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Cover Illustration
2020, Vol.11  No.1
<b><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"">Macrophage changes after noise exposure in mouse cochlea (<a name="_Hlk13443458"></a>CX3CR1<sup>+/GFP </sup>transgenic mice generated on a CBA background).</span></b><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:""> <b>(A)</b> In control cochlea, macrophages were relatively rare with ramified, dendritic phenotypes. <b>(B)</b> Seven days after noise exposure (110dB, white noise for 2 hours), cochlear macrophages were significantly increased with amoeboid morphology.</span>

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  • Table of Content
      01 February 2020, Volume 11 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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    Orginal Article
    Neuropsychological Deficits Chronically Developed after Focal Ischemic Stroke and Beneficial Effects of Pharmacological Hypothermia in the Mouse
    Weiwei Zhong, Yan Yuan, Xiaohuan Gu, Samuel In-young Kim, Ryan Chin, Modupe Loye, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 1-16.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0507
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1055KB) ( 95 )

    Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability, with around 30% of stroke patients develop neuropsychological/neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as post-stroke depression (PSD). Basic and translational research on post-stroke psychological disorders is limited. In a focal ischemic stroke mouse model with selective damage to the sensorimotor cortex, sensorimotor deficits develop soon after stroke and spontaneous recovery is observed in 2-4 weeks. We identified that mice subjected to a focal ischemic insult gradually developed depression/anxiety like behaviors 4 to 8 weeks after stroke. Psychological/psychiatric disorders were revealed in multiple behavioral examinations, including the forced swim, tail suspension, sucrose preference, and open field tests. Altered neuronal plasticity such as suppressed long-term potentiation (LTP), reduced BDNF and oxytocin signaling, and disturbed dopamine synthesis/uptake were detected in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during the chronic phase after stroke. Pharmacological hypothermia induced by the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist HPI-363 was applied as an acute treatment after stroke. A six-hr hypothermia treatment applied 45 min after stroke prevented depression and anxiety like behaviors examined at 6 weeks after stroke, as well as restored BDNF expression and oxytocin signaling. Additionally, hypothermia induced by physical cooling also showed an anti-depression and anti-anxiety effect. The data suggested a delayed beneficial effect of acute hypothermia treatment on chronically developed post-stroke neuropsychological disorders, associated with regulation of synaptic plasticity, neurotrophic factors, dopaminergic activity, and oxytocin signaling in the PFC.

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    Angelica Sinensis Polysaccharide Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Pulmonary Fibrosis via a DANCR/AUF-1/FOXO3 Regulatory Axis
    Weibin Qian, Xinrui Cai, Qiuhai Qian, Dongli Wang, Lei Zhang
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 17-30.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0512
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1540KB) ( 117 )

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the accumulation of lung fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), the major bioactive component that can extracted from roots of angelica, plays functional roles in immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, and hematopoiesis. Emerging evidence has suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in pathophysiological processes in various diseases. However, the roles of lncRNAs and ASP in IPF remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ASP in IPF, as well as their functional interactions with lncRNA DANCR (differentiation antagonizing non-protein coding RNA). IPF models were established by treating Sprague-Dawley rats with BLM and treating alveolar type Ⅱ epithelial (RLE-6TN) cells with TGF-β1. Our results showed that ASP treatment suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in rats and fibrogenesis in RLE-6TN cells. The lncRNA DANCR is downregulated after ASP treatment in both rat lung tissues and RLE-6TN cells, and DANCR overexpression dramatically reversed the suppressive effects of ASP in IPF. Mechanistically, DANCR directly binds with AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1), thereby upregulating FOXO3 mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, overexpression of AUF1 or FOXO3 reversed the functional effects induced by ASP treatment. In conclusion, our findings showed that DANCR mediates ASP-induced suppression of IPF via upregulation of FOXO3 protein levels in an AUF1-dependent manner. Therefore, DANCR could serve as a promising therapeutic target in IPF treatment with ASP.

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    Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Ameliorates Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice with Chronic Restraint Stress via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase
    Heng Ai, Weiqing Fang, Hanyi Hu, Xupang Hu, Wen Lu
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 31-43.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0403
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1562KB) ( 149 )

    Depression is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in modern society. However, traditional drugs, such as monoaminergic agents, have defect showing lag response requiring several weeks to months. Additionally, these drugs have limited efficacy and high resistance rates in patients with depression. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel drugs or approaches for the treatment of depression. Here, using biochemical, pharmacological, genetic and behavioral methods, we demonstrate that metformin imparts a fast-acting antidepressant-like effect in naïve mice as well as stressed mice subjected to chronic restraint stress model. Moreover, inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by compound C or knock down of hippocampal AMPKα occluded the antidepressant-like effect induced by metformin. Our results suggest that metformin may be a viable therapeutic drug for the treatment of stress-induced depression via activation of AMPK.

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    Predictive Value of Pin1 in Cervical Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Inhibition of Pin1 Exerts Potent Anticancer Activity against Human Cervical Cancer
    Yan-Tong Guo, Yan Lu, Yi-Yang Jia, Hui-Nan Qu, Da Qi, Xin-Qi Wang, Pei-Ye Song, Xiang-Shu Jin, Wen-Hong Xu, Yuan Dong, Ying-Ying Liang, Cheng-Shi Quan
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 44-59.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0415
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1926KB) ( 120 )

    Many oncogenes are involved in the progression from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs); which greatly increases the risk of cervical cancer (CC). Thus, a reliable biomarker for risk classification of LSILs is urgently needed. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 is overexpressed in many cancers and contributes significantly to tumour initiation and progression. Therefore, it is important to assess the effects of cancer therapies that target Pin1. In our study, we demonstrated that Pin1 may serve as a biomarker for LSIL disease progression and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for CC. We used a the novel Pin1 inhibitor KPT-6566, which is able to covalently bind to Pin1 and selectively target it for degradation. The results of our investigation revealed that the downregulation of Pin1 by shRNA or KPT-6566 inhibited the growth of human cervical cancer cells (CCCs). We also discovered that the use of KPT-6566 is a novel approach to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin (DDP) against CCCs in vitro and in vivo. We showed that KPT-6566-mediated inhibition of Pin1 blocked multiple cancer-driving pathways simultaneously in CCCs. Furthermore, targeted Pin1 treatment suppressed the metastasis and invasion of human CCCs, and downregulation of Pin1 reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCCs via the c-Jun/slug pathway. Collectively, we showed that Pin1 may be a marker for the risk of progression to HSIL and that inhibition of Pin1 has anticancer effects against CC.

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    Statins Induce a DAF-16/Foxo-dependent Longevity Phenotype via JNK-1 through Mevalonate Depletion in C. elegans
    Andreas Jahn, Bo Scherer, Gerhard Fritz, Sebastian Honnen
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 60-72.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0416
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (467KB) ( 281 )

    Statins belong to the most pre-scribed cholesterol lowering drugs in western countries. Their competitive inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase causes a reduction in the mevalonate pool, resulting in reduced cholesterol biosynthesis, impaired protein prenylation and glycosylation. Recently, a cohort study showed a decreased mortality rate in humans between age 78-90 going along with statin therapy, which is independent of blood cholesterol levels. As C. elegans harbors the mevalonate pathway, but is cholesterol-auxotroph, it is particularly suitable to study cholesterol-independent effects of statins on aging-associated phenotypes. Here, we show that low doses of lovastatin or a mild HMG-CoA reductase knockdown via hmgr-1(RNAi) in C. elegans substantially attenuate aging pigment accumulation, which is a well-established surrogate marker for biological age. Consistently, for two statins we found dosages, which prolonged the lifespan of C. elegans. Together with an observed reduced fertility, slower developmental timing and thermal stress resistance this complex of outcomes point to the involvement of DAF-16/hFOXO3a, the master regulator of stress resistance and longevity. Accordingly, prolonged low-dose statin exposure leads to an increased expression of jnk-1, a known activator of DAF-16. Moreover, the beneficial effects of statins on aging pigments and lifespan depend on DAF-16 and JNK-1, as shown in epistasis analyses. These effects can be reverted by mevalonate supplementation. In conclusion, we describe a lifespan extension in C. elegans, which is conferred via two well-conserved stress-related factors (JNK-1, DAF-16) and results from mevalonate depletion.

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    Association between Loss of Sleep-specific Waves and Age, Sleep Efficiency, Body Mass Index, and Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Human N3 Sleep
    Weiguang Li, Ying Duan, Jiaqing Yan, He Gao, Xiaoli Li
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 73-81.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0420
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1056KB) ( 134 )

    Sleep spindles (SS) and K-complexes (KC) play important roles in human sleep. It has been reported that age, body mass index (BMI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) may influence the number of SS or KC in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) 2 (N2) sleep. In this study, we investigated whether the loss of SS or KC is associated with the above factors in NREM 3 (N3) sleep. A total of 152 cases were enrolled from 2013 to 2017. The correlations between the number of SS or KC in N3 sleep and participants’ characteristics were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation. Chi-squared test was used to assess the effects of age, sleep efficiency, and BMI on the loss of N3 sleep, N3 spindle and N3 KC. Our results showed that there were negative correlations between the number of SS in N3 sleep with age, BMI, and AHI (P < 0.001), and similar trends were found for KC as well. The loss of SS and KC in N3 sleep was related with age, BMI, and AHI (P < 0.01), as was the loss of N3 sleep (P < 0.01). However, sleep efficiency was not related with the loss of N3 sleep, SS and KC in N3 sleep (P > 0.05). The present study supports that age, BMI, and AHI are all influencing factors of SS and KC loss in human N3 sleep, but sleep efficiency was not an influencing factor in the loss of N3 sleep and the loss of SS and KC in N3 sleep.

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    Metastasis Patterns and Prognosis of Octogenarians with NSCLC: A Population-based Study
    Yu Gu, Junhua Zhang, Zhirui Zhou, Di Liu, Hongcheng Zhu, Junmiao Wen, Xinyan Xu, Tianxiang Chen, Min Fan
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 82-92.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0414
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1085KB) ( 104 )

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Age at diagnosis of advanced NSCLC is much older, but studies describing the practice patterns for octogenarians with distant metastasis NSCLC are limited. A retrospective, population-based study using national representative data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program was conducted to evaluate 34 882 NSCLC patients with extrathoracic metastases from 2010 to 2013. Patients were classified into three groups (older group: ≥80 yrs, middle-aged group: 60-79 yrs, and younger group: ≤59 yrs). The role of different age at diagnosis of NSCLC in metastasis patterns was investigated, and survival of different age groups of metastatic NSCLC was assessed. The analysis revealed that older patients were more likely to only have bone or liver metastasis (p< 0.001), but less likely to have brain only metastasis (p<0.001) and multiple metastatic sites (p< 0.001) than other two groups. Age at diagnosis was an independent risk factor for different metastasis types. Older group had the worst overall survival (p<0.001) and cancer-specific survival (p<0.001). Furthermore, older age patients with only bone metastasis had the best cancer specific survival (p<0.05) while younger patients with only brain metastasis had the best prognosis (p<0.001). Over 60% octogenarians with metastatic NSCLC did not receive anti-cancer therapy and had the highest rate of cancer deaths among all patients. Our results may help clinicians make positive decisions regarding personalized treatment of metastatic NSCLC in the elderly.

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    Long-term HIV-1 Tat Expression in the Brain Led to Neurobehavioral, Pathological, and Epigenetic Changes Reminiscent of Accelerated Aging
    Xiaojie Zhao, Yan Fan, Philip H. Vann, Jessica M. Wong, Nathalie Sumien, Johnny J. He
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 93-107.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0323
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (847KB) ( 167 )

    HIV infects the central nervous system and causes HIV/neuroAIDS, which is predominantly manifested in the form of mild cognitive and motor disorder in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV Tat protein is known to be a major pathogenic factor for HIV/neuroAIDS through a myriad of direct and indirect mechanisms. However, most, if not all of studies involve short-time exposure of recombinant Tat protein in vitro or short-term Tat expression in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the doxycycline-inducible brain-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mouse model, fed the animals for 12 months, and assessed behavioral, pathological, and epigenetic changes in these mice. Long-term Tat expression led to poorer short-and long-term memory, lower locomotor activity and impaired coordination and balance ability, increased astrocyte activation and compromised neuronal integrity, and decreased global genomic DNA methylation. There were sex- and brain region-dependent differences in behaviors, pathologies, and epigenetic changes resulting from long-term Tat expression. All these changes are reminiscent of accelerated aging, raising the possibility that HIV Tat contributes, at least in part, to HIV infection-associated accelerated aging in HIV-infected individuals. These findings also suggest another utility of this model for HIV infection-associated accelerated aging studies.

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    Type 2 Myocardial Infarction: A Geriatric Population-based Model of Pathogenesis
    Alain Putot, Melanie Jeanmichel, Frederic Chague, Patrick Manckoundia, Yves Cottin, Marianne Zeller
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 108-117.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0405
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (678KB) ( 130 )

    Distinction between type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI), defined as an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand without atherothrombosis, and type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), due to plaque disruption, is often a clinical challenge in frail elderly patients. We aimed to identify the characteristics and underlying causes of T2MI using a comprehensive geriatric approach. From a multicentre population-based prospective study in coronary care units, we adjudicated 4572 consecutive patients hospitalized for an acute T1MI or T2MI, according to the 3rd universal definition and a prespecified geriatric model of T2MI pathogenesis. In total, 3710 (81%) had T1MI and 862 (19%) T2MI. Patients with T2MI were 10 y older (77 vs 67 y, p<0.001), more frequently female (44 vs 26%, p<0.001) and had more frequent comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, acute heart failure, tachycardia and C-reactive protein elevation at admission were associated with a higher risk of T2MI vs T1MI, whereas chest pain, troponin I peak > 10 µg/L and ST-segment elevation were associated with a lower risk. Underlying mechanisms leading to T2MI highlighted 3 main patterns: 1) Age-related physiological cardiovascular decline 2) chronic predisposing factors including chronic anaemia (10%) and severe aortic stenosis (7%), 3) acute triggering factors, the most common being acute infection (39%), mainly respiratory tract infection, followed by tachyarrhythmia (13%) and acute heart failure (10%). 122 (14%) patients had combined predisposing and triggering conditions for T2MI. In our large population-based survey of T2MI, chronic anaemia and severe aortic stenosis increased predisposition to T2MI and acute respiratory infection was by far the most frequent trigger. Our data shed new light on the age-related pathophysiological basis for discrepancies in oxygen supply and demand leading to MI.

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    Tumor-Derived Soluble MICA Obstructs the NKG2D Pathway to Restrain NK Cytotoxicity
    Qizhi Luo, Weiguang Luo, Quan Zhu, Hongjun Huang, Huiyun Peng, Rongjiao Liu, Min Xie, Shili Li, Ming Li, Xiaocui Hu, Yizhou Zou
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 118-128.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.1017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (822KB) ( 93 )

    The natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor and its ligands play important roles in immune surveillance. In this study, we observed that the average serum soluble MICA (sMICA) concentration of 174 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was significantly higher than that in 80 healthy subjects (602.17 ± 338.15 vs. 72.26 ± 87.88 pg/ml, t = 3.107, P=0.002). The levels of serum sMICA in 44 HCC patients with initial levels above 400 pg/ml declined significantly after surgical removal of the liver cancer tissue (P<0.001). Moreover, the mean survival time of HCC patients who had sMICA above 400 pg/ml was significantly shorter than that HCC patients with lower sMICA levels (P<0.001). Using the reporter cell line (NKG2D-2B4) in which activation of the NKG2D receptor pathway results in GFP expression based on the stimulation of immobilized rMICA, we showed that the number of GFP-expressing cells decreased sharply in presence of sMICA. Upon adding sMICA, the release of cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-8 by NK cell line (NKL) under stimulation of immobilized rMICA was blocked. Using MICA-expressing cells as the target cells, we observed that about 80% of target cells were killed by NKL at E:T of 10:1, but in presence of sMICAhigh serum of HCC patients, the dead target cells were reduced to 30.8%. Compared in presence of sMICAlow serum from HCC patients, there were 63.7% of target cells dead (p=0.043). Thus, our data suggested that sMICA obstructs the activation of NKG2D pathway to protect tumor cells from NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

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    Review Article
    Combined Antioxidant, Anti-inflammaging and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment: A Possible Therapeutic Direction in Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Shijin Xia, Changxi Zhou, Bill Kalionis, Xiaoping Shuang, Haiyan Ge, Wen Gao
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 129-140.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0508
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (569KB) ( 211 )

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients. Aging functions include mitochondrial dysfunction, cell-to-cell information exchange, protein homeostasis and extracellular matrix dysregulation, which are closely related to chronic inflammatory response and oxidation-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of COPD. COPD displays distinct inflammaging features, including increased cellular senescence and oxidative stress, stem cell exhaustion, alterations in the extracellular matrix, reduced levels of endogenous anti-inflammaging molecules, and reduced autophagy. Given that COPD and inflammaging share similar general features, it is very important to identify the specific mechanisms of inflammaging, which involve oxidative stress, inflammation and lung mesenchymal stem cell function in the development of COPD, especially in elderly COPD patients. In this review, we highlight the studies relevant to COPD progression, and focus on mechanisms associated with inflammaging.

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    The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Yazhen Zhang, Wenyi Chen, Bing Feng, Hongcui Cao
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 141-153.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0421
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1602KB) ( 116 )

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, stem cell-based therapy for DM has shown considerable promise. Here, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stem cell therapy for both type 1 DM (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM). The PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched up to November 2018. We employed a fixed-effect model using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when no statistically significant heterogeneity existed. Otherwise, a random-effects statistical model was used. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria: ten T1DM studies including 226 patients and eleven T2DM studies including 386 patients. Stem cell therapy improved C-peptide levels (mean difference (MD), 0.41; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.76) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c; MD, -3.46; 95% CI, -6.01 to -0.91) for T1DM patients. For T2DM patients, stem cell therapy improved C-peptide levels (MD, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.59), HbA1c (MD, -0.87; 95% CI, -1.37 to -0.37) and insulin requirements (MD, -35.76; 95% CI, -40.47 to -31.04). However, there was no significant change in fasting plasma glucose levels (MD, -0.52; 95% CI, -1.38 to 0.34). Subgroup analyses showed significant HbA1c and C-peptide improvements in patients with T1DM treated with bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs), while there was no significant change in the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group. In T2DM, HbA1c and insulin requirements decreased significantly after MSC transplantation, and insulin requirements and C-peptide levels were significantly improved after bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) treatment. Stem cell therapy is a relatively safe and effective method for selected individuals with DM. The data showed that BM-HSCs are superior to MSCs in the treatment of T1DM. In T2DM, MSC and BM-MNC transplantation showed favorable therapeutic effects.

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    The Emerging Role of Sestrin2 in Cell Metabolism, and Cardiovascular and Age-Related Diseases
    Wanqing Sun, Yishi Wang, Yang Zheng, Nanhu Quan
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 154-163.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0320
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (443KB) ( 270 )

    Sestrins (Sesns), including Sesn1, Sesn2, and Sesn3, are cysteine sulfinyl reductases that play critical roles in the regulation of peroxide signaling and oxidant defense. Sesn2 is thought to regulate cell growth, metabolism, and survival response to various stresses, and act as a positive regulator of autophagy. The anti-oxidative and anti-aging roles of Sesn2 have been the focus of many recent studies. The role of Sesn2 in cellular metabolism and cardiovascular and age-related diseases must be analyzed and discussed. In this review, we discuss the physiological and pathophysiological roles and signaling pathways of Sesn2 in different stress-related conditions, such as oxidative stress, genotoxic stress, and hypoxia. Sesn2 is also involved in aging, cancer, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. Understanding the actions of Sesn2 in cell metabolism and age-related diseases will provide new evidence for future experimental research and aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for Sesn2-related diseases.

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    Roles and Functions of Exosomal Non-coding RNAs in Vascular Aging
    Yu-Qing Ni, Xiao Lin, Jun-Kun Zhan, You-Shuo Liu
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 164-178.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0402
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (561KB) ( 259 )

    Aging is a progressive loss of physiological integrity and functionality process which increases susceptibility and mortality to diseases. Vascular aging is a specific type of organic aging. The structure and function changes of endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the main cause of vascular aging, which could influence the threshold, process, and severity of vascular related diseases. Accumulating evidences demonstrate that exosomes serve as novel intercellular information communicator between cell to cell by delivering variety biologically active cargos, especially exosomal non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are associated with most of aging-related biological and functional disorders. In this review, we will summerize the emerging roles and mechanisms of exosomal ncRNAs in vascular aging and vascular aging related diseases, focusing on the role of exosomal miRNAs and lncRNAs in regulating the functions of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, the relationship between the ECs and VSMCs linked by exosomes, the potential diagnostic and therapeutic application of exosomes in vascular aging and the clinical evaluation and treatment of vascular aging and vascular aging related diseases will also be discussed.

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    The Paradoxical Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Memory
    Shawn Zheng Kai Tan, Man-Lung Fung, Junhao Koh, Ying-Shing Chan, Lee Wei Lim
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 179-190.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0511
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (406KB) ( 86 )

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for many memory-related disorders including dementia, anxiety, and addiction. However, the use of DBS can be a paradoxical conundrum—dementia treatments aim to improve memory, whereas anxiety or addiction treatments aim to suppress maladaptive memory. In this review, the key hypotheses on how DBS affects memory are highlighted. We consolidate the findings and conclusions from the current research on the effects of DBS on memory in attempt to make sense of the bidirectional nature of DBS in disrupting and enhancing memory. Based on the current literature, we hypothesize that the timing of DBS plays a key role in its contradictory effects, and therefore, we propose a consolidated model of how DBS can both disrupt and enhance memory.

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    Macrophages in Noise-Exposed Cochlea: Changes, Regulation and the Potential Role
    Weiwei He, Jintao Yu, Yu Sun, Weijia Kong
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 191-199.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0723
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (542KB) ( 241 )

    Acoustic trauma is an important physical factor leading to cochlear damage and hearing impairments. Inflammation responds to this kind of cochlear damage stress. Macrophages, the major innate immune cells in the cochlea, are important drivers of inflammatory and tissue repair responses after cochlear injury. Recently, studies have shown that after noise exposure, the distribution, phenotype, and the number of cochlear macrophages have significantly changed, and the local environmental factors that shape macrophage differentiation and behavior are also drastically altered. However, the exact role of these immune cells in the cochlea after acoustic injury remains unknown. Here we review the properties of cochlear macrophages both under steady-state conditions and non-homeostatic conditions after cochlear acoustic injury and discuss their potential role in noise-exposed cochlea.

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    The Interstitial System of the Brain in Health and Disease
    Ashok K. Shetty, Gabriele Zanirati
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 200-211.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0103
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (939KB) ( 13 )

    The brain interstitial fluid (ISF) and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cushion and support the brain cells. The ISF occupies the brain interstitial system (ISS), whereas the CSF fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. The brain ISS is an asymmetrical, tortuous, and exceptionally confined space between neural cells and the brain microvasculature. Recently, with a newly developed in vivo measuring technique, a series of discoveries have been made in the brain ISS and the drainage of ISF. The goal of this review is to confer recent advances in our understanding of the brain ISS, including its structure, function, and the various processes mediating or disrupting ISF drainage in physiological and pathological conditions. The brain ISF in the deep brain regions has recently been demonstrated to drain in a compartmentalized ISS instead of a highly connected system, together with the drainage of ISF into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the surface of the cerebral cortex and the transportation from CSF into cervical lymph nodes. Besides, accumulation of tau in the brain ISS in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and its link to the sleep-wake cycle and sleep deprivation, clearance of ISF in a deep sleep via increased CSF flow, novel approaches to remove beta-amyloid from the brain ISS, and obstruction to the ISF drainage in neurological conditions are deliberated. Moreover, the role of ISS in the passage of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from neural cells and the rapid targeting of therapeutic EVs into neural cells in the entire brain following an intranasal administration, and the promise and limitations of ISS based drug delivery approaches are discussed

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    News
    The Urgent Need for International Action for Anti-aging and Disease Prevention
    Robert Chunhua Zhao, Ilia Stambler
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (1): 212-215.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.1230
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (262KB) ( 38 )
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  Editors-in-Chief  
Kunlin Jin, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D., Professor
David A. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
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