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Intensive Lipid-Lowering Therapy Ameliorates Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis
Statins have proven to exert protective effects in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (SICAS). It is unclear whether intensive lipid-lowering therapy (ILLT) can ameliorate atherosclerosis in . . .
DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0526  
Rosenroot (Rhodiola): Potential Applications in Aging-related Diseases
Aging is a progressive accumulation of changes in the body, which increases the susceptibility to diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, and cardiova. . .
DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0511  
  • Current Issue
      05 June 2018, Volume 9 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
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    Orginal Article
    Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation Preserves Blood Flow in the Prefrontal Brain of Elderly People Carrying APOE e4
    Qiong Ding,Kitora Tanigawa,Jun Kaneko,Mamoru Totsuka,Yoshinori Katakura,Etsuko Imabayashi,Hiroshi Matsuda,Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 334-345.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0809
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (789KB) ( 188 )

    In a previously reported double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT), we demonstrated that daily supplementation with anserine (750 mg) and carnosine (250 mg) improves brain blood flow and memory function in elderly people. Here, we conducted a sub-analysis of MRI data and test scores from the same RCT to determine whether anserine/carnosine supplementation specifically benefits elderly people carrying the APOE e4 allele, which is a risk gene for accelerated brain aging and for the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease. We collected data from 68 participants aged 65 years or older who received anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) or placebo for 12 months. Subjects were assessed at the start and end of the trial using several neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory (WMS-LM). We also collected two types of MRI data, arterial spin labeling (ASL) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at the start and end of the trial. We found that ACS significantly preserved verbal memory (WMS-LM, F[1,65] = 4.2003, p = 0.0445) and blood flow at frontal areas of the brain (FWEcluster level, p < 0.001). Sub-analysis based on the APOE4 genotype showed a significant preservation of blood flow (p = 0.002, by ASL analysis) and white-matter microstructure (p = 0.003, by DTI analysis) at prefrontal areas in APOE4+ subjects in the active group, while there was no significant difference between APOE4- subjects in the active and placebo groups. The effect of ACS in preserving brain structure and function in elderly people carrying APOE4 should be verified by further studies.

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    Association of ApoE Genetic Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes with Cognition in Non-Demented Aging Chinese Adults: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study
    Jie Zhen,Tong Lin,Xiaochen Huang,Huiqiang Zhang,Shengqi Dong,Yifan Wu,Linlin Song,Rong Xiao,Linhong Yuan
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 346-357.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0715
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (649KB) ( 121 )

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphism has been implicated in predisposition to diabetes and dementia in old population, but the results from the different studies were inconclusive. A cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the relationship among ApoE gene polymorphism, diabetes and cognition in non-demented aging Chinese adults. A total number of 1000 community dwellers aged 55 years and above were randomly recruited. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test was employed to evaluate the cognitive status of the participants. Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain the dietary intake information. Fasting venous blood samples were taken for ApoE genotyping and serum lipid measurements. 238 participants were type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 145 participants were ApoE4 carriers. ApoE 4-T2DM subjects had higher serum triglyceride (TG) concentration than E2 and E3 carriers (P < 0.05). T2DM subjects carrying ApoE4 had lower cognition than subjects with E2 or E3 carriers (P < 0.05). Comparing to non-type 2 diabetic mild cognitive impaired (nT2DM-MCI) subjects, the type 2 diabetic mild cognitive impaired (T2DM-MCI) subjects have higher serum glucose (Glu) level and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level (P < 0.05). The T2DM-MCI subjects carrying ApoE4 have lower cognition than E2 and E3 carriers (P <0.05); and the interaction of ApoE genotype with T2DM was detected (P < 0.05). Our results indicated the association among ApoE gene polymorphism, T2DM and cognitive performance in non-demented aging population. The carrying of ApoE4 predisposed the T2DM subjects and the T2DM-MCI subjects to have poor cognitive performance. Additional experimental studies are required to explore the mechanism that ApoE genotype modifies the risk for cognitive impairment in aging subjects with T2DM.

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    Aged Mice are More Resistant to Influenza Virus Infection due to Reduced Inflammation and Lung Pathology
    Jiao Lu,Xuefeng Duan,Wenming Zhao,Jing Wang,Haoyu Wang,Kai Zhou,Min Fang
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 358-373.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0701
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1553KB) ( 275 )

    Immune responses are a double-edged sword. Effective and appropriate immune responses capable of controlling viral infection while also largely preserving tissue integrity, are critical for host survival. Too strong immune responses might result in immune pathology, while too weak immune responses might cause viral persistence. Physiologic ageing is accompanied with a decline in the normal functioning of the immune system, which is termed as "immunosenescence". We show that aged mice (16-19 months old) are more resistant to influenza A virus (IAV) infection than the young mice. Strong immune responses in the young mice after IAV infection result in faster clearance of virus, but also cause severe lung injury and higher mortality rate. While in the aged mice, the delayed and milder immune responses contribute to reduced pulmonary damage, and are still capable to clear the infection even with a slower kinetics, displaying a more resistant phenotype during IAV infection. Hence, our work demonstrates that moderate immune responses as a decline with ageing in the aged mice balance the immune pathology and viral clearance, might be beneficial for the host during certain circumstances. Our results provide important insight to our basic knowledge of immunosenescence and immune defenses to invading pathogens. Further, our results indicate that age factors should be considered when investigating the vaccination and therapeutic strategies for severe IAV infection.

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    Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Effects of High Cholesterol Diet on Aged Brain
    Yali Chen,Mengmei Yin,Xuejin Cao,Gang Hu,Ming Xiao
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 374-390.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0706
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1509KB) ( 113 )

    Both hypercholesterolemia and aging are related to cognitive decline or Alzheimer’s disease. However, their interactive influence on the neurodegenerative progress remains unclear. To address this issue, 6-month-old and 16-month-old female mice were fed a 3% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks, followed by hippocampus-related functional, pathological, biochemical and molecular analyses. The high cholesterol diet did not exacerbate age-dependent cognitive decline and hippocampal neuronal death, and even greatly mitigated decreases of synaptophysin and growth associated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus of aged mice. Compared with young controls, aged mice fed normal diet showed mild activation of hippocampal microglia with increased expression of CD68, a marker of the microglial M1 phenotype, and decreased expression of CD206, a marker of the microglial M2 phenotype. More interestingly, the high cholesterol diet not only improved NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression, but also increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-6 in the hippocampus of old mice, suggesting playing pro- and anti-neuroinflammatory effects. In addition, the cholesterol rich diet resulted in a defect of the blood-brain barrier of aged hippocampus, as revealed by increased brain albumin content. These results have revealed both harmful and protective effects of high cholesterol diet on aged brain, which helps us to understand that hypercholesterolemia in the aged population is not associated with dementia and cognitive impairment.

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    Evaluation of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Rats Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging
    Wenzhi Sun,Jiewen Tan,Zhuo Li,Shibao Lu,Man Li,Chao Kong,Yong Hai,Chunjin Gao,Xuehua Liu
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 391-400.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0726
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (987KB) ( 59 )

    This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on acute spinal cord injury (SCI) by measuring the in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) and observing diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) of fiber bundle morphology. The rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SH), SCI, and SCI and hyperbaric oxygen treatment (SCI + HBO) groups (n = 6 in each group). The Basso-Bettie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was used to evaluate motor function recovery, and DTI was performed on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 after surgery. BBB scores and FA values decreased significantly after SCI, while the two values significantly improved in the SCI + HBO group compared with the SCI group on days 7, 14, and 21. ADC increased significantly on days 14 and 21 postoperatively in the SCI group compared with the SH group but did not significantly differ between the SCI and SCI + HBO groups at any time point. BBB scores had the same variation trend with ADC values and FA values in all three groups. In the SH group, DTT showed a well-organized spinal cord, but the spinal cord showed interruptions at sites of injury after SCI. In conclusion, HBO promotes the recovery of neuronal function after SCI. Parameters of DTI, especially FA, can quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of HBO treatment in SCI, while DTT enables the visualization of the fiber tracking of spinal cord tracts.

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    Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia Protects the Brain from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Upregulation of iASPP
    Xiangrong Liu,Shaohong Wen,Shunying Zhao,Feng Yan,Shangfeng Zhao,Di Wu,Xunming Ji
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 401-411.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0703
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1012KB) ( 116 )

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia, a robust neuroprotectant, reduces neuronal apoptosis, but the precise mechanism is not well understood. Our previous study showed that a novel inhibitor of an apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) might be involved in neuronal death after stroke. The aim of this study was to confirm the role of iASPP after stroke treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia. To address this, we mimicked ischemia/reperfusion injury in vitro by using oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) in primary rat neurons. In our in vivo approach, we induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min in C57/B6 mice. From the beginning of ischemia, focal mild hypothermia was applied for two hours. To evaluate the role of iASPP, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was injected intracerebroventricularly. Our results showed that mild therapeutic hypothermia increased the expression of iASPP and decreased the expression of its targets, Puma and Bax, and an apoptosis marker, cleaved caspase-3, in primary neurons under OGD/R. Increased iASPP expression and decreased ASPP1/2 expression were observed under hypothermia treatment in MCAO mice. iASPP siRNA (iASPPi) or hypothermia plus iASPPi application increased infarct volume, apoptosis and aggravated the neurological deficits in MCAO mice. Furthermore, iASPPi downregulated iASPP expression, and upregulated the expression of proapoptotic effectors, Puma, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, in mice after stroke treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia. In conclusion, mild therapeutic hypothermia protects against ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice by upregulating iASPP and thus attenuating apoptosis. iASPP may be a potential target in the therapy of stroke.

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    Invasion of Peripheral Immune Cells into Brain Parenchyma after Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation
    Can Zhang,Nicole R. Brandon,Kerryann Koper,Pei Tang,Yan Xu,Huanyu Dou
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 412-425.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0926
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1450KB) ( 78 )

    Although a direct link has long been suspected between systemic immune responses and neuronal injuries after stroke, it is unclear which immune cells play an important role. A question remains as to whether the blood brain barrier (BBB) is transiently disrupted after circulatory arrest to allow peripheral immune cells to enter brain parenchyma. Here, we developed a clinically relevant cardiac arrest and resuscitation model in mice to investigate the BBB integrity using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in immune signals in the brain and periphery were assayed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Quantitative variance maps from T1-weighted difference images before and after blood-pool contrast clearance revealed BBB disruptions immediately after resuscitation and one day after reperfusion. Time profiles of hippocampal CA1 neuronal injuries correlated with the morphological changes of microglia activation. Cytotoxic T cells, CD11b+CD11c+ dendritic cells, and CD11b+CD45+hi monocytes and macrophages were significantly increased in the brain three days after cardiac arrest and resuscitation, suggesting direct infiltration of these cells following the BBB disruption. Importantly, these immune cell changes were coupled with a parallel increase in the same subset of immune cell populations in the bone marrow and blood. We conclude that neurovascular breakdown during the initial reperfusion phase contributes to the systemic immune cell invasion and subsequent neuropathogenesis affecting the long-term outcome after cardiac arrest and resuscitation.

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    Prehospital Notification Procedure Improves Stroke Outcome by Shortening Onset to Needle Time in Chinese Urban Area
    Sheng Zhang,Jungen Zhang,Meixia Zhang,Genlong Zhong,Zhicai Chen,Longting Lin,Min Lou
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 426-434.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0601
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (728KB) ( 129 )

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) can improve clinical outcome in eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, its efficacy is strongly time-dependent. This study was aimed to examine whether prehospital notification by emergency medical service (EMS) providers could reduce onset to needle time (ONT) and improve neurological outcome in AIS patients who received IVT. We prospectively collected the consecutive clinical and time data of AIS patients who received IVT during one year after the initiation of prehospital notification procedure (PNP). Patients were divided into three groups, including patients that transferred by EMS with and without PNP and other means of transportation (non-EMS). We then compared the effect of EMS with PNP and EMS use only on ONT, and the subsequent neurological outcome. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 3-months. In 182 patients included in this study, 77 (42.3%) patients were transferred by EMS, of whom 41 (53.2%) patients entered PNP. Compared with non-EMS group, EMS without PNP group greatly shortened the onset to door time (ODT), but EMS with PNP group showed both a significantly shorter DNT (41.3 ± 10.7 min vs 51.9±23.8 min, t=2.583, p=0.012) and ODT (133.2 ± 90.2 min vs 174.8 ± 105.1 min, t=2.228, p=0.027) than non-EMS group. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of EMS with PNP (OR=2.613, p=0.036), but not EMS (OR=1.865, p=0.103), was independently associated with good outcome after adjusting for age and baseline NIHSS score. When adding ONT into the regression model, ONT (OR=0.994, p=0.001), but not EMS with PNP (OR=1.785, p=0.236), was independently associated with good outcome. EMS with PNP, rather than EMS only, improved stroke outcome by shortening ONT. PNP could be a feasible strategy for better stroke care in Chinese urban area.

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    Repetitive Element DNA Methylation is Associated with Menopausal Age
    Sha Lu,Zheng Niu,Yueming Chen,Qiaofeng Tu,Yue Zhang,Wenli Chen,Wenjuan Tong,Zhifen Zhang
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 435-443.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0810
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (697KB) ( 79 )

    To investigate associations between the age of menopause and the DNA methylation levels of two repetitive elements, Alu and LINE-1, we performed plasma DNA extraction on 161 subjects and serum cell-free DNA extraction on 120 subjects. We grouped women by menopausal age as follows: ≤ 48 years (earlier menopause), ≥ 52 years (later menopause), and 48-52 years (control). The DNA methylation levels of Alu and LINE-1 were measured by MethyLight PCR. The results showed that the DNA methylation levels of both Alu and LINE-1 were inversely correlated with menopausal age in the plasma DNA cohort (r = 0.079, P < 0.001 for Alu; r = 0.045, P = 0.007 for LINE-1) as well as in the serum DNA cohort (r = 0.087, P = 0.001 for Alu; r = 0.041, P = 0.026 for LINE-1). Alu methylation levels in both the plasma and serum DNA cohorts and LINE-1 methylation levels in the plasma cohort were remarkably higher in the earlier menopause group than in the later menopause and control groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In the serum DNA cohort, the LINE-1 methylation levels in the later menopause group were significantly lower than that in the earlier menopause group and control group (P < 0.05). Therefore, methylation levels of Alu and LINE-1 were significantly associated with menopausal age. Women with earlier menopause showed hypermethylation in both repetitive elements, while women with later menopause showed hypomethylation. These findings suggest that altered DNA methylation in leukocytes and serum cell-free DNA may represent a biomarker of menopausal age.

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    Progression of White Matter Hyperintensities Contributes to Lacunar Infarction
    Xin Xu,Yuanyuan Gao,Renyuan Liu,Lai Qian,Yan Chen,Xiaoying Wang,Yun Xu
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 444-452.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0808
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (747KB) ( 65 )

    Both white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and lacunar infarctions (LIs) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, the association between WMH and LI remains unclear. In this study, we asked whether WMH progression is related to LI occurrence using retrospective data. Overall, 8475 WMH patients with at least two MRI images were screened, and 187 patients were included in the final study; 76 patients had WMH with LI (WL), and 111 patients had WMH without LI (WOL). The 187 patients were divided into three groups according to WMH progression: Group 1 (no progression), Group 2 (0-53.64% WMH progression) and Group 3 (≥53.64% WMH progression). We found that both WMH volumes and Fazekas scores were higher in WL patients compared with those in WOL patients according to the 1st and 2nd MRI images (P<0.001), whereas WMH progression was not significantly different between these two groups (P>0.05). Importantly, we found that the occurrence rates for LI were increased in Groups 2 and 3 compared with those in Group 1. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of LI occurrence was significantly increased in Group 2 versus that in Group 1 (odds ratio, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.48 to 7.67; P=0.004) after adjusting for the baseline patient characteristics and the interval between the two MRI scans. Additionally, with a stratification time of less than 24 months, the risk of LI occurrence was higher in Group 2 versus that in Group 1, after adjusting for baseline confounding factors (odds ratio, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.51 to 8.99; P=0.004). In conclusion, we found that WMH progression was significantly associated with LI occurrence, particularly within the first two years, and that this progression could serve as an independent indicator of LI development.

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    APX3330 Promotes Neurorestorative Effects after Stroke in Type One Diabetic Rats
    Tao Yan,Poornima Venkat,Michael Chopp,Alex Zacharek,Peng Yu,Ruizhuo Ning,Xiaoxi Qiao,Mark R. Kelley,Jieli Chen
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 453-466.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.1130
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1718KB) ( 77 )

    APX3330 is a selective inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity. In this study, we investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of APX3330 treatment in type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) stroke rats. Adult male Wistar rats were induced with T1DM and subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with either PBS or APX3330 (10mg/kg, oral gavage) starting at 24h after MCAo, and daily for 14 days. Rats were sacrificed at 14 days after MCAo and, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, ischemic lesion volume, immunohistochemistry, cell death assay, Western blot, real time PCR, and angiogenic ELISA array were performed. Compared to PBS treatment, APX3330 treatment of stroke in T1DM rats significantly improves neurological functional outcome, decreases lesion volume, and improves BBB integrity as well as decreases total vessel density and VEGF expression, while significantly increases arterial density in the ischemic border zone (IBZ). APX3330 significantly increases myelin density, oligodendrocyte number, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell number, synaptic protein expression, and induces M2 macrophage polarization in the IBZ of T1DM stroke rats. Compared to PBS treatment, APX3330 treatment significantly decreases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts expression in the ischemic brain of T1DM stroke rats. APX3330 treatment significantly decreases cell death and MMP9 and PAI-1 gene expression in cultured primary cortical neurons subjected to high glucose and oxygen glucose deprivation, compared to untreated control cells. APX3330 treatment increases M2 macrophage polarization and decreases inflammatory factor expression in the ischemic brain as well as promotes neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects after stroke in T1DM rats.

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    Splenectomy Fails to Provide Long-Term Protection Against Ischemic Stroke
    Yuanyuan Ran,Zongjian Liu,Shuo Huang,Jiamei Shen,Fengwu Li,Wenxiu Zhang,Chen Chen,Xiaokun Geng,Zhili Ji,Huishan Du,Xiaoming Hu
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 467-479.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0130
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2135KB) ( 47 )

    Splenectomy before or immediately after stroke provides early brain protection. This study aims to explore the effect of splenectomy on long-term neurological recovery after stroke, which is currently lacking in the field. Adult male rats were randomized into splenectomy or sham groups and then subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Spleen was removed right upon reperfusion or 3d after MCAO. Infarct volume, neurological functions, and peripheral immune cell populations were assessed up to 28d after stroke. The results show that delayed removal of spleen did not reduce brain tissue loss and showed no effect on sensorimotor function (Rotarod, beam balance, forelimb placing, grid walk, and adhesive removal tests) or cognitive function (Morris water maze). Spleen removal immediately upon reperfusion, although significantly reduced the infarct size and immune cell infiltration 3d after MCAO, also failed to promote long-term recovery. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that immediate splenectomy after MCAO resulted in a prolonged decrease in the percentage of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells in total lymphocytes as compared to non-splenectomy MCAO rats. In contrast, the percentage of CD3-CD45RA+ B cells was significantly elevated after splenectomy. As a result, the ratio of T/B cells was significantly reduced in stroke rats with splenectomy. In conclusion, delayed splenectomy failed to provide long-term protection to the ischemic brain or improve functional recovery. The acute neuroprotective effect achieved by early splenectomy after stroke cannot last for long term. This loss of neuroprotection might be related to the prolonged disturbance in the T cell to B cell ratio.

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    The Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Combined with Real-Time Strain Elastography in the Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
    Ying Chang,Jingchun Yang,Hua Hong,Huijuan Ma,Xin Cui,Li Chen
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 480-488.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0704
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1434KB) ( 27 )

    To evaluate the performance of a combination of real-time strain elastography (RTSE) and contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound (CETRUS) for prostate cancer detection. Patients with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥4.0 ng/ml were prospectively enrolled between June 2014 and December 2016. 153 prostate nodules diagnosed by conventional ultrasound were prospectively enrolled and examined by CETRUS and RTSE before a biopsy. Multivariate logistic regression models were established for CETRUS, and CETRUS combined with RTSE to diagnose prostate malignancy. The diagnostic performances of CETRUS, RTSE, and their combined use were evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The multivariate logistic regression for CETRUS combined with RTSE showed that enhanced strength, enhanced uniformity, and elasticity scores were the independent predictors of prostate malignancy. The area under the ROC curve of CETRUS combined with RTSE (0.921±0.023) was higher than that of CETRUS and RTSE (0.88±0.029 and 0.80±0.038, respectively; both p<0.05). Moreover, the sensitivity, accuracy and negative predictive value of CETRUS combined with RTSE were 92.1%, 86.2%, and 84.6%, respectively. The omission diagnostic rate of CETRUS combined with RTSE (7.9%) was reduced. And the diagnostic accuracy of CETRUS combined with RTSE was significantly higher than that of CETRUS and RTSE (p<0.05). While the diagnostic accuracy of CETRUS was close to the RTSE, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The combined RTSE with CETRUS approach significantly improved the sensitivity and overall accuracy for correctly identifying prostate cancer.

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    Frailty in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease: Cause, Effect or Both?
    Emma EF. Kleipool,Emiel O. Hoogendijk,Marijke C. Trappenburg,M. Louis Handoko,Martijn Huisman,Mike JL. Peters,Majon Muller
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 489-497.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.1125
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (411KB) ( 133 )

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been associated with an increased risk of frailty, but the direction of the association remains unclear. This study set out to examine the bidirectional longitudinal association between CVD and frailty over an extended period of time. Data are from 1432 older adults (aged 65-88yrs) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), who were followed for 17 years. At baseline and follow-up, CVD was assessed through self-report, medication use and medical records, and classified as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure (HF), stroke, and peripheral artery disease. Throughout the study, frailty was assessed using Fried’s frailty criteria. Cox regression models showed that patients with HF had an increased frailty risk (HR 2.7; 95%CI: 1.5-5.1) after a median follow-up of 8.4 yrs. This finding was independent of potential confounders (age, sex, several comorbidities). Examinations of the reverse association revealed that frail older adults were not at risk of incident CVD. Of all older adults with CVD, those with HF have an increased risk of frailty and frail older adults do not have an increased risk of CVD. Our findings emphasize the need for cardiac rehabilitation programs evaluating the effect of physical exercise programs in order to prevent frailty and therewith improve quality of life and independence of care in CVD patients.

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    The Short-term Prognostic Value of the Triglyceride-to-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio in Acute Ischemic Stroke
    Qi-Wen Deng,Shuo Li,Huan Wang,Leix Lei,Han-Qing Zhang,Zheng-Tian Gu,Fang-Lan Xing,Fu-Ling Yan
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 498-506.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0629
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (799KB) ( 40 )

    The triglyceride (TG)-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (TG/HDL-C) is a simple approach to predicting unfavorable outcomes in cardiovascular disease. The influence of TG/HDL-C on acute ischemic stroke remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the precise effect of TG/HDL-C on 3-month mortality after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Patients with AIS were enrolled in the present study from 2011 to 2017. A total of 1459 participants from a single city in China were divided into retrospective training and prospective test cohorts. Medical records were collected periodically to determine the incidence of fatal events. All participants were followed for 3 months. Optimal cutoff values were determined using X-tile software to separate the training cohort patients into higher and lower survival groups based on their lipid levels. A survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A total of 1459 patients with AIS (median age 68.5 years, 58.5% male) were analyzed. Univariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that TG/HDL-C was a significant prognostic factor for 3-month survival. X-tile identified 0.9 as an optimal cutoff for TG/HDL-C. In the univariate analysis, the prognosis of the TG/HDL-C >0.9 group was markedly superior to that of TG/HDL-C ≤0.9 group (P<0.001). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that TG/HDL-C was independently correlated with a reduced risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.62; P<0.001). These results were confirmed in the 453 patients in the test cohort. A nomogram was constructed to predict 3-month case-fatality, and the c-indexes of predictive accuracy were 0.684 and 0.670 in the training and test cohorts, respectively (P<0.01). The serum TG/HDL-C ratio may be useful for predicting short-term mortality after AIS.

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    Review Article
    Effects of Therapeutic Hypothermia Combined with Other Neuroprotective Strategies on Ischemic Stroke: Review of Evidence
    Zheng Zhang,Linlei Zhang,Yuchuan Ding,Zhao Han,Xunming Ji
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 507-522.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0628
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (506KB) ( 40 )

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability globally, and its incidence is increasing. The only treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for acute ischemic stroke is thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. As an alternative, therapeutic hypothermia has shown excellent potential in preclinical and small clinical studies, but it has largely failed in large clinical studies. This has led clinicians to explore the combination of therapeutic hypothermia with other neuroprotective strategies. This review examines preclinical and clinical progress towards developing highly effective combination therapy involving hypothermia for stroke patients.

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    BDNF Polymorphism: A Review of Its Diagnostic and Clinical Relevance in Neurodegenerative Disorders
    Ting Shen,Yuyi You,Chitra Joseph,Mehdi Mirzaei,Alexander Klistorner,Stuart L. Graham,Vivek Gupta
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 523-536.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0717
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (469KB) ( 145 )

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a unique role in the neuronal development, differentiation, and survival in the developing and adult nervous system. A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the pro-region of the human BDNF gene, resulting in a valine to methionine substitution (Val66Met), has been associated with the susceptibility, incidence, and clinical features of several neurodegenerative disorders. Much research has been dedicated to evaluating the effects of polymorphism in the past decade, and functional effects of this genetic variation. A better understanding of how this naturally occurring polymorphism associates with or influences physiology, anatomy, and cognition in both healthy and diseased adults in neurodegenerative conditions will help understand neurochemical mechanisms and definable clinical outcomes in humans. Here we review the role and relevance of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in neurodegenerative diseases, with particular emphasis on glaucoma, multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Several controversies and unresolved issues, including small effect sizes, possible ethnicity, gender, and age effects of the BDNF Val66Met are also discussed with respect to future research.

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    Mammalian Sterile20-like Kinases: Signalings and Roles in Central Nervous System
    Sheng Chen,Yuanjian Fang,Shenbin Xu,Cesar Reis,Jianmin Zhang
    A&D. 2018, 9 (3): 537-552.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0702
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (807KB) ( 132 )

    Mammalian Sterile20-like (MST) kinases are located upstream in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and play an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, renewal, polarization and migration. Generally, five MST kinases exist in mammalian signal transduction pathways, including MST1, MST2, MST3, MST4 and YSK1. The central nervous system (CNS) is a sophisticated entity that takes charge of information reception, integration and response. Recently, accumulating evidence proposes that MST kinases are critical in the development of disease in different systems involving the CNS. In this review, we summarized the signal transduction pathways and interacting proteins of MST kinases. The potential biological function of each MST kinase and the commonly reported MST-related diseases in the neural system are also reviewed. Further investigation of MST kinases and their interaction with CNS diseases would provide the medical community with new therapeutic targets for human diseases.

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Kunlin Jin, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D., Professor
David A. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
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