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Transplantation of ACE2- Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves the Outcome of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia
Zikuan Leng, Rongjia Zhu, Wei Hou, Yingmei Feng, Yanlei Yang, Qin Han, Guangliang Shan, Fanyan Meng, Dongshu Du, Shihua Wang, Junfen Fan, Wenjing Wang, Luchan Deng, Hongbo Shi, Hongjun Li, Zhongjie Hu, Fengchun Zhang, Jinming Gao, Hongjian Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Yangyang Zhao, Kan Yin, Xijing He, Zhengchao Gao, Yibin Wang, Bo Yang, Ronghua Jin, Ilia Stambler, Lee Wei Lim, Huanxing Su, Alexey Moskalev, Antonio Cano, Sasanka Chakrabarti, Kyung-Jin Min, Georgina Ellison-Hughes, Calogero Caruso, Kunlin Jin, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (2): 216-228.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0228
Accepted: 29 February 2020

Abstract45100)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (1473KB)(24007)       Save

A coronavirus (HCoV-19) has caused the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China. Preventing and reversing the cytokine storm may be the key to save the patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess a comprehensive powerful immunomodulatory function. This study aims to investigate whether MSC transplantation improves the outcome of 7 enrolled patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Beijing YouAn Hospital, China, from Jan 23, 2020 to Feb 16, 2020. The clinical outcomes, as well as changes of inflammatory and immune function levels and adverse effects of 7 enrolled patients were assessed for 14 days after MSC injection. MSCs could cure or significantly improve the functional outcomes of seven patients without observed adverse effects. The pulmonary function and symptoms of these seven patients were significantly improved in 2 days after MSC transplantation. Among them, two common and one severe patient were recovered and discharged in 10 days after treatment. After treatment, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ NK cells disappeared in 3-6 days. In addition, a group of CD14+CD11c+CD11bmid regulatory DC cell population dramatically increased. Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α was significantly decreased, while IL-10 increased in MSC treatment group compared to the placebo control group. Furthermore, the gene expression profile showed MSCs were ACE2- and TMPRSS2- which indicated MSCs are free from COVID-19 infection. Thus, the intravenous transplantation of MSCs was safe and effective for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially for the patients in critically severe condition.

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Emerging Anti-Aging Strategies - Scientific Basis and Efficacy
Ashok K. Shetty, Maheedhar Kodali, Raghavendra Upadhya, Leelavathi N. Madhu
Aging and disease    2018, 9 (6): 1165-1184.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1026
Accepted: 21 November 2018

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The prevalence of age-related diseases is in an upward trend due to increased life expectancy in humans. Age-related conditions are among the leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide currently. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find apt interventions that slow down aging and reduce or postpone the incidence of debilitating age-related diseases. This review discusses the efficacy of emerging anti-aging approaches for maintaining better health in old age. There are many anti-aging strategies in development, which include procedures such as augmentation of autophagy, elimination of senescent cells, transfusion of plasma from young blood, intermittent fasting, enhancement of adult neurogenesis, physical exercise, antioxidant intake, and stem cell therapy. Multiple pre-clinical studies suggest that administration of autophagy enhancers, senolytic drugs, plasma from young blood, drugs that enhance neurogenesis and BDNF are promising approaches to sustain normal health during aging and also to postpone age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Stem cell therapy has also shown promise for improving regeneration and function of the aged or Alzheimer’s disease brain. Several of these approaches are awaiting critical appraisal in clinical trials to determine their long-term efficacy and possible adverse effects. On the other hand, procedures such as intermittent fasting, physical exercise, intake of antioxidants such as resveratrol and curcumin have shown considerable promise for improving function in aging, some of which are ready for large-scale clinical trials, as they are non-invasive, and seem to have minimal side effects. In summary, several approaches are at the forefront of becoming mainstream therapies for combating aging and postponing age-related diseases in the coming years.

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion Shows Promise for Combating Coronavirus (COVID-19)- Induced Pneumonia
Ashok K Shetty
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (2): 462-464.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0301
Accepted: 01 March 2020

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A new study published by the journal Aging & Disease reported that intravenous administration of clinical-grade human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in improved functional outcomes (Leng et al., Aging Dis, 11:216-228, 2020). This study demonstrated that intravenous infusion of MSCs is a safe and effective approach for treating patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, including elderly patients displaying severe pneumonia. COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, treating COVID-19 patients, particularly those afflicted with severe pneumonia, is challenging as no specific drugs or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are available. Therefore, MSC therapy inhibiting the overactivation of the immune system and promoting endogenous repair by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study is striking. Additional studies in a larger cohort of patients are needed to validate this therapeutic intervention further, however.

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A Comprehensive Review of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use in The Elderly
Wongrakpanich Supakanya, Wongrakpanich Amaraporn, Melhado Katie, Rangaswami Janani
Aging and disease    2018, 9 (1): 143-150.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0306
Abstract4778)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (874KB)(4694)       Save

NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications. It is a highly effective drug class for pain and inflammation; however, NSAIDs are known for multiple adverse effects, including gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiovascular side effects, and NSAID induced nephrotoxicity. As our society ages, it is crucial to have comprehensive knowledge of this class of medication in the elderly population. Therefore, we reviewed the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, current guidelines for NSAIDs use, adverse effect profile, and drug interaction of NSAIDs and commonly used medications in the elderly.

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The Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Mechanisms of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathway in Chronic Diseases
Wenjun Tu, Hong Wang, Song Li, Qiang Liu, Hong Sha
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (3): 637-651.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0513
Abstract1523)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (478KB)(4586)       Save

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between production of free radicals and reactive metabolites or [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and their elimination by through protective mechanisms, including (antioxidants). This Such imbalance leads to damage of cells and important biomolecules and cells, with hence posing a potential adverse impact on the whole organism. At the center of the day-to-day biological response to oxidative stress is the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) - nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)- antioxidant response elements (ARE) pathway, which regulates the transcription of many several antioxidant genes that preserve cellular homeostasis and detoxification genes that process and eliminate carcinogens and toxins before they can cause damage. The redox-sensitive signaling system Keap1/Nrf2/ARE plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis under stress, inflammatory, carcinogenic, and pro-apoptotic conditions, which allows us to consider it as a pharmacological target. Herein, we review and discuss the recent advancements in the regulation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system, and its role under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, e.g. such as in exercise, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, liver and kidney system, etc. and such.

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Multi-organ Dysfunction in Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Ting Wu,Zhihong Zuo,Shuntong Kang,Liping Jiang,Xuan Luo,Zanxian Xia,Jing Liu,Xiaojuan Xiao,Mao Ye,Meichun Deng
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (4): 874-894.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0520
Accepted: 30 May 2020

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This study aimed to provide systematic evidence for the association between multiorgan dysfunction and COVID-19 development. Several online databases were searched for articles published until May 13, 2020. Two investigators independently selected trials, extracted data, and evaluated the quality of individual trials. Single-arm meta-analysis was performed to summarize the clinical features of confirmed COVID-19 patients. Fixed effects meta-analysis was performed for clinically relevant parameters that were closely related to the patients’ various organ functions. A total of 73 studies, including 171,108 patients, were included in this analysis. The overall incidence of severe COVID-19 and mortality were 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-28%) and 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%), respectively. Patients with hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% CI, 2.08-2.78), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR = 3.54; 95% CI, 2.68-4.68), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR=3.70; 95% CI, 2.93-4.68), chronic liver disease (CLD) (OR=1.48; 95% CI, 1.09-2.01), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.47-2.30), chronic cerebrovascular diseases (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.84-3.49) and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease (OR = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.12-4.05) were more likely to develop severe COVID-19. Increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), myoglobin, creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin were highly associated with severe COVID-19. The incidence of acute organ injuries, including acute cardiac injury (ACI); (OR = 11.87; 95% CI, 7.64-18.46), acute kidney injury (AKI); (OR=10.25; 95% CI, 7.60-13.84), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); (OR=27.66; 95% CI, 18.58-41.18), and acute cerebrovascular diseases (OR=9.22; 95% CI, 1.61-52.72) was more common in patients with severe COVID-19 than in patients with non-severe COVID-19. Patients with a history of organ dysfunction are more susceptible to severe conditions. COVID-19 can aggravate an acute multiorgan injury.

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Anti-Aging Implications of Astragalus Membranaceus (Huangqi): A Well-Known Chinese Tonic
Liu Ping, Zhao Haiping, Luo Yumin
Aging and disease    2017, 8 (6): 868-886.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0816
Abstract2599)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (1198KB)(3885)       Save

Owing to a dramatic increase in average life expectancy and the Family Planning program of the 1970s - 1990s, China is rapidly becoming an aging society. Therefore, the investigation of healthspan-extending drugs becomes more urgent. Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi) is a major medicinal herb that has been commonly used in many herbal formulations in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a wide variety of diseases and body disorders, or marketed as life-prolonging extracts for human use in China, for more than 2000 years. The major components of Astragalus membranaceus are polysaccharides, flavonoids, and saponins. Pharmacological research indicates that the extract component of Astragalus membranaceus can increase telomerase activity, and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, expectorant, and diuretic effects. A proprietary extract of the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus, called TA-65, was associated with a significant age-reversal effect in the immune system. Our review focuses on the function and the underlying mechanisms of Astragalus membranaceus in lifespan extension, anti-vascular aging, anti-brain aging, and anti-cancer effects, based on experimental and clinical studies.

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TGF-β Signaling: A Therapeutic Target to Reinstate Regenerative Plasticity in Vascular Dementia?
Mahesh Kandasamy,Muthuswamy Anusuyadevi,Kiera M Aigner,Michael S Unger,Kathrin M Kniewallner,Diana M Bessa de Sousa,Barbara Altendorfer,Heike Mrowetz,Ulrich Bogdahn,Ludwig Aigner
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (4): 828-850.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0222
Accepted: 18 March 2020

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Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second leading form of memory loss after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently, there is no cure available. The etiology, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of VaD are extremely heterogeneous, but the impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) represents a common denominator of VaD. The latter might be the result of atherosclerosis, amyloid angiopathy, microbleeding and micro-strokes, together causing blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and vessel leakage, collectively originating from the consequence of hypertension, one of the main risk factors for VaD. At the histopathological level, VaD displays abnormal vascular remodeling, endothelial cell death, string vessel formation, pericyte responses, fibrosis, astrogliosis, sclerosis, microglia activation, neuroinflammation, demyelination, white matter lesions, deprivation of synapses and neuronal loss. The transforming growth factor (TGF) β has been identified as one of the key molecular factors involved in the aforementioned various pathological aspects. Thus, targeting TGF-β signaling in the brain might be a promising therapeutic strategy to mitigate vascular pathology and improve cognitive functions in patients with VaD. This review revisits the recent understanding of the role of TGF-β in VaD and associated pathological hallmarks. It further explores the potential to modulate certain aspects of VaD pathology by targeting TGF-β signaling.

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Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System
Iwasaki Shinichi, Yamasoba Tatsuya
Aging and disease    2015, 6 (1): 38-47.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.0128
Abstract4339)   HTML30)    PDF(pc) (457KB)(3867)       Save

Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere#cod#x02019;s disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future.

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mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges
Sun Jing, Guo Yutao, Wang Xiaoning, Zeng Qiang
Aging and disease    2016, 7 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.1011
Abstract1449)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (874KB)(3724)       Save

The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries.

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Metabolic Syndrome, Aging and Involvement of Oxidative Stress
Bonomini Francesca, Rodella Luigi Fabrizio, Rezzani Rita
Aging and disease    2015, 6 (2): 109-120.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.0305
Abstract3850)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (571KB)(3719)       Save

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity and insulin resistance, is dramatically increasing in Western and developing countries. This disorder consists of a cluster of metabolic conditions, such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoproteins, hypo-high-density lipoproteins, insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance and hypertension, that-in combination with genetic susceptibility and abdominal obesity-are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, and renal, liver and heart diseases. One of the defects in metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases is excess of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species generated by mitochondria, or from other sites within or outside the cell, cause damage to mitochondrial components and initiate degradative processes. Such toxic reactions contribute significantly to the aging process. In this article we review current understandings of oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome related disease and its possible contribution to accelerated senescence.

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Redefining Chronic Inflammation in Aging and Age-Related Diseases: Proposal of the Senoinflammation Concept
Hae Young Chung, Dae Hyun Kim, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Sangwoon Chung, Bonggi Lee, Arnold Y. Seo, Jae Heun Chung, Young Suk Jung, Eunok Im, Jaewon Lee, Nam Deuk Kim, Yeon Ja Choi, Dong Soon Im, Byung Pal Yu
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (2): 367-382.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0324
Abstract1743)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (607KB)(3677)       Save

Age-associated chronic inflammation is characterized by unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation with multivariable low-grade, chronic and systemic responses that exacerbate the aging process and age-related chronic diseases. Currently, there are two major hypotheses related to the involvement of chronic inflammation in the aging process: molecular inflammation of aging and inflammaging. However, neither of these hypotheses satisfactorily addresses age-related chronic inflammation, considering the recent advances that have been made in inflammation research. A more comprehensive view of age-related inflammation, that has a scope beyond the conventional view, is therefore required. In this review, we discuss newly emerging data on multi-phase inflammatory networks and proinflammatory pathways as they relate to aging. We describe the age-related upregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, cytokines/chemokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammasome, and lipid accumulation. The later sections of this review present our expanded view of age-related senescent inflammation, a process we term “senoinflammation”, that we propose here as a novel concept. As described in the discussion, senoinflammation provides a schema highlighting the important and ever-increasing roles of proinflammatory senescence-associated secretome, inflammasome, ER stress, TLRs, and microRNAs, which support the senoinflammation concept. It is hoped that this new concept of senoinflammation opens wider and deeper avenues for basic inflammation research and provides new insights into the anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies targeting the multiple proinflammatory pathways and mediators and mediators that underlie the pathophysiological aging process.

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Pyroptosis in Liver Disease: New Insights into Disease Mechanisms
Jiali Wu, Su Lin, Bo Wan, Bharat Velani, Yueyong Zhu
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (5): 1094-1108.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0116
Abstract282)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (565KB)(3540)       Save

There has been increasing interest in pyroptosis as a novel form of pro-inflammatory programmed cell death. The mechanism of pyroptosis is significantly different from other forms of cell death in its morphological and biochemical features. Pyroptosis is characterized by the activation of two different types of caspase enzymes—caspase-1 and caspase-4/5/11, and by the occurrence of a proinflammatory cytokine cascade and an immune response. Pyroptosis participates in the immune defense mechanisms against intracellular bacterial infections. On the other hand, excessive inflammasome activation can induce sterile inflammation and eventually cause some diseases, such as acute or chronic hepatitis and liver fibrosis. The mechanism and biological significance of this novel form of cell death in different liver diseases will be evaluated in this review. Specifically, we will focus on the role of pyroptosis in alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as in liver failure. Finally, the therapeutic implications of pyroptosis in liver diseases will be discussed.

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Comorbid Chronic Diseases are Strongly Correlated with Disease Severity among COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Hong Liu, Shiyan Chen, Min Liu, Hao Nie, Hongyun Lu
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (3): 668-678.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0502
Accepted: 07 May 2020

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide since December 2019. In order to explore the effects of comorbid chronic diseases on clinical outcomes of COVID-19, a search was conducted in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDC, and NIH databases to April 25, 2020. A total of 24 peer-reviewed articles, including 10948 COVID-19 cases were selected. We found diabetes was present in 10.0%, coronary artery disease/cardiovascular disease (CAD/CVD) was in 8.0%, and hypertension was in 20.0%, which were much higher than that of chronic pulmonary disease (3.0%). Specifically, preexisting chronic conditions are strongly correlated with disease severity [Odds ratio (OR) 3.50, 95% CI 1.78 to 6.90], and being admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.67 to 6.76); in addition, compared to COVID-19 patients with no preexisting chronic diseases, COVID-19 patients who present with either diabetes, hypertension, CAD/CVD, or chronic pulmonary disease have a higher risk of developing severe disease, with an OR of 2.61 (95% CI 1.93 to 3.52), 2.84 (95% CI 2.22 to 3.63), 4.18 (95% CI 2.87 to 6.09) and 3.83 (95% CI 2.15 to 6.80), respectively. Surprisingly, we found no correlation between chronic conditions and increased risk of mortality (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.26 to16.67). Taken together, cardio-metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and CAD/CVD were more common than chronic pulmonary disease in COVID-19 patients, however, each comorbid disease was correlated with increased disease severity. After active treatment, increased risk of mortality in patients with preexisting chronic diseases may reduce.

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Novel Insights on Systemic and Brain Aging, Stroke, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s Disease
Ashok K. Shetty, Raghavendra Upadhya, Leelavathi N. Madhu, Maheedhar Kodali
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (2): 470-482.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0330
Abstract374)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (445KB)(3530)       Save

The mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiology of aging, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and stroke are not fully understood and have been the focus of intense and constant investigation worldwide. Studies that provide insights on aging and age-related disease mechanisms are critical for advancing novel therapies that promote successful aging and prevent or cure multiple age-related diseases. The April 2019 issue of the journal, "Aging & Disease" published a series of articles that confer fresh insights on numerous age-related conditions and diseases. The age-related topics include the detrimental effect of overweight on energy metabolism and muscle integrity, senoinflammation as the cause of neuroinflammation, the link between systemic C-reactive protein and brain white matter loss, the role of miR-34a in promoting healthy heart and brain, the potential of sirtuin 3 for reducing cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis, and the promise of statin therapy for ameliorating asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. Additional aging-related articles highlighted the involvement of miR-181b-5p and high mobility group box-1 in hypertension, Yes-associated protein in cataract formation, multiple miRs and long noncoding RNAs in coronary artery disease development, the role of higher meat consumption on sleep problems, and the link between glycated hemoglobin and depression. The topics related to ALS suggested that individuals with higher education and living in a rural environment have a higher risk for developing ALS, and collagen XIX alpha 1 is a prognostic biomarker of ALS. The topics discussed on AD implied that extracellular amyloid β42 is likely the cause of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangle accumulation in familial AD and traditional oriental concoctions may be useful for slowing down the progression of AD. The article on stroke suggested that inhibition of the complement system is likely helpful in promoting brain repair after ischemic stroke. The significance of the above findings for understanding the pathogenesis in aging, ALS, AD, and stroke, slowing down the progression of aging, ALS and AD, and promoting brain repair after stroke are discussed.

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Parkinson Disease and Orthostatic Hypotension in the Elderly: Recognition and Management of Risk Factors for Falls
Peter A LeWitt, Steve Kymes, Robert A Hauser
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (3): 679-691.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0805
Accepted: 03 October 2019

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Parkinson disease (PD) is often associated with postural instability and gait dysfunction that can increase the risk for falls and associated consequences, including injuries, increased burden on healthcare resources, and reduced quality of life. Patients with PD have nearly twice the risk for falls and associated bone fractures compared with their general population counterparts of similar age. Although the cause of falls in patients with PD may be multifactorial, an often under-recognized factor is neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH). nOH is a sustained decrease in blood pressure upon standing whose symptomology can include dizziness/lightheadedness, weakness, fatigue, and syncope. nOH is due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system compensatory response to standing and is a consequence of the neurodegenerative processes of PD. The symptoms associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH)/nOH can increase the risk of falls, and healthcare professionals may not be aware of the real-world clinical effect of nOH, the need for routine screening, or the value of early diagnosis of nOH when treating elderly patients with PD. nOH is easily missed and, importantly, healthcare providers may not realize that there are effective treatments for nOH symptoms that could help lessen the fall risk resulting from the condition. This review discusses the burden of, and key risk factors for, falls among patients with PD, with a focus on practical approaches for the recognition, assessment, and successful management of OH/nOH. In addition, insights are provided as to how fall patterns can suggest fall etiology, thereby influencing the choice of intervention.

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The Potential Markers of Circulating microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in Alzheimer's Disease
Yanfang Zhao, Yuan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yanhan Dong, Hongfang Ji, Liang Shen
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (6): 1293-1301.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.1105
Accepted: 13 November 2018

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and one of the leading causes of disability and mortality in the late life with no curative treatment currently. Thus, it is urgently to establish sensitive and non-invasive biomarkers for AD diagnosis, particularly in the early stage. Recently, emerging number of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered as effective biomarkers in various diseases as they possess characteristics of stable, resistant to RNAase digestion and many extreme conditions in circulatory fluid. This review highlights recent advances in the identification of the aberrantly expressed miRNAs and lncRNAs in circulatory network for detection of AD. We summarized the abnormal expressed miRNAs in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and detailed discussed the functions and molecular mechanism of serum or plasma miRNAs-miR-195, miR-155, miR-34a, miR-9, miR-206, miR-125b and miR-29 in the regulation of AD progression. In addition, we also elaborated the role of circulating lncRNA major including beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and its antisense lncRNA BACE1-AS in AD pathological advancement. In brief, confirming the aberrantly expressed circulating miRNAs and lncRNAs will provide an effective testing tools for treatment of AD in the future.

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Phenylketonuria Pathophysiology: on the Role of Metabolic Alterations
Patrícia Fernanda Schuck, Fernanda Malgarin, José Henrique Cararo, Fabiola Cardoso, Emilio Luiz Streck, Gustavo Costa Ferreira
Aging and disease    2015, 6 (5): 390-399.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0827
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Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism caused by the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase. This deficiency leads to the accumulation of Phe and its metabolites in tissues and body fluids of PKU patients. The main signs and symptoms are found in the brain but the pathophysiology of this disease is not well understood. In this context, metabolic alterations such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein and neurotransmitters synthesis have been described both in animal models and patients. This review aims to discuss the main metabolic disturbances reported in PKU and relate them with the pathophysiology of this disease. The elucidation of the pathophysiology of brain damage found in PKU patients will help to develop better therapeutic strategies to improve quality of life of patients affected by this condition.

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Alzheimer’s Disease: Fatty Acids We Eat may be Linked to a Specific Protection via Low-dose Aspirin
Massimo F. L. Pomponi,Giovanni Gambassi,Massimiliano Pomponi,Carlo Masullo
Aging and Disease    2010, 1 (1): 37-59.  
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It has been suggested that cognitive decline in aging is the consequence of a growing vulnerability to an asymptomatic state of neuroinflammation. Moreover, it is becoming more evident that inflammation occurs in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and that the classical mediators of inflammation, eicosanoids and cytokines, may contribute to the neurodegeneration. In agreement with this observation, aspirin (ASA) - a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug - may protect against AD and/or vascular dementia. However, both the time of prescription and the dose of ASA may be critical. A major indication for low-dose ASA is in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA plays an essential role in neural function and its anti-inflammatory properties are associated with the well-known ability of this fatty acid to inhibit the production of various pro-inflammatory mediators, including eicosanoids and cytokines. Higher DHA intake is inversely correlated with relative risk of AD and DHA+ASA supplement may further decrease cognitive decline in healthy elderly adults. Although low-dose ASA may be insufficient for any anti-inflammatory action the concomitant presence of DHA favours a neuroprotective role for ASA. This depends on the allosteric effects of ASA on cyclooxygenase-2 and following production - from DHA - of specific lipid mediators (resolvins, protectins, and electrophilic oxo-derivatives). ASA and DHA might protect against AD, although controlled trials are warranted.

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The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population
Jin Kunlin, Simpkins James W., Ji Xunming, Leis Miriam, Stambler Ilia
Aging and disease    2015, 6 (1): 1-5.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.1210
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Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels.

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Lycium Barbarum: A Traditional Chinese Herb and A Promising Anti-Aging Agent
Gao Yanjie, Wei Yifo, Wang Yuqing, Gao Fang, Chen Zhigang
Aging and disease    2017, 8 (6): 778-791.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0725
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Lycium barbarum has been used in China for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. Lycium barbarum contains abundant Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), betaine, phenolics, carotenoids (zeaxanthin and β-carotene), cerebroside, 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG), β-sitosterol, flavonoids and vitamins (in particular, riboflavin, thiamine, and ascorbic acid). LBPs are the primary active components of Lycium barbarum. In this review, we discuss the pharmacological activities of LBPs and other major components. They have been reported to mediate significant anti-aging effects, through antioxidant, immunoregulative, anti-apoptotic activities and reducing DNA damage. Thus, the basic scientific evidence for anti-aging effects of LBPs is already available. However, additional studies are needed to understand mechanisms by which LBPs mediate anti-aging properties. Novel findings from such studies would likely pave the way for the clinical application of traditional chinese medicine Lycium barbarum in modern evidence-based medicine.

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COVID-19 Virulence in Aged Patients Might Be Impacted by the Host Cellular MicroRNAs Abundance/Profile
Sadanand Fulzele, Bikash Sahay, Ibrahim Yusufu, Tae Jin Lee, Ashok Sharma, Ravindra Kolhe, Carlos M Isales
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (3): 509-522.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0428
Accepted: 29 April 2020

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The World health organization (WHO) declared Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic and a severe public health crisis. Drastic measures to combat COVID-19 are warranted due to its contagiousness and higher mortality rates, specifically in the aged patient population. At the current stage, due to the lack of effective treatment strategies for COVID-19 innovative approaches need to be considered. It is well known that host cellular miRNAs can directly target both viral 3'UTR and coding region of the viral genome to induce the antiviral effect. In this study, we did in silico analysis of human miRNAs targeting SARS (4 isolates) and COVID-19 (29 recent isolates from different regions) genome and correlated our findings with aging and underlying conditions. We found 848 common miRNAs targeting the SARS genome and 873 common microRNAs targeting the COVID-19 genome. Out of a total of 848 miRNAs from SARS, only 558 commonly present in all COVID-19 isolates. Interestingly, 315 miRNAs are unique for COVID-19 isolates and 290 miRNAs unique to SARS. We also noted that out of 29 COVID-19 isolates, 19 isolates have identical miRNA targets. The COVID-19 isolates, Netherland (EPI_ISL_422601), Australia (EPI_ISL_413214), and Wuhan (EPI_ISL_403931) showed six, four, and four unique miRNAs targets, respectively. Furthermore, GO, and KEGG pathway analysis showed that COVID-19 targeting human miRNAs involved in various age-related signaling and diseases. Recent studies also suggested that some of the human miRNAs targeting COVID-19 decreased with aging and underlying conditions. GO and KEGG identified impaired signaling pathway may be due to low abundance miRNA which might be one of the contributing factors for the increasing severity and mortality in aged individuals and with other underlying conditions. Further, in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to validate some of these targets and identify potential therapeutic targets.

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Aging, Metabolism, and Cancer Development: from Peto’s Paradox to the Warburg Effect
Tidwell Tia R., Søreide Kjetil, Hagland Hanne R.
Aging and disease    2017, 8 (5): 662-676.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0713
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Medical advances made over the last century have increased our lifespan, but age-related diseases are a fundamental health burden worldwide. Aging is therefore a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, all increasing in prevalence. However, huge inter-individual variations in aging and disease risk exist, which cannot be explained by chronological age, but rather physiological age decline initiated even at young age due to lifestyle. At the heart of this lies the metabolic system and how this is regulated in each individual. Metabolic turnover of food to energy leads to accumulation of co-factors, byproducts, and certain proteins, which all influence gene expression through epigenetic regulation. How these epigenetic markers accumulate over time is now being investigated as the possible link between aging and many diseases, such as cancer. The relationship between metabolism and cancer was described as early as the late 1950s by Dr. Otto Warburg, before the identification of DNA and much earlier than our knowledge of epigenetics. However, when the stepwise gene mutation theory of cancer was presented, Warburg’s theories garnered little attention. Only in the last decade, with epigenetic discoveries, have Warburg’s data on the metabolic shift in cancers been brought back to life. The stepwise gene mutation theory fails to explain why large animals with more cells, do not have a greater cancer incidence than humans, known as Peto’s paradox. The resurgence of research into the Warburg effect has given us insight to what may explain Peto’s paradox. In this review, we discuss these connections and how age-related changes in metabolism are tightly linked to cancer development, which is further affected by lifestyle choices modulating the risk of aging and cancer through epigenetic control.

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MiRNA-10b Reciprocally Stimulates Osteogenesis and Inhibits Adipogenesis Partly through the TGF-β/SMAD2 Signaling Pathway
Hongling Li, Junfen Fan, Linyuan Fan, Tangping Li, Yanlei Yang, Haoying Xu, Luchan Deng, Jing Li, Tao Li, Xisheng Weng, Shihua Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Aging and disease    2018, 9 (6): 1058-1073.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0214
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As the population ages, the medical and socioeconomic impact of age-related bone disorders will further increase. An imbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can lead to various bone and metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation is important for the discovery of novel therapeutic paradigms for these diseases. miR-10b has been widely reported in tumorigenesis, cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the effects and potential mechanisms of miR-10b in the regulation of MSC adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation have not been explored. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-10b was positively correlated with bone formation marker genes ALP, RUNX2 and OPN, and negatively correlated with adipogenic markers CEBPα, PPARγ and AP2 in clinical osteoporosis samples. Overexpression of miR-10b enhanced osteogenic differentiation and inhibited adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) in vitro, whereas downregulation of miR-10b reversed these effects. Furthermore, miR-10b promoted ectopic bone formation in vivo. Target prediction and dual luciferase reporter assays identified SMAD2 as a potential target of miR-10b. Silencing endogenous SMAD2 expression in hADSCs enhanced osteogenesis but repressed adipogenesis. Pathway analysis indicated that miR-10b promotes osteogenic differentiation and bone formation via the TGF-β signaling pathway, while suppressing adipogenic differentiation may be primarily mediated by other pathways. Taken together, our findings imply that miR-10b acts as a critical regulator for balancing osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hADSCs by repressing SMAD2 and partly through the TGF-β pathway. Our study suggests that miR-10b is a novel target for controlling bone and metabolic diseases.

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Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Rationale for Bioenergetics Based Therapies
Onyango Isaac G., Dennis Jameel, Khan Shaharyah M.
Aging and disease    2016, 7 (2): 201-214.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.1007
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of cholinergic neurons, leading to the onset of severe behavioral, motor and cognitive impairments. It is a pressing public health problem with no effective treatment. Existing therapies only provide symptomatic relief without being able to prevent, stop or reverse the pathologic process. While the molecular basis underlying this multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder remains a significant challenge, mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is therefore important to target mitochondrial dysfunction in the prodromal phase of AD to slow or prevent the neurodegenerative process and restore neuronal function. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of action and translational potential of current mitochondrial and bioenergetic therapeutics for AD including: mitochondrial enhancers to potentiate energy production; antioxidants to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce oxidative damage; glucose metabolism and substrate supply; and candidates that target apoptotic and mitophagy pathways to remove damaged mitochondria. While mitochondrial therapeutic strategies have shown promise at the preclinical stage, there has been little progress in clinical trials thus far.

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Gut Microbiome and Osteoporosis
Kai Ding, Fei Hua, Wenge Ding
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (2): 438-447.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0523
Accepted: 14 June 2019

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Gut microbiome refers to the microbes that live in human digestive tract and are symbiotic with the human body. They participate in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes of the human body and are associated with various diseases. The pathological process of osteoporosis is affected by gut microbes. The molecular mechanisms of osteoporosis mainly include: 1) Intestinal barrier and nutrient absorption (involving SCFAs). 2) Immunoregulation (Th-17 and T-reg cells balance). 3) Regulation of intestinal-brain axis (involving 5-HT). Gut microbes can increase bone mass and improve osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast proliferation and differentiation, inducing apoptosis, reducing bone resorption, or promoting osteoblast proliferation and maturation. However, the therapeutic effect of gut microbes on osteoporosis remains to be further proven. At present, some of the findings on the impact of gut microbes on osteoporosis has been applied in clinical, including early diagnosis and intervention of osteoporosis and adjuvant therapy. In this article, we reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect of gut microbes on osteoporosis and the clinical practice of using gut microbes to improve bone health.

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REST rs3796529 Genotype and Rate of Functional Deterioration in Alzheimer’s Disease
Poyin Huang,Cheng-Sheng Chen,Yuan-Han Yang,Mei-Chuan Chou,Ya-Hsuan Chang,Chiou-Lian Lai,Hsuan-Yu Chen,Ching-Kuan Liu
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (1): 94-101.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0116
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Recently, REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor) gene has been shown to be lost in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and a missense minor REST allele rs3796529-T has been shown to reduce the rate of hippocampal volume loss. However, whether the REST rs3796529 genotype is associated with the rate of functional deterioration in AD is unknown. A total of 584 blood samples from Taiwanese patients with AD were collected from January 2002 to December 2013. The diagnosis of AD was based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. The allele frequency of rs3796529-T was compared between the AD cohort and 993 individuals from the general population in Taiwan. Kaplan-Meier analysis, the log rank test and a multivariate Cox model were then used to evaluate the association between rs3796529-T and functional deterioration in the AD cohort. The allele frequency of rs3796529-T was significantly lower in the AD cohort compared to the general population cohort (36.82% vs. 40.73%, p=0.029). Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test showed that the AD patients carrying the rs3796529 T/T genotype had a longer progression-free survival than those with the C/C genotype (p=0.012). In multivariate analysis, the rs3796529 T/T genotype (adjusted HR=0.593, 95% CI: 0.401-0.877, p=0.009) was an independent protective factor for functional deterioration. The rs3796529 T/T genotype was associated with slower functional deterioration in patients with AD. This finding may lead to a to better understanding of the molecular pathways involved, and prompt further development of novel biomarkers to monitor AD.

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Reactive Astrocytes in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Kunyu Li, Jiatong Li, Jialin Zheng, Song Qin
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (3): 664-675.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0720
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Astrocytes, the largest and most numerous glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), play a variety of important roles in regulating homeostasis, increasing synaptic plasticity and providing neuroprotection, thus helping to maintain normal brain function. At the same time, astrocytes can participate in the inflammatory response and play a key role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive astrocytes are strongly induced by numerous pathological conditions in the CNS. Astrocyte reactivity is initially characterized by hypertrophy of soma and processes, triggered by different molecules. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation and ischemia can elicit two different types of reactive astrocytes, termed A1s and A2s. However, in the case of astrocyte reactivity in different neurodegenerative diseases, the recently published research issues remain a high level of conflict and controversy. So far, we still know very little about whether and how the function or reactivity of astrocytes changes in the progression of different neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we aimed to briefly discuss recent studies highlighting the complex contribution of astrocytes in the process of various neurodegenerative diseases, which may provide us with new prospects for the development of an excellent therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

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Prospective Views for Whey Protein and/or Resistance Training Against Age-related Sarcopenia
Yuxiao Liao,Zhao Peng,Liangkai Chen,Yan Zhang,Qian Cheng,Andreas K. Nüssler,Wei Bao,Liegang Liu,Wei Yang
Aging and disease    2019, 10 (1): 157-173.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2018.0325
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Skeletal muscle aging is characterized by decline in skeletal muscle mass and function along with growing age, which consequently leads to age-related sarcopenia, if without any preventive timely treatment. Moreover, age-related sarcopenia in elder people would contribute to falls and fractures, disability, poor quality of life, increased use of hospital services and even mortality. Whey protein (WP) and/or resistance training (RT) has shown promise in preventing and treating age-related sarcopenia. It seems that sex hormones could be potential contributors for gender differences in skeletal muscle and age-related sarcopenia. In addition, skeletal muscle and the development of sarcopenia are influenced by gut microbiota, which in turn is affected by WP or RT. Gut microbiota may be a key factor for WP and/or RT against age-related sarcopenia. Therefore, focusing on sex hormones and gut microbiota may do great help for preventing, treating and better understanding age-related sarcopenia.

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Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration
Claudia Rangel-Barajas, Israel Coronel, Benjamín Florán
Aging and disease    2015, 6 (5): 349-368.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0330
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Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases.

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Evaluation of Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Older Parkinson’s Disease Patients: a Cross-Sectional Study
Yalcin Ahmet, Atmis Volkan, Karaarslan Cengiz Ozlem, Cinar Esat, Aras Sevgi, Varli Murat, Atli Teslime
Aging and disease    2016, 7 (1): 28-35.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0819
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In Parkinson’s disease (PD), non-motor symptoms may occur such as autonomic dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in older PD cases. 84 PD cases and 58 controls, for a total of 142, participated in the study. Parasympathetic tests were performed using electrocardiography. Sympathetic tests were assessed by blood pressure measurement and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in PD patients was 40.5% in PD patients and 24.1% in the control group (p> 0.05). The prevalence of postprandial hypotension was 47.9% in the PD group and 27.5% in the controls (p <0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to deep breathing was 26.2% in the PD group and 6.9% in the control group (p <0.05). The prevalence of postprandial hypotension in PD with orthostatic hypotension was 94% and 16% in PD patients without orthostatic hypotension (p <0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to deep breathing was 52.9% in PD patients with orthostatic hypotension and 8% in PD cases without orthostatic hypotension (p<0.05). The prevalence of impairment in heart rate response to postural change was 41% in PD cases with orthostatic hypotension and 12% in PD cases without orthostatic hypotension (p <0.05).Although there are tests for assessing cardiovascular autonomic function that are more reliable, they are more complicated, and evaluation of orthostatic hypotension by blood pressure measurement and cardiac autonomic tests by electrocardiography are recommended since these tests are cheap and easy.

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Rhizoma Coptidis and Berberine as a Natural Drug to Combat Aging and Aging-Related Diseases via Anti-Oxidation and AMPK Activation
Xu Zhifang, Feng Wei, Shen Qian, Yu Nannan, Yu Kun, Wang Shenjun, Chen Zhigang, Shioda Seiji, Guo Yi
Aging and disease    2017, 8 (6): 760-777.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2016.0620
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Aging is the greatest risk factor for human diseases, as it results in cellular growth arrest, impaired tissue function and metabolism, ultimately impacting life span. Two different mechanisms are thought to be primary causes of aging. One is cumulative DNA damage induced by a perpetuating cycle of oxidative stress; the other is nutrient-sensing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and rapamycin (mTOR)/ ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) pathways. As the main bioactive component of natural Chinese medicine rhizoma coptidis (RC), berberine has recently been reported to expand life span in Drosophila melanogaster, and attenuate premature cellular senescence. Most components of RC including berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine have been found to have beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension aging-related diseases. The mechanism of these effects involves multiple cellular kinase and signaling pathways, including anti-oxidation, activation of AMPK signaling and its downstream targets, including mTOR/rpS6, Sirtuin1/ forkhead box transcription factor O3 (FOXO3), nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. Most of these mechanisms converge on AMPK regulation on mitochondrial oxidative stress. Therefore, such evidence supports the possibility that rhizoma coptidis, in particular berberine, is a promising anti-aging natural product, and has pharmaceutical potential in combating aging-related diseases via anti-oxidation and AMPK cellular kinase activation.

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Glycation Damage: A Possible Hub for Major Pathophysiological Disorders and Aging
Maxime Fournet, Frederic Bonte, Alexis Desmouliere
Aging and disease    2018, 9 (5): 880-900.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.1121
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Glycation is both a physiological and pathological process which mainly affects proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Exogenous and endogenous glycation produces deleterious reactions that take place principally in the extracellular matrix environment or within the cell cytosol and organelles. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation begins by the non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups by sugars and aldehydes which leads to a succession of rearrangements of intermediate compounds and ultimately to irreversibly bound products known as AGEs. Epigenetic factors, oxidative stress, UV and nutrition are important causes of the accumulation of chemically and structurally different AGEs with various biological reactivities. Cross-linked proteins, deriving from the glycation process, present both an altered structure and function. Nucleotides and lipids are particularly vulnerable targets which can in turn favor DNA mutation or a decrease in cell membrane integrity and associated biological pathways respectively. In mitochondria, the consequences of glycation can alter bioenergy production. Under physiological conditions, anti-glycation defenses are sufficient, with proteasomes preventing accumulation of glycated proteins, while lipid turnover clears glycated products and nucleotide excision repair removes glycated nucleotides. If this does not occur, glycation damage accumulates, and pathologies may develop. Glycation-induced biological products are known to be mainly associated with aging, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and its complications, atherosclerosis, renal failure, immunological changes, retinopathy, skin photoaging, osteoporosis, and progression of some tumors.

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Exercise Programs for Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Older Adults with Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Wangxiao Bao,Yun Sun,Tianfang Zhang,Liliang Zou,Xiaohong Wu,Daming Wang,Zuobing Chen
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (4): 863-873.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.1012
Accepted: 23 October 2019

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Sarcopenia is an age-related condition that is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and function. Exercise treatment has been the most commonly used intervention among elderly populations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the available literature related to the effects of exercise interventions/programs on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older adults with sarcopenia. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Web of Science for randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials exploring exercise in older adults with sarcopenia published through July 2019 without any language restrictions. Pooled analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.3, with standardized mean differences (SMDs) and fixed-effect models. A total of 3898 titles and abstracts were initially identified, and 22 studies (1041 individuals, 80.75% females, mean age ranged from 60.51 to 85.90 years) were included in the meta-analysis. The exercise programs in the studies consisted of 30 to 80 min of training, with 1 to 5 training sessions weekly for 6 to 36 weeks. Muscle strength (grip strength [SMD 0.57, 95 % CI 0.42 to 0.73, P <0.00001] and timed five chair stands [SMD -0.56, 95 % CI -0.85 to -0.28, P < 0.0001]) and physical performance (gait speed [SMD 0.44, 95 % CI 0.26 to 0.61, P < 0.00001] and the timed up and go test [SMD -0.97, 95 % CI -1.22 to -0.72, P < 0.00001]) showed significant improvement following exercise treatment, while no differences in muscle mass (ASM [SMD 0.15, 95 % CI -0.05 to 0.36, P = 0.15] and ASM/height2 [SMD 0.21, 95 % CI -0.05 to 0.48, P = 0.12]) were detected. Exercise programs showed overall significant positive effects on muscle strength and physical performance but not on muscle mass in sarcopenic older adults.

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Effect of a Leucine-rich Repeat Kinase 2 Variant on Motor and Non-motor Symptoms in Chinese Parkinson’s Disease Patients
Sun Qian, Wang Tian, Jiang Tian-Fang, Huang Pei, Li Dun-Hui, Wang Ying, Xiao Qin, Liu Jun, Chen Sheng-Di
Aging and disease    2016, 7 (3): 230-236.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.1026
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The G2385R variant of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is strongly associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Asian populations. However, it is still unclear whether the clinical phenotype of PD patients with the G2385R variant can be distinguished from that of patients with idiopathic PD. In this study, we investigated motor and non-motor symptoms of LRRK2 G2385R variant carriers in a Chinese population. We genotyped 1031 Chinese PD patients for the G2385R variant of the LRRK2 gene, and examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of LRRK2 G2385R variant carrier and non-carrier PD patients. LRRK2 G2385R variant carriers were more likely to present the postural instability and gait difficulty dominant (PIGD) phenotype. This variant was also significantly associated with motor fluctuations and the levodopa equivalent dose (LED). G2385R variant carriers had higher REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) score and more RBD symptoms compared with non-carriers. We concluded that the G2385R variant could be a risk factor for the PIGD phenotype, motor fluctuations, LED values and RBD symptoms.

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Research progress on Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AD-MSCs), Drugs, and Vaccines in Inhibiting COVID-19 Disease
Pietro Gentile,Aris Sterodimas,Jacopo Pizzicannella,Claudio Calabrese,Simone Garcovich
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (5): 1191-1201.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0711
Accepted: 24 July 2020

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), and Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AD-MSCs) have been used for many years in regenerative medicine for clinical and surgical applications. Additionally, recent studies reported improved respiratory activity after intravenous administration of MSCs into patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suggesting their role as anti-viral therapy. Severe COVID-19 patients usually progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, metabolic acidosis that is difficult to correct, coagulation dysfunction, multiple organ failure, and even death in a short period after onset. Currently, there is still a lack of clinically effective drugs for such patients. The high secretory activity, the immune-modulatory effect, and the homing ability make MSCs and in particular AD-MSCs both a potential tool for the anti-viral drug-delivery in the virus microenvironment and potential cellular therapy. AD-MSCs as the most important exponent of MSCs are expected to reduce the risk of complications and death of patients due to their strong anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory capabilities, which can improve microenvironment, promote neovascularization and enhance tissue repair capabilities. In this literature review, the role of regenerative strategies through MSCs, AD-MSCs, and adipocyte-secreted exosomal microRNAs (A-SE-miRs) as a potential antiviral therapy was reported, comparing the results found with current research progress on drugs and vaccines in COVID-19 disease.

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Hyperglycemic Stress and Carbon Stress in Diabetic Glucotoxicity
Luo Xiaoting, Wu Jinzi, Jing Siqun, Yan Liang-Jun
Aging and disease    2016, 7 (1): 90-110.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0702
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Diabetes and its complications are caused by chronic glucotoxicity driven by persistent hyperglycemia. In this article, we review the mechanisms of diabetic glucotoxicity by focusing mainly on hyperglycemic stress and carbon stress. Mechanisms of hyperglycemic stress include reductive stress or pseudohypoxic stress caused by redox imbalance between NADH and NAD+ driven by activation of both the polyol pathway and poly ADP ribose polymerase; the hexosamine pathway; the advanced glycation end products pathway; the protein kinase C activation pathway; and the enediol formation pathway. Mechanisms of carbon stress include excess production of acetyl-CoA that can over-acetylate a proteome and excess production of fumarate that can over-succinate a proteome; both of which can increase glucotoxicity in diabetes. For hyperglycemia stress, we also discuss the possible role of mitochondrial complex I in diabetes as this complex, in charge of NAD+ regeneration, can make more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of excess NADH. For carbon stress, we also discuss the role of sirtuins in diabetes as they are deacetylases that can reverse protein acetylation thereby attenuating diabetic glucotoxicity and improving glucose metabolism. It is our belief that targeting some of the stress pathways discussed in this article may provide new therapeutic strategies for treatment of diabetes and its complications.

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The involvement of BDNF, NGF and GDNF in aging and Alzheimer's disease
Josiane Budni, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Francielle Mina, Michelle Lima Garcez, Alexandra Ioppi Zugno
Aging and disease    2015, 6 (5): 331-341.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2015.0825
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Aging is a normal physiological process accompanied by cognitive decline. This aging process has been the primary risk factor for development of aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive deficit is related to alterations of neurotrophic factors level such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These strong relationship between aging and AD is important to investigate the time which they overlap, as well as, the pathophysiological mechanism in each event. Considering that aging and AD are related to cognitive impairment, here we discuss the involving these neurotrophic factors in the aging process and AD.

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The Biology of Aging and Cancer: A Brief Overview of Shared and Divergent Molecular Hallmarks
Aunan Jan R., Cho William C, Søreide Kjetil
Aging and disease    2017, 8 (5): 628-642.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0103
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Aging is the inevitable time-dependent decline in physiological organ function and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Due to advances in health care, hygiene control and food availability, life expectancy is increasing and the population in most developed countries is shifting to an increasing proportion of people at a cancer susceptible age. Mechanisms of aging are also found to occur in carcinogenesis, albeit with shared or divergent end-results. It is now clear that aging and cancer development either share or diverge in several disease mechanisms. Such mechanisms include the role of genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic changes, loss of proteostasis, decreased nutrient sensing and altered metabolism, but also cellular senescence and stem cell function. Cancer cells and aged cells are also fundamentally opposite, as cancer cells can be thought of as hyperactive cells with advantageous mutations, rapid cell division and increased energy consumption, while aged cells are hypoactive with accumulated disadvantageous mutations, cell division inability and a decreased ability for energy production and consumption. Nonetheless, aging and cancer are tightly interconnected and many of the same strategies and drugs may be used to target both, while in other cases antagonistic pleiotrophy come into effect and inhibition of one can be the activation of the other. Cancer can be considered an aging disease, though the shared mechanisms underpinning the two processes remain unclear. Better understanding of the shared and divergent pathways of aging and cancer is needed.

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COVID 19 - Clinical Picture in the Elderly Population: A Qualitative Systematic Review
Agnieszka Neumann-Podczaska,Salwan R Al-Saad,Lukasz M Karbowski,Michal Chojnicki,Slawomir Tobis,Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis
Aging and disease    2020, 11 (4): 988-1008.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0620
Accepted: 03 July 2020

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The SARS-CoV-2 tendency to affect the older individuals more severely, raises the need for a concise summary isolating this age population. Analysis of clinical features in light of most recently published data allows for improved understanding, and better clinical judgement. A thorough search was performed to collect all articles published from 1st of January to 1st of June 2020, using the keywords COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 followed by the generic terms elderly, older adults or older individuals. The quality assessment of studies and findings was performed by an adaptation of the STROBE statement and CERQual approach. Excluding duplicates, a total of 1598 articles were screened, of which 20 studies were included in the final analysis, pertaining to 4965 older COVID-19 patients (≥60 years old). Variety in symptoms was observed, with fever, cough, dyspnea, fatigue, or sputum production being the most common. Prominent changes in laboratory findings consistently indicated lymphopenia and inflammation and in some cases organ damage. Radiological examination reveals ground glass opacities with occasional consolidations, bilaterally, with a possible peripheral tendency. An evident fraction of the elderly population (25.7%) developed renal injury or impairment as a complication. Roughly 71.4% of the older adults require supplementary oxygen, while invasive mechanical ventilation was required in almost a third of the reported hospitalized older individuals. In this review, death occurred in 20.0% of total patients with a recorded outcome (907/4531). Variability in confidence of findings is documented. Variety in symptom presentation is to be expected, and abnormalities in laboratory findings are present. Risk for mortality is evident, and attention to the need for supplementary oxygen and possible mechanical ventilation is advised. Further data is required isolating this age population. Presented literature may allow for the construction of better predictive models of COVID-19 in older populations.

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