protective genetic marker of EH. The AC genotype of rs4919686, the AG genotype of rs4919687 and the TT genotype of rs10786712 could be protective genetic markers of EH.

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    Review Article
    Cell Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease: New Hope from Reprogramming Technologies
    Chen Zhiguo
    Aging and disease. 2015, 6 (6): 499-503.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.1201
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (718KB) ( 1285 )

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with the major pathology being the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) midbrain neurons in the substantia nigra. As early as in the 1980s, open-label clinical trials employing fetal ventral mesencephalon (fVM) tissues have demonstrated significant efficacy for PD treatment, which led to two NIH-sponsored double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, both trials showed only mild outcome. Retrospective analysis revealed several possible reasons that include patient selection, heterogeneity of grafts, immune recognition of grafts, lack of standardization of transplantation procedure and uneven distribution of grafts. Recent years have seen advances in reprogramming technologies which may provide solutions to the problems associated with fVM tissues. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) hold promise for generating clinical grade DA neural cells that are safe, homogeneous, scalable and standardizable. These new technologies may bring back clinical trials using cell therapy for PD treatment in the future.

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  Editors-in-Chief  
Kunlin Jin, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D., Professor
David A. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
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