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Cover Illustration
2020, Vol.11  No.2
<b><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"">Chest computerized tomography (CT) images of the critically severe COVID-19 patient.</span></b><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:""> On Jan 23, no pneumonia performance was observed. On Jan 30, ground-glass opacity and pneumonia infiltration occurred in multi-lobes of the double sides. Cell transplantation was performed on Jan 31. On Feb 2, the pneumonia invaded all through the whole lung. On Feb 9, the pneumonia infiltration faded away largely. On Feb 15, only little ground-glass opacity was residual locally.</span>

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  • Table of Content
      09 March 2020, Volume 11 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Transplantation of ACE2- Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves the Outcome of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia
    Zikuan Leng, Rongjia Zhu, Wei Hou, Yingmei Feng, Yanlei Yang, Qin Han, Guangliang Shan, Fanyan Meng, Dongshu Du, Shihua Wang, Junfen Fan, Wenjing Wang, Luchan Deng, Hongbo Shi, Hongjun Li, Zhongjie Hu, Fengchun Zhang, Jinming Gao, Hongjian Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Yangyang Zhao, Kan Yin, Xijing He, Zhengchao Gao, Yibin Wang, Bo Yang, Ronghua Jin, Ilia Stambler, Lee Wei Lim, Huanxing Su, Alexey Moskalev, Antonio Cano, Sasanka Chakrabarti, Kyung-Jin Min, Georgina Ellison-Hughes, Calogero Caruso, Kunlin Jin, Robert Chunhua Zhao
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 216-228.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0228
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1473KB) ( 15676 )

    A coronavirus (HCoV-19) has caused the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China. Preventing and reversing the cytokine storm may be the key to save the patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess a comprehensive powerful immunomodulatory function. This study aims to investigate whether MSC transplantation improves the outcome of 7 enrolled patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Beijing YouAn Hospital, China, from Jan 23, 2020 to Feb 16, 2020. The clinical outcomes, as well as changes of inflammatory and immune function levels and adverse effects of 7 enrolled patients were assessed for 14 days after MSC injection. MSCs could cure or significantly improve the functional outcomes of seven patients without observed adverse effects. The pulmonary function and symptoms of these seven patients were significantly improved in 2 days after MSC transplantation. Among them, two common and one severe patient were recovered and discharged in 10 days after treatment. After treatment, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ NK cells disappeared in 3-6 days. In addition, a group of CD14+CD11c+CD11bmid regulatory DC cell population dramatically increased. Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α was significantly decreased, while IL-10 increased in MSC treatment group compared to the placebo control group. Furthermore, the gene expression profile showed MSCs were ACE2- and TMPRSS2- which indicated MSCs are free from COVID-19 infection. Thus, the intravenous transplantation of MSCs was safe and effective for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially for the patients in critically severe condition.

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    Ketogenic Diet Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction via Balancing Mitochondrial Dynamics and Inhibiting Apoptosis in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
    Yongzheng Guo, Cheng Zhang, Fei-Fei Shang, Minghao Luo, Yuehua You, Qiming Zhai, Yong Xia, Luo Suxin
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 229-240.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0510
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1340KB) ( 674 )

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in clinical studies and shown to hace an anti-diabetic effect, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elaborated. Our aim was to investigate the effects and the underling mechanisms of the KD on cardiac function in db/db mice. In the present study, db/db mice were subjected to a normal diet (ND) or KD. Fasting blood glucose, cardiac function and morphology, mitochondrial dynamics, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were measured 8 weeks post KD treatment. Compared with the ND, the KD improved glycemic control and protected against diabetic cardiomyopathy in db/db mice, and improved mitochondrial function, as well as reduced oxidative stress were observed in hearts. In addition, KD treatment exerted an anti-apoptotic effect in the heart of db/db mice. Further data showed that the PI3K/Akt pathway was involved in this protective effect. Our data demonstrated that KD treatment ameliorates cardiac dysfunction by inhibiting apoptosis via activating the PI3K-Akt pathway in type 2 diabetic mice, suggesting that the KD is a promising lifestyle intervention to protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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    Divergent Effect of Tacalcitol (PRI-2191) on Th17 Cells in 4T1 Tumor Bearing Young and Old Ovariectomized Mice
    Agata Pawlik, Artur Anisiewicz, Beata Filip-Psurska, Dagmara Klopotowska, Magdalena Maciejewska, Andrzej Mazur, Joanna Wietrzyk
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 241-253.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0618
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (878KB) ( 575 )

    Vitamin D and its analogs are known for their role in the development of breast cancer and in immunomodulation. Our previous studies have shown the pro-metastatic effect of calcitriol and tacalcitol (PRI-2191) in young mice bearing 4T1 breast cancer and the anti-metastatic effect in aged ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Therefore, the aim of our work was to characterize Th17 cell population in young and aged OVX mice bearing 4T1 tumors treated with calcitriol and PRI-2191. The expression of genes typical for Th17 cells was examined in splenocytes, as well as splenocytes differentiated with IL-6 and TGF-β to Th17 cells (iTh17). Expression of genes encoding vitamin D receptor (Vdr) and osteopontin (Spp1) as well as the secretion of IL-17A were evaluated in iTh17 cells. PRI-2191 treatment increased the expression of Rora and Rorc transcription factors, Il17a, Il17re and Il21 in iTh17 cells from young mice. In aged OVX mice this effect was not observed. Increased expression was observed in the case of Vdr and Spp1 genes in iTh17 cells from young mice treated with PRI-2191. What is more, in young mice treated with PRI-2191 the secretion of IL-17A to the culture media by iTh17 cells was increased, whereas in aged OVX mice a significant decrease was noted. Increased expression of Spp1 in young mice treated with PRI-2191 may enhance the differentiation of Th17 cells.

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    Disease Progression-Dependent Expression of CD200R1 and CX3CR1 in Mouse Models of Parkinson’s Disease
    Le Wang, Yang Liu, Shuxin Yan, Tianshu Du, Xia Fu, Xiaoli Gong, Xinyu Zhou, Ting Zhang, Xiaomin Wang
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 254-268.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0615
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (4392KB) ( 716 )

    Microglial activation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Microglia are tightly and efficiently regulated by immune checkpoints, including CD200-CD200R1 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1. Understanding the involvement of these checkpoints in disease progression provides important insights into how microglial activation contributes to PD pathology. However, so far, studies have produced seemingly conflicting results. In this study, we demonstrate that CD200R1 expression is down-regulated at both early and late stage of PD model, and CX3CR1 expression is down-regulated in early stage and recovered in late stage. In primary cultured microglia, CD200R1 and CX3CR1 expressions are both directly regulated by LPS or α-synuclein, and CD200R1 expression is more sensitively regulated than CX3CR1. In addition, CD200 knockout causes an increase in proinflammatory cytokine production and microglial activation in the midbrain. Remarkably, DA neurons in the substantial nigra are degenerated in CD200-/- mice. Finally, activation of the CD200R with CD200Fc alleviates the neuroinflammation in microglia. Together, these results suggest that immune checkpoints play distinct functional roles in different stage of PD pathology, and the CD200-CD200R1 axis plays a significant role in nigrostriatal neuron viability and function.

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    Exogenous H2S Promoted USP8 Sulfhydration to Regulate Mitophagy in the Hearts of db/db Mice
    Yu Sun, Fanghao Lu, Xiangjing Yu, Bingzhu Wang, Jian Chen, Fangping Lu, Shuo Peng, Xiaojiao Sun, Miao Yu, He Chen, Yan Wang, Linxue Zhang, Ning Liu, Haining Du, Dechao Zhao, Weihua Zhang
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 269-285.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0524
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1495KB) ( 511 )

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an important gasotransmitter, regulates cardiovascular functions. Mitochondrial damage induced by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) results in myocardial injury with a diabetic state. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous H2S on mitophagy formation in diabetic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we found that exogenous H2S could improve cardiac functions, reduce mitochondrial fragments and ROS levels, enhance mitochondrial respiration chain activities and inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis in the hearts of db/db mice. Our results showed that exogenous H2S facilitated parkin translocation into mitochondria and promoted mitophagy formation in the hearts of db/db mice. Our studies further revealed that the ubiquitination level of cytosolic parkin was increased and the expression of USP8, a deubiquitinating enzyme, was decreased in db/db cardiac tissues. S-sulfhydration is a novel posttranslational modification of specific cysteine residues on target proteins by H2S. Our results showed that the S-sulfhydration level of USP8 was obviously decreased in vivo and in vitro under hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, however, exogenous H2S could reverse this effect and promote USP8/parkin interaction. Dithiothreitol, a reducing agent that reverses sulfhydration-mediated covalent modification, increased the ubiquitylation level of parkin, abolished the effects of exogenous H2S on USP8 deubiquitylation and suppressed the interaction of USP8 with parkin in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with high glucose, oleate and palmitate. Our findings suggested that H2S promoted mitophagy formation by increasing S-sulfhydration of USP8, which enhanced deubiquitination of parkin through the recruitment of parkin in mitochondria.

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    Exogenous H2S Induces Hrd1 S-sulfhydration and Prevents CD36 Translocation via VAMP3 Ubiquitylation in Diabetic Hearts
    Miao Yu, Haining Du, Bingzhu Wang, Jian Chen, Fangping Lu, Shuo Peng, Yu Sun, Ning Liu, Xiaojiao Sun, Dong Shiyun, Yajun Zhao, Yan Wang, Dechao Zhao, Fanghao Lu, Weihua Zhang
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 286-300.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0530
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1752KB) ( 489 )

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays physiological roles in vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection, and ATP synthesis. HMG-CoA reductase degradation protein (Hrd1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in protein trafficking. H2S may play a role in controlling fatty acid uptake in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in a manner correlated with modulation of Hrd1 S-sulfhydration; however, this role remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine whether H2S can attenuate lipid accumulation and to explain the possible mechanisms involved in the regulation of the H2S-Hrd1/VAMP3 pathway. Db/db mice and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with high glucose, palmitate and oleate were used as animal and cellular models of type 2 diabetes, respectively. The expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Hrd1, CD36 and VAMP3 was detected by Western blot analysis. In addition, Hrd1 was mutated at Cys115, and Hrd1 S-sulfhydration was examined using an S-sulfhydration assay. VAMP3 ubiquitylation was investigated by immunoprecipitation. Lipid droplet formation was tested by TEM, BODIPY 493/503 staining and oil red O staining. The expression of CSE and Hrd1 was decreased in db/db mice compared to control mice, whereas CD36 and VAMP3 expression was increased. NaHS administration reduced droplet formation, and exogenous H2S restored Hrd1 expression, modified S-sulfhydration, and decreased VAMP3 expression in the plasma membrane. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 85 proteins with decreased ubiquitylation, including 3 vesicle-associated membrane proteins, in the cardiac tissues of model db/db mice compared with NaHS-treated db/db mice. Overexpression of Hrd1 mutated at Cys115 diminished VAMP3 ubiquitylation, whereas it increased CD36 and VAMP3 expression and droplet formation. siRNA-mediated Hrd1 deletion increased the expression of CD36 in the cell membrane. These findings suggested that H2S regulates VAMP3 ubiquitylation via Hrd1 S-sulfhydration at Cys115 to prevent CD36 translocation in diabetes.

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    Impaired Frontoparietal Connectivity in Traumatic Individuals with Disorders of Consciousness: A Dynamic Brain Network Analysis
    Min Wu, Fali Li, Yuehao Wu, Tieying Zhang, Jian Gao, Peng Xu, Benyan Luo
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 301-314.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0606
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1548KB) ( 447 )

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have demonstrated that patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) may retain residual consciousness through activation of a complex functional brain network. However, an understanding of the hierarchy of residual consciousness and dynamic network connectivity in DOC patients is lacking. This study aimed to investigate residual consciousness and the dynamics of neural processing in DOC patients. We included 42 patients with DOC, categorized by aetiology. Event-related potentials combined with time-varying electroencephalography networks were used to probe affective consciousness in DOC and examine the related network mechanisms. The results showed an obvious frontal P3a component among patients in minimally conscious state (MCS), while a prominent N1 was observed in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS). No late positive potential (LPP) was detected in these patients. Next, we divided the results by aetiology. Patients with nontraumatic injury presented an obvious frontal P3a response compared to those with traumatic injury. With respect to the dynamic network mechanism, patients with UWS, both with and without trauma, exhibited impaired frontoparietal network connectivity during the middle to late emotion processing period (P3a and LPP). Surprisingly, unconscious post-traumatic patients had an evident deficit in top-down connectivity. This, it appears that early automatic sensory identification is preserved in UWS and that exogenous attention was preserved even in MCS. However, high-level cognitive abilities were severely attenuated in unconscious patients. We also speculate that reduced frontoparietal connectivity may be useful as a biomarker to distinguish patients in an MCS from those with UWS given the same aetiology.

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    Review Article
    Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder and Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Update
    Feng Zhang, Long Niu, Xinyao Liu, Yufei Liu, Song Li, Huan Yu, Weidong Le
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 315-326.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0324
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (608KB) ( 824 )

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep behavior disorder characterized by abnormal behaviors and loss of muscle atonia during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. RBD is generally considered to be associated with synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), and usually precedes years before the first symptom of these diseases. It is believed that RBD predicts the neurodegeneration in synucleinopathy. However, increasing evidences have shown that RBD is also found in non-synucleinopathy neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc. Sleep disturbance such as RBD may be an early sign of neurodegeneration in these diseases, and also serve as an assessment of cognitive impairments. In this review, we updated the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and possible mechanisms of RBD in neurogenerative diseases. A better understanding of RBD in these neurogenerative diseases will provide biomarkers and novel therapeutics for the early diagnosis and treatment of the diseases.

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    A Review of Exercise as Medicine in Cardiovascular Disease: Pathology and Mechanism
    Piotr Gronek, Dariusz Wielinski, Piotr Cyganski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Adam Zając, Adam Maszczyk, Joanna Gronek, Robert Podstawski, Wojciech Czarny, Stefan Balko, Cain CT. Clark, Roman Celka
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 327-340.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0516
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (491KB) ( 1160 )

    Physical inactivity and resultant lower energy expenditure contribute unequivocally to cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, which are considered major causes of disability and mortality worldwide.


    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical activity (PA) and exercise on different aspects of health - genetics, endothelium function, blood pressure, lipid concentrations, glucose intolerance, thrombosis, and self - satisfaction. Materials and


    In this article, we conducted a narrative review of the influence PA and exercise have on the cardiovascular system, risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, searching the online databases; Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar, and, subsequently, discuss possible mechanisms of this action.

    Results and Discussion

    Based on our narrative review of literature, discussed the effects of PA on telomere length, nitric oxide synthesis, thrombosis risk, blood pressure, serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and indicated possible mechanisms by which physical training may lead to improvement in chronic cardiovascular diseases.


    PA is effective for the improvement of exercise tolerance, lipid concentrations, blood pressure, it may also reduce the serum glucose level and risk of thrombosis, thus should be advocated concomitant to, or in some cases instead of, traditional drug-therapy.

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    Hypoxia-Induced Degenerative Protein Modifications Associated with Aging and Age-Associated Disorders
    Sunil S Adav, Siu Kwan Sze
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 341-364.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0604
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1004KB) ( 486 )

    Aging is an inevitable time-dependent decline of various physiological functions that finally leads to death. Progressive protein damage and aggregation have been proposed as the root cause of imbalance in regulatory processes and risk factors for aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Oxygen is a modulator of aging. The oxygen-deprived conditions (hypoxia) leads to oxidative stress, cellular damage and protein modifications. Despite unambiguous evidence of the critical role of spontaneous non-enzymatic Degenerative Protein Modifications (DPMs) such as oxidation, glycation, carbonylation, carbamylation, and deamidation, that impart deleterious structural and functional protein alterations during aging and age-associated disorders, the mechanism that mediates these modifications is poorly understood. This review summarizes up-to-date information and recent developments that correlate DPMs, aging, hypoxia, and age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Despite numerous advances in the study of the molecular hallmark of aging, hypoxia, and degenerative protein modifications during aging and age-associated pathologies, a major challenge remains there to dissect the relative contribution of different DPMs in aging (either natural or hypoxia-induced) and age-associated neurodegeneration.

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    Aging Attenuates Cardiac Contractility and Affects Therapeutic Consequences for Myocardial Infarction
    Ming Dong, Ziyi Yang, Hongcheng Fang, Jiaqing Xiang, Cong Xu, Yanqing Zhou, Qianying Wu, Jie Liu
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 365-376.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0522
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (430KB) ( 402 )

    Cardiac function of the human heart changes with age. The age-related change of systolic function is subtle under normal conditions, but abrupt under stress or in a pathogenesis state. Aging decreases the cardiac tolerance to stress and increases susceptibility to ischemia, which caused by aging-induced Ca2+ transient impairment and metabolic dysfunction. The changes of contractility proteins and the relative molecules are in a non-linear fashion. Specifically, the expression and activation of cMLCK increase first then fall during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). This change is responsible for the nonmonotonic contractility alteration in I/R which the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Contractility recovery in I/R is also attenuated by age. The age-related change in cardiac contractility influences the therapeutic effect and intervention timepoint. For most cardiac ischemia therapies, the therapeutic result in the elderly is not identical to the young. Anti-aging treatment has the potential to prevent the development of ischemic injury and improves cardiac function. In this review we discuss the mechanism underlying the contractility changes in the aged heart and age-induced ischemic injury. The potential mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility to ischemic injury in advanced age is highlighted. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of age and the administration time for intervention in cardiac ischemia therapies.

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    Caveolin as a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target in Cardiac and Vascular Diseases: A Mini Review
    Jinfan Tian, Mohammad Sharif Popal, RongChong Huang, Min Zhang, Xin Zhao, Min Zhanggduo, Xiantao Song
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 378-389.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.09603
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (446KB) ( 431 )

    Caveolin, a structural protein of caveolae, play roles in the regulation of endothelial function, cellular lipid homeostasis, and cardiac function by affecting the activity and biogenesis of nitric oxide, and by modulating signal transduction pathways that mediate inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. In this review, we present the role of caveolin in cardiac and vascular diseases and the relevant signaling pathways involved. Furthermore, we discuss a novel therapeutic perspective comprising crosstalk between caveolin and autophagy.

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    Alteration in the Function and Expression of SLC and ABC Transporters in the Neurovascular Unit in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Clinical Significance
    Yongming Jia, Na Wang, Yingbo Zhang, Di Xue, Haoming Lou, Xuewei Liu
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 390-404.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0519
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (621KB) ( 1168 )

    The neurovascular unit (NVU) plays an important role in maintaining the function of the central nervous system (CNS). Emerging evidence has indicated that the NVU changes function and molecules at the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which initiates multiple pathways of neurodegeneration. Cell types in the NVU have become attractive targets in the interventional treatment of AD. The NVU transportation system contains a variety of proteins involved in compound transport and neurotransmission. Brain transporters can be classified as members of the solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) families in the NVU. Moreover, the transporters can regulate both endogenous toxins, including amyloid-beta (Aβ) and xenobiotic homeostasis, in the brains of AD patients. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified some transporter gene variants as susceptibility loci for late-onset AD. Therefore, the present study summarizes changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in AD, identifies the location of SLC and ABC transporters in the brain and focuses on major SLC and ABC transporters that contribute to AD pathology.

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    Understanding the Physiological Links Between Physical Frailty and Cognitive Decline
    Lina Ma, Piu Chan
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 405-418.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0521
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (596KB) ( 925 )

    Declines in both physical and cognitive function are associated with increasing age. Understanding the physiological link between physical frailty and cognitive decline may allow us to develop interventions that prevent and treat both conditions. Although there is significant epidemiological evidence linking physical frailty to cognitive decline, a complete understanding of the underpinning biological basis of the two disorders remains fragmented. This narrative review discusses insights into the potential roles of chronic inflammation, impaired hypothalamic-pituitary axis stress response, imbalanced energy metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroendocrine dysfunction linking physical frailty with cognitive decline. We highlight the importance of easier identification of strategic approaches delaying the progression and onset of physical frailty and cognitive decline as well as preventing disability in the older population.

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    Role of Mitophagy in Cardiovascular Disease
    Yibo Yang, Tianyi Li, Zhibo Li, Ning Liu, Youyou Yan, Bin Liu
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 419-437.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0518
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (709KB) ( 515 )

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and mitochondrial dysfunction is the primary contributor to these disorders. Recent studies have elaborated on selective autophagy-mitophagy, which eliminates damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria, stabilizes mitochondrial structure and function, and maintains cell survival and growth. Numerous recent studies have reported that mitophagy plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the mechanisms underlying mitophagy and advancements in studies on the role of mitophagy in cardiovascular disease.

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    Gut Microbiome and Osteoporosis
    Kai Ding, Fei Hua, Wenge Ding
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 438-447.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0523
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (350KB) ( 1158 )

    Gut microbiome refers to the microbes that live in human digestive tract and are symbiotic with the human body. They participate in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes of the human body and are associated with various diseases. The pathological process of osteoporosis is affected by gut microbes. The molecular mechanisms of osteoporosis mainly include: 1) Intestinal barrier and nutrient absorption (involving SCFAs). 2) Immunoregulation (Th-17 and T-reg cells balance). 3) Regulation of intestinal-brain axis (involving 5-HT). Gut microbes can increase bone mass and improve osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast proliferation and differentiation, inducing apoptosis, reducing bone resorption, or promoting osteoblast proliferation and maturation. However, the therapeutic effect of gut microbes on osteoporosis remains to be further proven. At present, some of the findings on the impact of gut microbes on osteoporosis has been applied in clinical, including early diagnosis and intervention of osteoporosis and adjuvant therapy. In this article, we reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect of gut microbes on osteoporosis and the clinical practice of using gut microbes to improve bone health.

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    Pretreatment Geriatric Assessments of Elderly Patients with Glioma: Development and Implications
    Yaning Wang, Binghao Zhao, Wanqi Chen, Lei Liu, Wenlin Chen, Lizhou Zhou, Ziren Kong, Congxin Dai, Yu Wang, Wenbin Ma
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 448-461.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2019.0527
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (442KB) ( 530 )

    Glioma is the most frequent primary brain tumor affecting adults, and the most lethal type is glioblastoma (GBM); currently, the available therapies only provide palliation. The treatments for low-grade glioma (LGG) include neurosurgical resection, watchful waiting, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, while the therapeutic strategies for high-grade glioma (HGG), particularly in elderly patients, have evolved to include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted monotherapy based on the characteristics of the investigated patients. Proper assessments aiming to predict and achieve the most satisfying prognosis among patients prior to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or immunotherapy help summarize the pretreatment characteristics of patients, providing doctors comprehensive information to consider while determining whether the patients could benefit from ongoing treatments and deciding the proper treatment strategy for subsequent phases. This article aims to rigorously review the most recent evidence and discuss current mainstream assessments before the initiation of proper treatments for glioma, thus highlighting the potential necessity of pretreatment assessments.

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    Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion Shows Promise for Combating Coronavirus (COVID-19)- Induced Pneumonia
    Ashok K Shetty
    Aging and disease. 2020, 11 (2): 462-464.   DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0301
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (212KB) ( 3035 )

    A new study published by the journal Aging & Disease reported that intravenous administration of clinical-grade human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in improved functional outcomes (Leng et al., Aging Dis, 11:216-228, 2020). This study demonstrated that intravenous infusion of MSCs is a safe and effective approach for treating patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, including elderly patients displaying severe pneumonia. COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, treating COVID-19 patients, particularly those afflicted with severe pneumonia, is challenging as no specific drugs or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are available. Therefore, MSC therapy inhibiting the overactivation of the immune system and promoting endogenous repair by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study is striking. Additional studies in a larger cohort of patients are needed to validate this therapeutic intervention further, however.

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Kunlin Jin, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D., Professor
David A. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D., Professor
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