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Cover Illustration
2019, Vol.10  No.4
The metabolism of FDG in IPD patients compared to healthy controls. Brain areas with increased/decreased glucose metabolism are superimposed on the Montreal Neurological Institute template (Top row) (p < 0.001, uncorrected) and the 3D render (Bottom row). A) Significant hypometabolism in bilateral putamen, caudate, anterior cingulate, parietal lobe and prefrontal cortex was identified. B) The relative hypermetabolism was identified in the cerebellum and vermis.

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  • Table of Content
      01 August 2019, Volume 10 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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    Orginal Article
    Aging Influences Hepatic Microvascular Biology and Liver Fibrosis in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease
    Raquel Maeso-Díaz, Martí Ortega-Ribera, Erica Lafoz, Juan José Lozano, Anna Baiges, Rubén Francés, Agustín Albillos, Carmen Peralta, Juan Carlos García-Pagán, Jaime Bosch, Victoria C Cogger, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 684-698.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0127
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1724KB) ( 136 )

    Advanced chronic liver disease (aCLD) represents a major public health concern. aCLD is more prevalent and severe in the elderly, carrying a higher risk of decompensation. We aimed at understanding how aging may impact on the pathophysiology of aCLD in aged rats and humans and secondly, at evaluating simvastatin as a therapeutic option in aged animals. aCLD was induced in young (1 month) and old (16 months) rats. A subgroup of aCLD-old animals received simvastatin (5 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) for 15 days. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamic, liver cells phenotype and hepatic fibrosis were evaluated. Additionally, the gene expression signature of cirrhosis was evaluated in a cohort of young and aged cirrhotic patients. Aged animals developed a more severe form of aCLD. Portal hypertension and liver fibrosis were exacerbated as a consequence of profound deregulations in the phenotype of the main hepatic cells: hepatocytes presented more extensive cell-death and poorer function, LSEC were further capillarized, HSC over-activated and macrophage infiltration was significantly increased. The gene expression signature of cirrhosis significantly differed comparing young and aged patients, indicating alterations in sinusoidal-protective pathways and confirming the pre-clinical observations. Simvastatin administration for 15-day to aged cirrhotic rats improved the hepatic sinusoidal milieu, leading to significant amelioration in portal hypertension. This study provides evidence that aCLD pathobiology is different in aged individuals. As the median age of patients with aCLD is increasing, we propose a real-life pre-clinical model to develop more reliable therapeutic strategies. Simvastatin effects in this model further demonstrate its translational potential.

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    IgE Aggravates the Senescence of Smooth Muscle Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Upregulating LincRNA-p21
    Wenjun Guo, Ran Gao, Wei Zhang, Weipeng Ge, Meng Ren, Bolun Li, Hongmei Zhao, Jing Wang
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 699-710.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1128
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1269KB) ( 137 )

    Immunoglobulin E (lgE) activates immunity by binding to mast cells and basophils. It is well-known that IgE and its receptor, FcɛR1, play a key role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in allergic asthma. Recent studies show that IgE also plays an important role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathogenesis. However, the mechanism by which IgE promotes AAA remains unclear. Here we report that in our mouse model, asthma-induced high level of IgE aggravated AAA, but IgE lost this effect on AAA in FcɛR1-/- mice. Our in vitro study revealed that IgE induced smooth muscle cell senescence via upregulating lincRNA-p21 against p21 without altering expression of p53. By this mechanism, IgE accelerated AAA in ApoE-/- mice, which was blocked by knockdown of lincRNA-p21 in both vitro and vivo. This study suggests that IgE actives the lincRNAp21-p21 pathway to induce SMC senescence, which contributes to the formation of AAA, and lincRNA-p21 is a potential therapeutic target for AAA aggravated by asthma.

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    Anatomical Links between White Matter Hyperintensity and Medial Temporal Atrophy Reveal Impairment of Executive Functions
    Takehiko Yamanaka, Yuto Uchida, Keita Sakurai, Daisuke Kato, Masayuki Mizuno, Toyohiro Sato, Yuta Madokoro, Yuko Kondo, Ayuko Suzuki, Yoshino Ueki, Fumiyasu Ishii, Cesar V Borlongan, Noriyuki Matsukawa
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 711-718.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0929
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (555KB) ( 106 )

    Although several studies have demonstrated correlation between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and impairment of executive functions, the underlying anatomical-functional relationships are not fully understood. The present study sought to investigate the correlations between the volume of WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) using quantitative magnetic resonance image (MRI) and a variety of executive function assessments. A total of 91 patients ranging in age from 58 to 90 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or early phase AD were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Neurology of Nagoya City University Hospital. We administered neuropsychological batteries evaluating verbal memory, orientation, spatial ability, sustained attention, and a variety of executive functions, including verbal fluency, flexibility, inhibition, and working memory. Quantitative MRI analyses were performed using Dr. View/Linux software and a voxel-based specific regional analysis system. Significant correlations were observed between WMH, as well as MTA, and some executive function scores. Regression analysis revealed that MTA was the strongest predictor of flexibility and verbal fluency. These findings provide new insight into the relationship between quantitative MRI analyses and various types of executive dysfunction in elderly people with MCI due to AD and/or early phase AD. When cognitive function is examined in elderly patients with MCI due to AD or early phase AD, it is important to consider the involvement of WMH and MTA, which is indicative of AD pathology in cognitive dysfunction, particularly executive function.

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    Salsalate Prevents β-Cell Dedifferentiation in OLETF Rats with Type 2 Diabetes through Notch1 Pathway
    Fei Han, Xiaochen Li, Juhong Yang, Haiyi Liu, Yi Zhang, Xiaoyun Yang, Shaohua Yang, Bai Chang, Liming Chen, Baocheng Chang
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 719-730.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1221
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1492KB) ( 175 )

    A strategic approach is urgently needed to curb the growing global epidemic of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of salsalate (SAL), an anti-inflammatory drug with anti-diabetic properties, assessing its potential to prevent diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats (OLETF). All animals in our placebo group developed diabetes, whereas none in the SAL test group did so, and only 25% of SAL-treated rats displayed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). SAL lowered levels of glucagon and raised levels of insulin in plasma, while improving both insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. The protective effect of SAL is likely due to diminished β-cell dedifferentiation, manifested as relative declines in Neurogenin 3+/insulin- cells and synaptophysin+/islet hormone- cells and increased expression of β-cell-specific transcription factor Foxo1. Both Notch1-siRNA and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT; an indirect inhibitor of the Notch1 pathway) were shown to prevent β-cell dedifferentiation. Similar to DAPT, SAL effectively reduced β-cell dedifferentiation, significantly suppressing Notch1 pathway activation in INS-1 cells. The inhibitory role of SAL in β-cell dedifferentiation may thus be attributable to Notch1 pathway suppression.

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    Galectin-3 Mediates Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
    Tangzhiming Li, Lihuang Zha, Hui Luo, Suqi Li, Lin Zhao, Jingni He, Xiaohui Li, Qiangqiang Qi, Yuwei Liu, Zaixin Yu
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 731-745.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2203KB) ( 159 )

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is highly expressed in fibrotic tissue related to diverse etiologies. endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), A less well studied phenomenon serves as a critical process in pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). EndoMT is hypothesized to contribute to the over-proliferation of αSMA positive cells. We aim to investigate the potential role of Gal-3 in regulating EndoMT in PAH. We observed an upregulation in both Gal-3 and αSMA expression in the monocrotaline (MCT) and Hypoxia PAH model, accompanied with intimal thickening. For more profound vascular remodeling and endothelial layer lesion in former model, we employed Gal-3 knockdown and overexpression lentivirus methodology to the MCT rats to determine the mechanisms underlying abnormal endothelial cell transition in PAH. PAH was evaluated according to right ventricular systolic pressure, right heart hypertrophy and pulmonary artery remodeling. A reduction in Gal-3 was protective against the development of PAH, while Gal-3 upregulation aggravated pulmonary vascular occlusion. In addition, Gal-3 deficiency suppressed pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and macrophage infiltration. Finally, we revealed that in endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor α and hypoxia (representing an in vitro model of PAH), inhibition of Gal-3 by siRNA was able to abolish the associated upregulation of αSMA. These observations suggesting Gal-3 serves as a critical mediator in PAH by regulating EndoMT. Inhibition of Gal-3 may represent a novel therapeutic target for PAH treatment.

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    Increased Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels are Associated with Anti-Jo1 but not Anti-MDA5 in Myositis Patients
    Yanjuan Liu, Hui Luo, Li Wang, Caiyan Li, Liyun Liu, Li Huang, Ke Liu, Meidong Liu, Siming Gao, Yizhi Xiao, Honglin Zhu, Xiaoxia Zuo, Quan-Zhen Li, Huali Zhang
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 746-755.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1120
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (440KB) ( 104 )

    Matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) is a member of the zinc-ion-dependent proteinases family and plays a pathogenic role in chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, its roles in the pathogenesis of myositis have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the gene expression and serum level of MMP9 and their relationship with clinical features and serological parameters in myositis. Our results showed that MMP9 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was upregulated in myositis patients compared to that in healthy controls. Myositis patients positive for anti-Jo1 antibodies exhibited significantly higher serum MMP9 than anti-MDA5 positive or antibody-negative patients and healthy controls. However, the presence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) did not affect MMP9 levels. We further identified that anti-Jo1-positive myositis patients showed higher numbers of white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes and neutrophils; increased levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP); and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) than anti-MDA5 positive patients. In addition, serum MMP-9 levels were positively correlated with WBCs, neutrophils, CK, CRP, ESR, and LDH in myositis patients. In vitro experiments showed that purified serum IgG from Jo-1-positive patients could stimulate PBMCs to release more MMP9 than the IgG from MDA-5-positive sera. These results indicated that increased MMP9 in anti-Jo1-positive myositis patients was associated with the extent of muscle involvement, but not pulmonary damage. The distinct pattern of serum MMP9 perhaps clarifies the differences in pathophysiology between anti-Jo1 and anti-MDA5 in patients with myositis.

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    Glial S100A6 Degrades β-amyloid Aggregation through Targeting Competition with Zinc Ions
    Zhi-Ying Tian, Chun-Yan Wang, Tao Wang, Yan-Chun Li, Zhan-You Wang
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 756-769.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0912
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1481KB) ( 216 )

    Evidence has been accumulating that zinc ions can trigger β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and senile plaque formation in the brain, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Chelating zinc inhibits Aβ aggregation and may hold promise as a therapeutic strategy for AD. S100A6 is an acidic Ca2+/Zn2+-binding protein found only in a small number of astrocytes in the normal brain. However, in the AD brain, S100A6 is highly expressed in astrocytes around Aβ plaques. The role of the astrocytic S100A6 upregulation in AD is unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of S100A6 on Aβ plaques and intracellular zinc levels in a mouse model of AD. Chronic exposure to zinc increased Aβ deposition and S100A6 expression, both reversible by the zinc chelator clioquinol, in the brains of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. To examine whether exogenous S100A6 could induce Aβ plaque disaggregation through competition for zinc in vitro, we incubated APP/PS1 mouse brain sections with recombinant human S100A6 protein or co-incubated them with human S100A6-expressing cells. Both treatments efficiently reduced the Aβ plaque burden in situ. In addition, treatment with exogenous S100A6 protected cultured COS-7 cells against zinc toxicity. Our results show for the first time that increased S100A6 levels correlate with both Aβ disaggregation and decrease of Aβ plaque-associated zinc contents in brain sections with AD-like pathology. Astrocytic S100A6 in AD may protect from Aβ deposition through zinc sequestration.

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    Deficiency of tPA Exacerbates White Matter Damage, Neuroinflammation, Glymphatic Dysfunction and Cognitive Dysfunction in Aging Mice
    Peng Yu, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Yi Shen, Linlin Liang, Julie Landschoot-Ward, Zhongwu Liu, Rongcai Jiang, Jieli Chen
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 770-783.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0816
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1991KB) ( 192 )

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease primarily involved in mediating thrombus breakdown and regulating catabolism of amyloid-beta (Aβ). The aim of this study is to investigate age-dependent decline of endogenous tPA and the effects of tPA decline on glymphatic function and cognitive outcome in mice. Male, young (3m), adult (6m) and middle-aged (12m) C57/BL6 (wild type) and tPA knockout (tPA-/-) mice were subject to a battery of cognitive tests and white matter (WM) integrity, neuroinflammation, and glymphatic function were evaluated. Adult WT mice exhibit significantly decreased brain tPA level compared to young WT mice and middle-aged WT mice have significantly lower brain tPA levels than young and adult WT mice. Middle-aged WT mice exhibit significant neuroinflammation, reduced WM integrity and increased thrombin deposition compared to young and adult mice, and increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and reduced cognitive ability compared to young WT mice. In comparison to adult WT mice, adult tPA-/- mice exhibit significant BBB leakage, decreased dendritic spine density, increased thrombin deposition, neuroinflammation, and impaired functioning of the glymphatic system. Compared to age-matched WT mice, adult and middle-aged tPA-/- mice exhibit significantly increased D-Dimer expression and decreased perivascular Aquaporin-4 expression. Compared to age-matched WT mice, young, adult and middle-aged tPA-/- mice exhibit significant cognitive impairment, axonal damage, and increased deposition of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, and fibrin. Endogenous tPA may play an important role in contributing to aging induced cognitive decline, axonal/WM damage, BBB disruption and glymphatic dysfunction in the brain.

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    Contrast Staining may be Associated with Intracerebral Hemorrhage but Not Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Endovascular Thrombectomy
    Hong An, Wenbo Zhao, Jianguo Wang, Joshua C Wright, Omar Elmadhoun, Di Wu, Shuyi Shang, Chuanjie Wu, Chuanhui Li, Longfei Wu, Jian Chen, Jiangang Duan, Hongqi Zhang, Haiqing Song, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 784-792.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0807
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (573KB) ( 179 )

    To evaluate the incidence of post-interventional contrast staining (PICS) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) Chinese patients who were treated with endovascular thrombectomy (ET) and investigate potential association of PICS with functional outcome and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This observational study was based on a single-center prospective registry study. AIS patients who underwent ET from January 2013 to February 2017 were recruited into this study. All patients had dual-energy CT (DECT) scan of the head at 12 to 24 hours post-ET. The primary outcome was the incidence of PICS. Secondary outcomes were total ICH, symptomatic ICH (sICH), 3-month functional outcome, and long-term functional outcome. One hundred and eighty patients were enrolled in this study. PICS was detected in 50 patients (28%) based on the post-interventional CT scan. We first used basic statistical analyses, showing that the incidence of both total ICH (60% vs. 25%, p<0.001) and sICH (18% vs. 8%, p=0.044) were higher in patients with PICS than those without, and fewer patients achieved no disability (mRS≤1) in the PICS group compared to the control group at both 3-month and long-term follow-up (p<0.01 each). However, multivariate regression analysis further revealed that PICS only increased total (adjusted odds ratio, 7.38; 95% confidence interval 1.66 to 32.9; p=0.009) but not sICH risk. Furthermore, the logistic regression analyses did not show statistical difference in good clinical outcomes or mortality between the two groups. PICS is a common phenomenon in Chinese AIS patients. It is associated with total ICH after ET, but it seems to have no effect on functional outcome and sICH. Further large-scale studies are warranted to validate these results.

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    Maintained Properties of Aged Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Superior Periodontal Tissue Regeneration
    Linsha Ma, Jingchao Hu, Yu Cao, Yilin Xie, Hua Wang, Zhipeng Fan, Chunmei Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Chu-Tse Wu, Songlin Wang
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 793-806.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0729
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1889KB) ( 172 )

    Owing to excellent therapeutic potential, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining increasing popularity with researchers worldwide for applications in tissue engineering, and in treatment of inflammation-related and age-related disorders. However, the senescence of MSCs over passaging has limited their clinical application owing to adverse effect on physiological function maintenance of tissues as well as disease treatment. An inflammatory microenvironment is one of the key contributors to MSC senescence, resulting in low regeneration efficiency. Therefore, MSCs with high resistance to cellular senescence would be a benefit for tissue regeneration. Toward this end, we analyzed the senescence properties of different types of stem cells during culture and under inflammation, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Overall, the DPSCs had higher proliferation rates, lower cellular senescence, and enhanced osteogenesis maintenance compared to those of non-dental MSCs cultured from passage three to six. The expression profiles of genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and cellular protein metabolic process (contributing to the cell self-renewal ability and metabolic processes) significantly differed between DPSCs and BMMSCs at passage three. Moreover, DPSCs were superior to BMMSCs with regards to resistance to lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and senescence, with enhanced osteogenesis in vitro, and showed improved periodontal regeneration after injection in a miniature pig periodontitis model in vivo. Overall, the present study indicates that DPSCs show superior resistance to subculture and inflammation-induced senescence and would be suitable stem cells for tissue engineering with inflammation.

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    Necrostatin-1 Prevents Necroptosis in Brains after Ischemic Stroke via Inhibition of RIPK1-Mediated RIPK3/MLKL Signaling
    Xu-Xu Deng, Shan-Shan Li, Feng-Yan Sun
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 807-817.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0728
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (828KB) ( 304 )

    Pharmacological studies have indirectly shown that necroptosis participates in ischemic neuronal death. However, its mechanism has yet to be elucidated in the ischemic brain. TNFα-triggered RIPK1 kinase activation could initiate RIPK3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis under inhibition of caspase-8. In the present study, we performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to induce cerebral ischemia in rats and used immunoblotting and immunostaining combined with pharmacological analysis to study the mechanism of necroptosis in ischemic brains. In the ipsilateral hemisphere, we found that ischemia induced the increase of (i) RIPK1 phosphorylation at the Ser166 residue (p-RIPK1), representing active RIPK1 kinase and (ii) the number of cells that were double stained with P-RIPK1 (Ser166) (p-RIPK1+) and TUNEL, a label of DNA double-strand breaks, indicating cell death. Furthermore, ischemia induced activation of downstream signaling factors of RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL, as well as the formation of mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment with necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), an inhibitor of necroptosis, significantly decreased ischemia-induced increase of p-RIPK1 expression and p-RIPK1+ neurons, which showed protection from brain damage. Meanwhile, Nec-1 reduced RIPK3, MLKL and p-MLKL expression levels and mature IL-1β formation in Nec-1 treated ischemic brains. Our results clearly demonstrated that phosphorylation of RIPK1 at the Ser166 residue was involved in the pathogenesis of necroptosis in the brains after ischemic injury. Nec-1 treatment protected brains against ischemic necroptosis by reducing the activation of RIPK1 and inhibiting its downstream signaling pathways. These results provide direct in vivo evidence that phosphorylated RIPK1 (Ser 166) plays an important role in the initiation of RIPK3/MLKL-dependent necroptosis in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in the rodent brain.

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    Enhancement of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Driven Bone Regeneration by Resveratrol-Mediated SOX2 Regulation
    Yoorim Choi, Dong Suk Yoon, Kyoung-Mi Lee, Seong Mi Choi, Myon-Hee Lee, Kwang Hwan Park, Seung Hwan Han, Jin Woo Lee
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 818-833.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0802
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1517KB) ( 237 )

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine. However, MSCs age rapidly during long-term ex vivo culture and lose their therapeutic potential before they reach effective cell doses (ECD) for cell therapy. Thus, a prerequisite for effective MSC therapy is the development of cell culture methods to preserve the therapeutic potential during long-term ex vivo cultivation. Resveratrol (RSV) has been highlighted as a therapeutic candidate for bone disease. Although RSV treatment has beneficial effects on bone-forming cells, in vivo studies are lacking. The current study showed that long-term (6 weeks from primary culture date)-cultured MSCs with RSV induction retained their proliferative and differentiation potential despite reaching ECD. The mechanism of RSV action depends entirely on the SIRT1-SOX2 axis in MSC culture. In a rat calvarial defect model, RSV induction significantly improved bone regeneration after MSC transplantation. This study demonstrated an example of efficient MSC therapy for treating bone defects by providing a new strategy using the plant polyphenol RSV.

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    Plasma Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 and Superoxide Dismutase are Independent Predicators of Cognitive Impairment in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Patients: Diagnosis and Assessment
    Shuzhen Zhu, Xiaobo Wei, Xiaohua Yang, Zifeng Huang, Zihan Chang, Fen Xie, Qin Yang, Changhai Ding, Wei Xiang, Hongjun Yang, Ying Xia, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun, Midori A Yenari, Lin Shi, Vincent CT Mok, Qing Wang
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 834-846.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0304
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1212KB) ( 76 )

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are linked to regulating vascular/neuro-inflammation and stroke. Using a retrospective design, we investigated whether circulating Lp-PLA2 and SOD in cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) patients were associated with cognitive impairment. Eighty-seven CSVD patients were recruited. Plasma Lp-PLA2 and SOD were determined, and cognitive status was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The severity of white matter hypoerintensities (WMHs) in CSVD patients was rated according to Fazekas scales, and Lp-PLA2/SOD levels and MMSE/MoCA were compared. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the relationship between Lp-PLA2 and SOD and the cognitive impairment. Ordinal logistic regression and generalized linear models (OLRGLMs) were applied to confirm whether Lp-PLA2 and SOD are independent risk factors for cognitive impairment in CVSD. Lp-PLA2 and SOD with mild or severe cognitive impairment were lower than those with normal congnition. Lp-PLA2 and SOD in CSVD patients with severe WMHs were significantly lower than those with mild or moderate WMH lesions. We noted positive linear associations of Lp-PLA and SOD with cognitive impairment in CSVD, independent of LDL-C. OLRGLMs confirmed that Lp-PLA2 and SOD were independent risk factors of cognitive impairment in CSVD. Lp-PLA2 and SOD are independently associated with cognitive impairment and WMH lesion, and may be useful for the rapid evaluation of cognitive impairment in CSVD. Lp-PLA2/SOD are modifiable factors that may be considered as therapeutic targets for preventing cognitive impairment in CSVD.

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    The Metabolic Activity of Caudate and Prefrontal Cortex Negatively Correlates with the Severity of Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease
    Jun-Sheng Chu, Ting-Hong Liu, Kai-Liang Wang, Chun-Lei Han, Yun-Peng Liu, Shimabukuro Michitomo, Jian-Guo Zhang, Tie Fang, Fan-Gang Meng
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 847-853.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0814
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (600KB) ( 231 )

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scan with tracer [18F]-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) is widely used to measure the glucose metabolism in neurodegenerative disease such as Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Previous studies using 18F-FDG PET mainly focused on the motor or non-motor symptoms but not the severity of IPD. In this study, we aimed to determine the metabolic patterns of 18F-FDG in different stages of IPD defined by Hoehn and Yahr rating scale (H-Y rating scale) and to identify regions in the brain that play critical roles in disease progression. Fifty IPD patients were included in this study. They were 29 men and 21 women (mean±SD, age 57.7±11.1 years, disease duration 4.0±3.8 years, H-Y 2.2±1.1). Twenty healthy individuals were included as normal controls. Following 18F-FDG PET scan, image analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST). The metabolic feature of IPD and regions-of-interests (ROIs) were determined. Correlation analysis between ROIs and H-Y stage was performed. SPM analysis demonstrated a significant hypometabolic activity in bilateral putamen, caudate and anterior cingulate as well as left parietal lobe, prefrontal cortex in IPD patients. In contrast, hypermetabolism was observed in the cerebellum and vermis. There was a negative correlation (p=0.007, r=-0.412) between H-Y stage and caudate metabolic activity. Moreover, the prefrontal area also showed a negative correlation with H-Y (P=0.033, r=-0.334). Thus, the uptake of FDG in caudate and prefrontal cortex can potentially be used as a surrogate marker to evaluate the severity of IPD.

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    Metabolomics Coupled with Transcriptomics Approach Deciphering Age Relevance in Sepsis
    Dingqiao Xu, Shanting Liao, Pei Li, Qian Zhang, Yan Lv, Xiaowei Fu, Minghua Yang, Junsong Wang, Lingyi Kong
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 854-870.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1027
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1925KB) ( 155 )

    Sepsis is a severe disease frequently occurred in the Intenisive Care Unit (ICU), which has a very high morbidity and mortality, especially in patients aged over 65 years. Owing to the aging effect and the ensuing deterioration of body function, the elder patients may have atypical responses to sepsis. Diagnosis and pathogenesis of sepsis in this population are thus difficult, which hindered effective treatment and management in clinic. To investigated age effects on sepsis, 158 elderly septic patients and 71 non-septic elderly participants were enrolled, and their plasma samples were collected for transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and metabolomics (NMR and GC-MS) analyses, which are both increasingly being utilized to discover key molecular changes and potential biomarkers for various diseases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis was subsequently performed to assist cross-platform integration. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for validation of RNA-seq results. For further understanding of the mechanisms, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experiment was performed both in young and middle-aged rats, which were subjected to NMR-based metabolomics study and validated for several key inflammation pathways by western blot. Comprehensive analysis of data from the two omics approaches provides a systematic perspective on dysregulated pathways that could facilitate the development of therapy and biomarkers for elderly sepsis. Additionally, the metabolites of lactate, arginine, histamine, tyrosine, glutamate and glucose were shown to be highly specific and sensitive in distinguishing septic patients from healthy controls. Significant increases of arginine, trimethylamine N-oxide and allantoin characterized elderly patient incurred sepsis. Further analytical and biological validations in different subpopulations of septic patients should be carried out, allowing accurate diagnostics and precise treatment of sepsis in clinic.

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    Review
    Rejuvenating Strategies of Tissue-specific Stem Cells for Healthy Aging
    Min-jun Wang, Jiajia Chen, Fei Chen, Qinggui Liu, Yu Sun, Chen Yan, Tao Yang, Yiwen Bao, Yi-Ping Hu
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 871-882.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1119
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (394KB) ( 327 )

    Although aging is a physiological process, it has raised interest in the science of aging and rejuvenation because of the increasing burden on the rapidly aging global population. With advanced age, there is a decline in homeostatic maintenance and regenerative responsiveness to the injury of various tissues, thereby contributing to the incidence of age-related diseases. The primary cause of the functional declines that occur along with aging is considered to be the exhaustion of stem cell functions in their corresponding tissues. Age-related changes in the systemic environment, the niche, and stem cells contribute to this loss. Thus, the reversal of stem cell aging at the cellular level might lead to the rejuvenation of the animal at an organismic level and the prevention of aging, which would be critical for developing new therapies for age-related dysfunction and diseases. Here, we will explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. The focus of this discussion is on pro-youth interventions that target intrinsic stem cell properties, environmental niche component, systemic factors, and senescent cellular clearance, which are promising for developing strategies related to the reversal of aged stem cell function and optimizing tissue repair processes.

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    Health and Aging: Unifying Concepts, Scores, Biomarkers and Pathways
    Georg Fuellen, Ludger Jansen, Alan A Cohen, Walter Luyten, Manfred Gogol, Andreas Simm, Nadine Saul, Francesca Cirulli, Alessandra Berry, Peter Antal, Rüdiger Köhling, Brecht Wouters, Steffen Möller
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 883-900.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1030
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (522KB) ( 316 )

    Despite increasing research efforts, there is a lack of consensus on defining aging or health. To understand the underlying processes, and to foster the development of targeted interventions towards increasing one’s health, there is an urgent need to find a broadly acceptable and useful definition of health, based on a list of (molecular) features; to operationalize features of health so that it can be measured; to identify predictive biomarkers and (molecular) pathways of health; and to suggest interventions, such as nutrition and exercise, targeted at putative causal pathways and processes. Based on a survey of the literature, we propose to define health as a state of an individual characterized by the core features of physiological, cognitive, physical and reproductive function, and a lack of disease. We further define aging as the aggregate of all processes in an individual that reduce its wellbeing, that is, its health or survival or both. We define biomarkers of health by their attribute of predicting future health better than chronological age. We define healthspan pathways as molecular features of health that relate to each other by belonging to the same molecular pathway. Our conceptual framework may integrate diverse operationalizations of health and guide precision prevention efforts.

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    Mini-review
    The role of CD2AP in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease
    Qing-Qing Tao, Yu-Chao Chen, Zhi-Ying Wu
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 901-907.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1025
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (514KB) ( 293 )

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by irreversible decline in cognition with unclear pathogenesis. Recently, accumulating evidence has revealed that CD2 associated protein (CD2AP), a scaffolding molecule regulates signal transduction and cytoskeletal molecules, is implicated in AD pathogenesis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD2AP gene are associated with higher risk for AD and mRNA levels of CD2AP are decreased in peripheral lymphocytes of sporadic AD patients. Furthermore, CD2AP loss of function is linked to enhanced Aβ production, Tau-induced neurotoxicity, abnormal neurite structure modulation and reduced blood-brain barrier integrity. This review is to summarize the recent discoveries about the genetics and known functions of CD2AP. The recent evidence concerning the roles of CD2AP in the AD pathogenesis is summarized and CD2AP can be a promising therapeutic target for AD.

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    Short Communication
    Two Novel Mutations and a de novo Mutation in PSEN1 in Early-onset Alzheimer’s Disease
    Yu-Sheng Li, Zhi-Hua Yang, Yao Zhang, Jing Yang, Dan-Dan Shang, Shu-Yu Zhang, Jun Wu, Yan Ji, Lu Zhao, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
    Aging and disease. 2019, 10 (4): 908-914.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1109
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (686KB) ( 197 )

    Presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), and amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations are responsible for autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD-EOAD). To analyze the phenotypes and genotypes of EOAD patients, we performed comprehensive clinical assessments as well as mutation screening of PSEN1, PSEN2, and exons 16 and 17 of APP by Sanger sequencing in the three Chinese EOAD families. We identified two novel mutations of PSEN1 (Y256N and H214R) in samples from these families, and a de novo mutation of PSEN1 (G206V) in a patient with very early-onset sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. A combination of bioinformatics tools based on evolutionary, structural and computational methods predicted that the mutations were all deleterious. These findings suggest that PSEN1 Y256N, H214R, and G206V need to be considered as potential causative mutations in EOAD patients. Further functional studies are needed to evaluate the roles of these mutations in the pathogenesis of AD.

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  Editors-in-Chief  
Kunlin Jin, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D., Professor
David A. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
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